Laboratory Research Proposal Streusel Coffee Cake with Pureed Cannellini Beans

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1 Laboratory Research Proposal Streusel Coffee Cake with Pureed Cannellini Beans Lab Unit #1 Ali Aucoin Kelly Reardon Shannon Flynn Kelly Fischl Wednesday Lab Section

2 Purpose: The purpose of this project is to formulate a streusel coffee cake with a lower fat content than the original recipe. Consumers are always looking for low-fat products with the same quality as those with full-fat. One way to lower total fat content is by use of fat replacements. Fat replacers have the ability to produce products with positive sensory attributes however, do not provide the mouthfeel and flavor imparted to foods made with fat. (1) Cannellini beans, also referred to as white kidney beans, when used as a fat replacer provide less than 1 gram of fat per serving and add fiber and protein. Research has shown that up to a 50% replacement of fat in brownies with pureed cannellini beans produced an acceptable product. (2) The ease of preparation coupled with the low cost of purchasing canned cannellini beans makes them a viable fat replacement when preparing baked goods. (2) Null Hypothesis: We hypothesize that the replacement of butter in a streusel coffee cake recipe at the 50% level with pureed cannellini beans will produce a product equivalent to a full-butter control cake. At the 100% replacement level, we hypothesize that the product will be acceptable, but have very different characteristics compared to the control. The only variable in this research will be the replacement of butter with pureed cannellini beans. Acceptable is defined as an average of all scored coffee cake characteristics between 3.5 and 4.0. There will be between six and seven taste panel members (n=6 or n=7). Recipes: Control Recipe (Streusel Coffee Cake) (3) Gram/Household Measurements 224 g / 1 cup butter 400 g / 2 cups white sugar 4 large eggs 241 g / 2 cups sour cream 10 ml / 2 teaspoons vanilla extract 440 g / 4 cups all-purpose flour 7.4 g / 2 teaspoons baking powder 9 g / 2 teaspoons baking soda 100 g / ½ cup white sugar 5 g / 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon 122 g / 1 cup chopped walnuts Cooking spray for pan Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Spray and flour a 10 inch Bundt pan. In a medium bowl, mix the flour, baking powder and baking soda together and set aside. In a separate small bowl, combine 100 g / ½ cup sugar, cinnamon, and nuts. Set aside. In a large bowl, cream butter and remaining sugar until light and fluffy. Add eggs, sour cream, and vanilla extract. Add flour mixture and beat until well combined. Pour half of batter into Bundt pan. Sprinkle half of the nut mixture on top of batter in pan. Add remaining batter, and sprinkle with the last of the nut mixture. Bake at 350 degrees F (175 degrees C) for 45 to 60 minutes, or until a toothpick inserted into cake comes out clean.

3 First Experimental Version: Gram/Household Measurements ½ cup pureed cannellini beans (will need to be weighed prior to the preliminary experiment) 112 g / ½ cup butter 400 g / 2 cups white sugar 4 large eggs 241 g / 2 cups sour cream 10 ml / 2 teaspoons vanilla extract 440 g / 4 cups all-purpose flour 7.4 g / 2 teaspoons baking powder 9 g / 2 teaspoons baking soda 100 g / ½ cup white sugar 5 g / 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon 122 g / 1 cup chopped walnuts Cooking spray for pan Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Spray and flour a 10 inch Bundt pan. In a medium bowl, mix the flour, baking powder and baking soda together and set aside. In a separate small bowl, combine 100 g / ½ cup sugar, cinnamon, and nuts. Set aside. Puree the cannellini beans in the food processor. In a large bowl, cream butter and pureed cannellini beans and remaining sugar until light and fluffy. Add eggs, sour cream, and vanilla extract. Add flour mixture and beat until well combined. Pour half of batter into Bundt pan. Sprinkle half of the nut mixture on top of batter in pan. Add remaining batter, and sprinkle with the last of the nut mixture. Bake at 350 degrees F (175 degrees C) for 45 to 60 minutes, or until a toothpick inserted into cake comes out clean. Time: Preparation time is 30 minutes (weighing ingredients and mixing batter) Cooking time approximately 50 minutes Second Experiment: All of the butter will be replaced with pureed cannellini beans in the experimental streusel coffee cake. Subjective Data: Scorecard (subjective) will be developed in class with characteristics of high-quality streusel coffee cake. Objective Data: Height of streusel coffee cake will be measured in mm (objective). Equipment: Bundt pan Food processor

4 All other equipment for this research is found in the lab unit Ingredients: All ingredients are available in the grocery store. End Note Citations: 1. Charlton O, Sawyer-Morse MK. Effect of fat replacement on sensory attributes of chocolate chip cookies. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1996;96: Szafranski M, Whittington JA, Bessinger C. Pureed cannellini beans can be substituted for shortening in brownies. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2005;105: Streusel Coffee Cake recipe. Accessed 3/2010.

5 Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the effects on acceptability when pureed cannellini beans are used as a fat replacement in streusel coffee cake, comparing 50% and 100% replacement with the full fat recipe. The experiment was conducted in two stages; the first stage compared the 50% fat replacement recipe to the original full-fat recipe (control), and the second stage compared the 100% fat replacement recipe to the control. The fat used in the original recipe was butter, and the amount of beans used to replace the butter was based on volume (1 cup butter = 1 cup beans). All measurements were made by weight, and the cannellini beans were drained and rinsed, pureed in a food processor until smooth, then treated in the same fashion as the butter in the control recipe. Each cake was prepared the day it was evaluated and served at room temperature. Each cake was assigned a symbol to eliminate bias and samples were placed on plates marked with their corresponding symbol. A taste test was conducted by a panel of six students who were provided water and crackers to cleanse the pallet. The panelists rated the cakes on a five-point acceptability scale (1=Unacceptable, 3=Fair, but needs improvement, 5=Perfect, needs no improvement) in eight sensory categories that assessed the external appearance, internal appearance, flavor and aroma. Statistical analysis was then performed to evaluate acceptability of the reduced-fat cakes versus the full-fat cake in these categories. In addition the panelists indicated which cake they preferred overall and would purchase in a grocery store. The results showed no statistically significant difference in overall mean score for the 50% fat replacement recipe versus the control. The 100% fat replacement recipe yielded only a slightly lower overall score than the control, but it was a significant difference. Flavor was negatively affected by the replacement of fat because butter imparts a richness that is not duplicated by pureed beans, but tenderness was not significantly affected due to the moisture content of the beans. Replacing 50% of the butter in the recipe with pureed cannellini beans produced a high quality product with no statistically significant reduction in overall acceptability versus the control coffee cake. The 100% fat replacement recipe was still deemed acceptable overall, though it was favored less than the control. With the considered nutritional benefits of reducing fat while increasing fiber and other nutrients, pureed cannellini beans are a viable fat replacer to produce a high quality streusel coffee cake.

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