Emerald Ash Borer in Colorado

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1 Emerald Ash Borer in Colorado

2 that develops in ash trees (Fraxinus species) Emerald ash borer (EAB) is a greencolored beetle.

3 and is Native to Asia

4 EAB was accidentally been introduced into North America and has spread widely since its 2002 discovery near Detroit

5 Emerald ash borer is a wood boring beetle in the family B Emerald ash borer Agrilus plannipennis Photograph by Debbie Miller Order Coleoptera (beetles) Family Buprestidae (metallic wood borers, flatheaded borers) Photograph by David Cappaert

6 Photograph by Eric Day Emerald ash borer larvae create meandering tunnels in the cambium and phloem that produce girdling wounds. Note: Attacks can occur throughout the crown and on the trunk of the tree.

7 EAB adults chew through the bark, producing D-shaped exit holes

8 EAB adults begin to emerge in late May, often about the time when black locust is flowering

9 After emergence, emerald ash borer adults feed on ash foliage for a period and eggs mature. Photograph by Debbie Miller

10 After about days adult females then begin to lay eggs on the bark of ash trees. Photograph by Marianne Prue Photograph by Houping Liu

11 Larvae tunnel under the bark girdling the phloem Photo by Edward Czerwinski

12 Effects of larval tunneling are cumulative, and ultimately lethal to the tree. Most trees are dead within 5 years after the initial colonization. Photograph by MI Department of Agriculture

13 Damage potential to its host? Photo by David Cappaert 10 EAB now defines an aggressive tree killing insect in North America! Photograph by Eric Day

14 Emerald ash borer is devastating to all species of ash that are native to North America Green ash White ash

15 No EAB Resistance Why is EAB so destructive to ash trees in North America? NA ash species lack ability to ability to resist EAB No EAB Resistance

16 Dutch elm disease Devastated American elm in mid century. Caused by a fungus, vectored by a bark beetle Chestnut blight Devastated American chestnut in early 1900s, caused by a fungus

17 EAB Will Kill All Unprotected Ash These trees can t be saved. They are already dead. Slide courtesy of Cliff Sadof, Purdue University

18 Colorado EAB Tree #1 Located near the intersection of 30 th and Valmont, Boulder September 23, 2013

19 Emerald ash borer known distribution, April 2008

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21

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24 Area of original EAB infestation in Colorado

25 Areas known to be infested with emerald ash borer in Boulder end of 2015

26 How will EAB spread in Colorado? Wind-blown dispersal of adults Peak period of adult dispersal is late May through late July Butt-heads that move wood containing developing stages

27 Boulder EAB infestation New 2016 detection of EAB in Longmont

28 Wind Direction from Boulder (with wind speed correction) May-August SSE S SSW SE SW ESE WSW E W ENE WNW NE NW NNE N NNW

29 2016 detection of EAB in Longmont Boulder EAB infestation New 2017 detection of EAB in Lafayette

30 The current infestation is an infestation of the South Platte River drainage, not the entire State of Colorado Unlike states to the east, Colorado is highly compartmentalized due to its geography

31 Over time the South Platte River Drainage will be colonized by emerald ash borer

32 Main Points About Emerald Ash Borer in Colorado Today All known infestations remain confined within Boulder County In time it will spread throughout South Platte drainage Treatments are available that can protect individual trees once they first become infested Each treatment option involves decisions balancing costs, environmental hazards, effectiveness, and ease of application

33 Control Options for Management of Emerald Ash Borer

34

35 Emerald Ash Borer Insecticide Control Options Soil applications with systemic insecticides imidacloprid, dinotefuran Non-invasive trunk sprays of systemic insecticides dinotefuran Trunk injections of systemic insecticides Emamectin benzoate, azadirachtin, imidacloprid

36 Important note regarding EAB control Present controls can allow trees to recover if EABinduced crown thinning has not exceeded 30-50%

37

38 Adults as they feed on foliage (late May, June, early July) Young larvae that tunnel in the phloem and cambium Target Life Stages for EAB Treatments

39 Emerald Ash Borer Insecticides Imidacloprid (Merit, Xytect, Criterion, etc.) Soil drench, possible trunk injection Dinotefuran (Safari, Zylam, Transtect) Basal trunk spray, possible soil drench Emamectin benzoate (Tree-Age, Arbormectin, others) Trunk injection only Azadirachtin (Treeazin, Azasol, AzaGuard, others) Trunk injection only

40 Soil application option imidacloprid applied as drench or injection

41 Primary method of imidacloprid application soil applications for root uptake

42 Drench Injection

43 Soil applications of systemic insecticides should not be made if there are flowering plants at the application site

44 Basal trunk spray with dinotefuran (Safari, Zylam, Transtect)

45 Trunk Injections

46 Trunk injection with emamectin benzoate (TREE-age)

47 New formulations of emamectin benzoate are coming onto the market. This should decrease costs.

48 Trunk injection with azadirachtin (TreeAzin, Azasol, AzaGuard, etc.)

49 Good soil moisture is critical to the use of any systemic insecticide applied to trees!!

50 Check the Insect Information Web Site for Links to Publications on Emerald Ash Borer

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