Standardization of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage using sugar substitutes

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1 THEASIAN JOURNAL OF HORTICULTURE Volume 8 Issue 1 June, Research Paper Article history : Received : Revised : Accepted : Standardization of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage using sugar substitutes C.N. BYANNA AND I.N. DOREYAPPA GOWDA1 Members of the Research Forum Associated Authors: 1 Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, BENGALURU (KARNATAKA) INDIA Author for correspondence : C.N. BYANNA University of Agricultural Sciences, G.K.V.K., BENGALURU (KARNATAKA) INDIA S ABSTRACT : The investigation on standardization of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage using sugar substitutes was carried out at the Processing laboratory in the Division of Post Harvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Bengaluru from November, 2009 to June, Sweet orange and kokum at the ratio of 88 :12 RTS beverage with sugar and sugar substitutes and their combinations revealed that the treatments 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose and 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent sucralose were at par with sucrose in respect of overall acceptability scores and these were rated the better recipes in sensory evaluation. Highest TSS of Brix0, ph 3.31, acidity of 0.28 per cent, ascorbic acid of 6.53 mg/100g, reducing sugars of 12,48 per cent, nonreducing sugars of 3.58 per cent and total sugars of per cent were recorded in 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose, sucralose and 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose, sucralose, 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose, 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose, 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent aspartame, 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose, respectively. The TSS, titratable acidity and reducing sugars were increased, while ph, total sugars, nonreducing sugars and ascorbic acid were decreased during storage. The sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage with sugar substitutes had storage stability upto 6 months. KEY WORDS : Blended beverage, Sugar substitutes, Sathgudi, Sensory analysis, Storage, Sweet orange HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE : Byanna, C.N. and Doreyappa Dowda, I.N. (2013). Standardization of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage using sugar substitutes, Asian J. Hort., 8(1) : ugar substitutes are the food additives used in very small quantities to sweeten foods which provide zero or few calories and offer attractive dietary options for diabetics and people who are trying to limit calorie intake and reduce the risk of tooth decay (Meister and Kava, 2006). Population suffering from diabetes is increasing year by year in India. Inclusion of sugar substitutes in place of sugar for preparation of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage would greatly benefit diabetics and health conscious population. Sweet orange juice is known for its health promoting properties (Ladaniya, 2008). Kokum has tremendous potential for its medicinal qualities. It is a major source of hydroxy citric acid and is a potent inhibitor of obesity in mammalians (Nageswara Rao and Sakarish, 1988), anthelmintic, antidiabetic, cardiotonic, treatment against piles, tumours, pains and heart complaints (Sampathu and Krishna Murthy, 1982). Preparation of blended fruit beverages with sugar substitutes is a new area of research and hence an investigation was carried out to standardize recipe for sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage preparation using sugar substitutes. RESEARCH METHODS The experiment on standardization of recipe for preparation of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage using sugar substitutes was carried out in the Processing laboratory of the Division of Post Harvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru from November, 2009 to June, Sweet orange fruits (var. sathgudi) of optimum maturity and colour were procured from the sweet orange gardens of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh and they were washed in running potable water, peeled using stainless steel knives, albedo portion was removed, juice sacs were separated from segments and blended in a mixer. The HIND AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING INSTITUTE

2 C.N. BYANNA AND I.N. DOREYAPPA GOWDA Sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage with sugar substitutes: Total soluble solids (TSS): Sweet orange and kokum with sucrose showed significantly higher TSS than other recipes because of added sucrose to the beverage. Least TSS was found in sweet orange and kokum with aspartame. Since, it is a protein derivative contains no sugars (Meister and Kava, 2006). TSS increased in all treatments during storage due to solubilization of juice constituents and also increased acidity (Table 1). Similar findings were reported by Barwal et al. (2002) in plum seasoned squash and Barwal et al. (2002) in dietetic apricot squash. Sweet orange and kokum with sucrose exhibited higher TSS at all storage intervals due to addition of sucrose to the beverage and their interactions.. juice obtained was filtered using muslin cloth. Properly matured ripe kokum fruits were procured from farmers gardens at Puttur, Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka and they were washed in running potable water and cut into halves and separated into rind and seeds. The rind was made into fine pieces and juice was extracted by hot break method. The sweet orange and kokum juices were blended in the ratio of 88:12 and analysed for TSS and acidity. Recipes of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage with sugar substitutes were prepared. The standardized recipe of sweet orange and kokum at the ratio of 88:12 blended RTS beverage with 15 per cent juice, 150 Brix and 0.3 per cent acidity using sucrose in earlier experiment was used (Byanna, 2010). Acidity was adjusted to 0.2 per cent in all the treatments. However, sugar substitutes were used in place of sugar based on sugar equivalents. The treatments were sweet orange and kokum at the ratio of 88:12 blended RTS beverage with fructose, aspartame, sucralose, 50 per cent sucrose+50 per cent fructose, 50per cent sucrose+50 per cent sucralose and 50 per cent sucrose +50 per cent aspartame. Sweet orange and kokum at the ratio of 88:12 blended RTS beverage containing 15 per cent juice, 150 Brix and 0.2 per cent acidity prepared from sugar was used as a control. The required quantities of juice, sugar substitutes, water and citric acid were calculated. Strained fruit juice and freshly prepared sugar syrup were mixed together in the proportion as per the recipes on weight basis. The mixture was heated on low flame until boiling. The prepared hot beverage was filled into the presterilized glass bottles of 200 ml capacity, sealed using crown caps, processed in boiling water for 20 minutes, except in case of aspartame. The presterilized bottles filled with hot juice were not pasteurized after adding aspartame pellets due to loss of some sweetening characteristics of aspartame (Meister and Kava, 2006). The bottles were air cooled, labeled and stored at ambient conditions. Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out at 0, 90 and 180 days of storage. The sensory evaluation was performed by a panel of 10 judges. Total soluble solids (TSS) were measured using Refractometer (Erma), ph was determined using Elico digital ph meter. Titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugars and total sugars were estimated as per the procedure suggested by (Ranganna 1979, 1991). Nonreducing sugars were obtained by deducting the value for reducing sugars from the total sugars. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Completely Randomised Design with six treatments and a control replicated thrice. The data were subjected to statistical analysis as suggested by (Sundar Raj et al., 1972). ph: ph decreased in all the recipes during storage due to increase of titratable acidity. The results are in agreement with the results obtained by Chaudhary et al. (2006) in guava RTS beverage. Highest ph was recorded in sweet orange and kokum with sucralose and 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose (Table 1). The results are similar to the finding of D sa and Andress (2006) in home canned peaches. Highest ph in sweet orange and kokum with sucralose at 180th day of storage and least ph in fructose at 90th day of storage were obtained due to hydrolysis of sucralose (Meister and Kava, 2006) and higher chemical reactivity of frucrose (Hyvonen and Koivistoinen,1985), respectively. Titratable acidity: Titratable acidity increased in all the treatments during storage due to release of acid from the juice constituents. Similar findings were reported by Sogi and Singh (2001) in kinnow RTS beverage and Chaudhary et al. (2006) in guava RTS beverage. Highest acidity was found in sweet orange and kokum with sucrose at 0 days and same acidity was recorded in all the recipes except sweet orange and kokum with aspartame at 180th day of storage (Table 1) due to the same acidity maintained at the time of preparation. Ascorbic acid: Sweet orange and kokum with 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent sucralose and aspartame showed higher ascorbic acid content compared to other recipes (Table 2) due to less reactivity of sucralose and aspartame in reactions leading to nonenzymatic browning (Meister and Kava, 2006). Loss of ascorbic acid during storage due to oxidation caused by entrapped oxygen in glass bottles resulted in the formation of dehydroascorbic acid and storage temperature RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION The results obtained from the present investigation as well as relevant discussion have been summarised under following heads: 165

3 STANDARDIZATION OF SWEET ORANGE & KOKUM BLENDED RTS BEVERAGE USING SUGAR SUBSTITUTES 166

4 C.N. BYANNA AND I.N. DOREYAPPA GOWDA Table 3 : Total sugars of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS with sugar substitutes during storage Treatments SO:KK (88:12) with fructose 0 90 Total sugars (%) Storage (days) 180 Mean SO:KK (88:12) with aspartame SO:KK (88:12) with sucralose SO:KK (88:12) with 50% sucrose + 50% fructose SO:KK (88:12) with 50% sucrose + 50% sucralose SO:KK (88:12) with 50% sucrose + 50% aspartame SO:KK (88:12) with sucrose, 15% Juice, 15 0B, 0.2% acidity Mean F Test S.E. C.D. (P=0.05) Treatments (A) * Storage (B) * AxB SO: Sweet orange; * KK: Kokum * Significant, (Karuna et al., 2005; Barwal et al., 2002). and kokum with sucrose at 0 days. The treatment 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent aspartame showed higher nonreducing sugars at 90th and 180th day of storage. Sucrose had contributed for higher nonreducing sugars in the beverage (Table 2). Reducing sugars: Sweet orange and kokum with 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose showed significantly higher reducing sugars than other recipes due to inversion of sucrose. Fructose being reducing sugar of ketohexose might have contributed for higher reducing sugars. Least reducing sugar was found in sweet orange and kokum with aspartame. Since aspartame contain no sugar to contribute for reducing sugars. Reducing sugars increased in all the treatments during storage except in sweet orange and kokum with fructose due to inversion of nonreducing sugars to reducing sugars by acids. These results are in agreement with the findings of Barwal et al., 2002) in dietetic apricot squash. Highest reducing sugars were recorded in sweet orange and kokum with fructose at 0 days (Table 2) because fructose by itself is reducing sugar. Sweet orange and kokum with fructose exhibited higher reducing sugars at 0 days and declined later in storage due to its high chemical reactivity and its involvement in nonenzymatic browning (Hyvonen and Koivistoinen, 1985) Higher reducing sugars of sweet orange and kokum with sucrose at 180th day of storage was due to inversion of sucrose into reducing sugars (Sogi and Singh, 2001). Total sugars: Sweet orange and kokum with sucrose showed significantly higher total sugars, while it was least in aspartame. Addition of sucrose increased the total sugars while aspartame is a protein derivative contains no sugar (Table 3). Total sugars decreased in all the treatments during storage due to reaction of sugars with amino acids (Barwal et al., 2002). Sweet orange and kokum with sucrose showed significantly higher total sugars while sucralose had least total sugars. Increased proportion of sugar substitutes reduced the total sugars. Sugar substitutes did not increase total sugars but had equal sweetness to that of sucrose (Barwal et al., 2002). Organoleptic qualities of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage with sugar substitutes : The results of organoleptic qualities of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage with sugar substitutes is presented in Table 4. Nonreducing sugars: Sweet orange and kokum with 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent aspartame showed significantly higher nonreducing sugars compared to least in fructose. Nonreducing sugars decreased during storage in all the treatments due to inversion of sucrose to reducing sugars by acids (Navya Yadav, 2006) in sweet orange and pummelo blended RTS beverage. Higher nonreducing sugars were found in sweet orange Colour: Highest colour score was found in sweet orange and kokum with sucrose (Barwal et al., 2002). Colour scores decreased in all the recipes during storage due to degradation of color pigments, oxidative loss of pigments, changes in ph of product and nonenzymatic browning. Similar findings have been reported by Barwal et 167

5 STANDARDIZATION OF SWEET ORANGE & KOKUM BLENDED RTS BEVERAGE USING SUGAR SUBSTITUTES al. (2002) in plum seasoned squash and Barwal et al. (2002) in dietetic apricot squash. Consistency: Highest consistency scores were found in sweet orange and kokum with 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose. The sucrose and fructose could have added more solids to the products which have increased cloud and viscosity of the product. Flavour: Highest flavour score was exhibited in sweet orange and kokum at with 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose. This might be due to their interaction with organic acids, change in the ratios between volatile flavour compounds (Lesschaeve et al., 1991). Decrease of flavour scores during storage in all the recipes due to loss of volatile aromatic constituents responsible for flavour and taste at ambient temperature. The present findings are in accordance with the findings of Barwal et al. (2002) in plum seasoned squash. Overall acceptability: Sweet orange and kokum with fructose, 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose, 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent sucralose were at par with sweet orange and kokum with sucrose in respect of overall acceptability scores and thus were rated the better recipes. Conclusion: Sweet orange and kokum at the ratio of 88:12 with fructose, 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent fructose, 50 per cent sucrose + 50 per cent sucralose were rated the better recipes. During 180 days of storage period the TSS, titratable acidity and reducing sugars were increased, while ph, total sugars, nonreducing sugars, ascorbic acid, colour, consistency, flavour and overall acceptability scores were decreased. The sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage with sugar substitutes had storage stability upto 6 months. REFERENCES Barwal, V.S., Kaushal, B.B.L and Attri, S. (2002). Studies on development of dietetic apricot squash. Beverage & Food World, 29(3): Barwal, V.S., Sharma, R. and Lal, B.B. (2002). Use of sorbitol for the preparation of plum seasoned squash. J. Food Sci. Technol., 45 : Byanna, C.N. (2010). Development of beverages from sweet orange (Cirtus sinensis Osbeck) using sugar and sugar substitutes. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, KARNATAKA (INDIA). 168

6 C.N. BYANNA AND I.N. DOREYAPPA GOWDA Ranganna, S. (1979). Manual of analysis of fruit and vegetable products. Tata M.C. Graw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd., New Delhi. Choudhary, Madan Lal, S.N., Dikshit and Sharma, H.G. (2006). Studies on preparation and biochemical changes n guava RTS beverage during storage. Indian J. Arid. Hort., 1(1): Ranganna, S. (1991). Manual of analysis of fruit and vegetable products. 2nd Ed., Tata M.C. Graw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd., New Delhi. D sa, E.M. and Andress, E.L. (2006). Developing a recommendation for home canned peaches with a sucralose sugar substitute presented in annual meetings held in 26th June, 2006 at Orlando, USA, pp. 17. Sampathu, S.P. and Krishna Murthy, N. (1982). Processing and utilization of kokum. Indian Cocoa. Arecanut Spices J., 6 (2): Hyvonen, L. and Koivistoinen, P. (1985). Nutritive sweeteners. Applied publishers Ltd, London, pp Sogi, D.S. and Singh, S. (2001). Studies on bitterness development in kinnow juice, ready to serve beverage, squash, jam and candy. J. Food Sci. Technol., 38(5): Kumari, Karuna, Mankar, Abhay and Singh, Jayant (2005). Effect of storage period on quality characters of litchi beverage. Prog. Hort., 37(1): Sundar Raj, N., Nagaraju, S., Venkataramu, M.N. and Jagannath, M.K. (1972). Design and analysis of field experiments. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, KARNATAKA (INDIA). Ladaniya, M.S. (2008). Citrus fruit, Academic Press Publication, USA, P1. Lesschaeve, Langlois, D. and Etievant, P. (1991). Volatile compounds in strawberry jam; influence of cooking on volatiles. J. Food Sci. Technol., 56: WEBLIOGRAPHY Meister, M.S.K. and Kava, R.(2006). Sugar substitutes and your health. http /acsh.org : 117. Nageshwara Rao, R. and Sakarish, K.K. (1988). Lipid lowering and antiobesity effect of hydroxyl citric acid. Nutr. Res., 8: Navya Yadav, P. (2006). Development of rind peeler for pummelo (Citrus grandis) and development of value added products from pummelo fruit. M. Tech. Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, KARNATAKA (INDIA). 169

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