Hops. Hops What are hops? Alpha & Beta Acids 2/19/2014. Beth LaShell Fort Lewis College The Old Fort at Hesperus

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1 2/19/2014 Beth LaShell The Old Fort at Hesperus Dr. Ron Godin Agronomist Colorado State University Hops Hops What are hops? What are hops? Hops are the female flower cones of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus) They are used primarily as a flavoring and stability agent in beer, beer, other beverages and in herbal medicine medicine.. Hops contain several characteristics favorable to beer: balancing the sweetness of the malt with bitterness, contributing flowery, citrus, fruity or herbal aromas, aromas, and having an antibiotic effect that favors the activity of brewer's yeast over less desirable microorganisms microorganisms.. The first documented use in beer is from the eleventh century.. century The hop plant is a vigorous climbing herbaceous perennial (20(20-30 years). Can be easily grown organically Alpha & Beta Acids Contained in Lupulins Lupulins Alpha acids add bitterness to beer - take approx. 1 hr of boiling to release - high and ultra high alpha acid hops used for bittering (can use most hops to bitter) Low alpha acid hops used for flavoring and aroma Photo by HopUnion Photo by Dr. Ron Godin Photo by HopUnion -Take approx. 2-5 minutes or can be dry hopped 1

2 Hop Propagation from rhizomes Rhizomes: horizontal underground stems that emerge from plant roots Hops are susceptible to Apple Mosaic Virus so be sure your new rhizomes are certified disease free Selecting Hop Varieties CONSULT BREWERS! Better performers in growth, vigor and cone production Variety A.A. Purpose Chinook Bittering Nugget Bittering Cascade 7-9 Dual/Aroma Centennial 9 Dual/Aroma Crystal 4 6 Aroma Mt. Hood 4-7 Aroma Willamette 4-7 Aroma Hop Yard Requirements Space Infrastructure Trellising Main poles & cables Trolley wires String (twine) for growing bines Irrigation (hops like to be moist) Fertile soil SUNSHINE! Hop Yard Requirements Space Requirements Vertical Space: ft unobstructed Field Space: Typically: 1100 plants per acre 12 ft rows x 3.5 ft plant spacing Infrastructure Trellising Main poles ft tall Main cables connect poles Trolley wires (top wire) Strings (for growing bines) Weed Management Irrigation Typically - hops like to be moist not wet! Drip irrigation - emitters (1 gal/hr) 1st year: 1 emitter per plant irrigated (hottest part of the summer): 3 hrs - twice per week 2nd year : 2 emitters per plant irrigated (hottest part of the summer): 3-4 hrs - twice per week. (approx. 16 gal/plant/week) Plants (3 x 10 ) 1456 $ $ Misc. Hardware & Supplies $ 3000 Poles (21 untreated, lodge pole ) 52 $ $ Tractor Work $ 500 Bob Cat $ 600 $ Strand Wire (carries top wire) $ 1000 #9 Wire (floating top wire) $ 750 Hop Twine (coir: coconut husk) $ Ground Anchors 48 $ 500 Pole Setting $ 1000 Gallows (for work on top wires) Scissor Lift $ 500 Labor $ 7000 $ Soil Amendments $ 1200 $1 170 Irrigation $ Total Establishment Cost $ $ Courtesy of Dr. Ron Godin 2

3 Hops Gross Income Estimates Per Acre Calculations Chinook Average Yields (dry) 2200 $10/lb $10 Running $12/lb $12 Running $15/lb $15 Running Year 1 Total Total Total Yield Factor - Year 2 40% , , , , , , Year 3 90% 1, , , , , , , Year 4 100% 2, , , , , , , Year 5 85% 1, , , , , , , Year 6 80% 1, , , , , , , Year 7 100% 2, , , , , , , Year 8 95% 2, , , , , , , Thinning Training Harvesting Courtesy of Dr. Ron Godin Hop Thinning and Training Thinning: Typically - thin to four bines per plant Strings: Typically - two strings per plant two bines per string Training: East to West - round and round we go! After summer solstice Vertical growth slows and stops Cone development early burring Harvesting Steps Harvesting and Picking Commercially Harvest Picking Drying ( ºF) Baling & warehousing Pelletized (extracts, fresh) Powdered & pelletized Sold & shipped Small Scale Harvest Picking Drying (12 120ºF) Vacuum packed and frozen Small scale equipment needed to make it viable. 3

4 Sales & Marketing Hop pellets Fresh Hops 6318 acres Hwy 140; Hesperus, CO 5 miles south of Hesperus 16 miles southeast of Durango High Altitude research opportunity 7600 elevation 90 days growing season Beth LaShell and Amber Beye 254 acres leased from NAPI Seven miles southwest of Farmington History of Hops research Planted 16 varieties in 2008 Dr. Kevin Lombard and Jason Thomas Partnering with Duplicate establishment of 9 varieties 5640 elevation; 162 frost-free days Will collect same data and study altitude differences Obtained disease free plant material 9 varieties of plantlets from Summit Plant Labs Fort Collins, CO 2 varieties of rhizomes from WI breeder Established 4 replicates (rows) Rows are 15 feet apart Each variety was randomized with the row 6 plantlets planted in each rep 2 feet apart 1 guard plants on each end of the replicate Bitter Varieties (high alpha): Chinook, Nugget, Columbus-Tomahawk- Zeus(CTZ), Galena (WI) Aroma Varieties: Cascade, Centennial, Crystal, Mt. Hood (WI), Teamaker, Vanguard, Williamette 4

5 Hands-On Field Days May/June Trellis/Training bines July/Aug Nutrients/Harvesting Winter Workshops March 22, 2014 Jan/Feb 2015 Growth and Maturity Emergence, density, spread, survivability Nutrient Use SPAD meter to measure chlorophyll Assist with detecting iron chlorosis Petiole tests for Nitrogen, Zinc and Boron Imp for cone development Production Cone weights (dried and fresh) Alpha, Beta and oil analyses Beth LaShell Coordinator, Old Fort at Hesperus Hwy 140 Hesperus, CO

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