2 Learning Objectives 1. Explain what it means for a variable to be normally distributed or approximately normally distributed. 2. Explain the meaning of the parameters for a normal curve. 3. Identify the basic properties of and sketch a normal curve. 4. Identify the standard normal distribution and the standard normal curve. 5. Determine the area under the standard normal curve. 6. Determine the z-score(s) corresponding to a specified area under the standard normal curve. 7. Determine a percentage or probability for a normally distributed variable. 8. State and apply the rule. 9. Explain how to assess the normality of a variable with a normal probability plot. 10. Construct a normal probability plot.
3 Examples of Normal Curves
4 The Standard Deviation as a Ruler The trick in comparing very different-looking values is to use standard deviations as our rulers. The standard deviation tells us how the whole collection of values varies, so it s a natural ruler for comparing an individual to a group. As the most common measure of variation, the standard deviation plays a crucial role in how we look at data.
5 Standardizing with z-scores We compare individual data values to their mean, denoted as µ, relative to their standard deviation, denoted as σ, using the following formula: z = (x - µ)/σ We call the resulting values standardized values, denoted as z. They can also be called z-scores.
6 Standardizing with z-scores (cont.) Standardized values have no units. z-scores measure the distance of each data value from the mean in standard deviations. A negative z-score tells us that the data value is below the mean, while a positive z-score tells us that the data value is above the mean.
7 Standardizing Values Standardized values have been converted from their original units to the standard statistical unit of standard deviations from the mean. Thus, we can compare values that are measured on different scales, with different units, or from different populations.
8 Shifting Data Shifting data: Adding (or subtracting) a constant to every data value adds (or subtracts) the same constant to measures of position. Adding (or subtracting) a constant to each value will increase (or decrease) measures of position: center, percentiles, max or min by the same constant. Its shape and spread - range, IQR, standard deviation - remain unchanged.
9 Shifting Data (cont.) The following histograms show a shift from men s actual weights to kilograms above recommended weight:
10 Rescaling Data Rescaling data: When we multiply (or divide) all the data values by any constant, all measures of position (such as the mean, median, and percentiles) and measures of spread (such as the range, the IQR, and the standard deviation) are multiplied (or divided) by that same constant.
11 Rescaling Data (cont.) The men s weight data set measured weights in kilograms. If we want to think about these weights in pounds, we would rescale the data:
12 z-scores Standardizing data into z-scores shifts the data by subtracting the mean and rescales the values by dividing by their standard deviation. Standardizing into z-scores does not change the shape of the distribution. Standardizing into z-scores changes the center by making the mean 0. Standardizing into z-scores changes the spread by making the standard deviation 1.
13 Standardizing the Three Normal Curves Recall z-score: z = (x - µ)/σ
14 How Do We Utilize z-score? A z-score gives us an indication of how unusual a value is because it tells us how far it is from the mean. Remember that a negative z-score tells us that the data value is below the mean, while a positive z-score tells us that the data value is above the mean. The larger a z-score is (negative or positive), the more unusual it is.
15 When Do We Utilize z-score? There is no universal standard for z-scores, but there is a model that shows up over and over in Statistics. This model is called the Normal model (You may have heard of bell-shaped curves. ). Normal models are appropriate for distributions whose shapes are unimodal and roughly symmetric. These distributions provide a measure of how extreme a z-score is.
16 Normal Model and z-score There is a Normal model for every possible combination of mean and standard deviation. We write N(µ,σ) to represent a Normal model with a mean of µ and a standard deviation of σ. We use Greek letters because this mean and standard deviation do not come from data they are numbers (called parameters) that specify the model.
17 Standardize Normal Data Note that summaries of data, like the sample mean and standard deviation, are written with Latin letters. Such summaries of data are called statistics. When we standardize Normal data, we still call the standardized value a z-score, and we write z = ( y! y) s
18 What is a Standard Normal Model? Once we have standardized by shifting the mean to 0 and scaling the standard deviation to 1, we need only one model: The N(0,1) model is called the standard Normal model (or the standard Normal distribution). Be careful don t use a Normal model for just any data set, since standardizing does not change the shape of the distribution.
19 What Do We Assume? When we use the Normal model, we are assuming the distribution is Normal. We cannot check this assumption in practice, so we check the following condition: Nearly Normal Condition: The shape of the data s distribution is unimodal and symmetric. This condition can be checked with a histogram or a Normal probability plot (to be explained later).
20 The Rule Normal models give us an idea of how extreme a value is by telling us how likely it is to find one that far from the mean. We can find these numbers precisely, but until then we will use a simple rule that tells us a lot about the Normal model
21 The Rule (cont.) It turns out that in a Normal model: about 68% of the values fall within one standard deviation of the mean; about 95% of the values fall within two standard deviations of the mean; and, about 99.7% (almost all!) of the values fall within three standard deviations of the mean.
22 The Rule (cont.) The following shows what the Rule tells us:
23 The Key Fact for Rule
24 The First Three Rules for Working with Normal Models Make a picture. Make a picture. Make a picture. And, when we have data, make a histogram to check the Nearly Normal Condition to make sure we can use the Normal model to model the distribution.
25 Finding Normal Percentiles by Hand When a data value doesn t fall exactly 1, 2, or 3 standard deviations from the mean, we can look it up in a table of Normal percentiles, but many calculators and statistics computer packages provide these as well.
26 Finding Normal Percentiles by Hand (cont.) Before using the standard Normal table, we need to convert our data to z-scores. How to find the area to the left of a z-score of 1.80? - Step 1: Find 1.8 by looking at the left most column. - Step 2: Find.00 by looking at the top most row. - Step 3: Identify the intersection of the above two steps will give you the answer, which is.9641.
27 Normal Probability Plots When you actually have your own data, you must check to see whether a Normal model is reasonable. Looking at a histogram of the data is a good way to check that the underlying distribution is roughly unimodal and symmetric.
28 Normal Probability Plots (cont.) A more specialized graphical display that can help you decide whether a Normal model is appropriate is the Normal probability plot. If the distribution of the data is roughly Normal, the Normal probability plot approximates a diagonal straight line. Deviations from a straight line indicate that the distribution is not Normal.
29 Normal Probability Plots (cont.) Nearly Normal data have a histogram and a Normal probability plot that look somewhat like this example:
30 Normal Probability Plots (cont.) A skewed distribution might have a histogram and Normal probability plot like this:
31 From Percentiles to Scores: z in Reverse Sometimes we start with areas and need to find the corresponding z-score or even the original data value. Example: What z-score represents the first quartile in a Normal model?
32 From Percentiles to Scores: z in Reverse (cont.) Look in Standard Normal Table for an area of The exact area is not there, but is pretty close. This figure is associated with z = -0.67, so the first quartile is 0.67 standard deviations below the mean.
33 Event and Probability Recall from the last module, the event that the students have less than three siblings has a probability represented by P(X < 3). Question: a. How do you represent the probability of the event that the amount of coffee dispensed by a coffee machine in a cup is less than 224 ml? b. Can you find the probability that a cup contains less than 224 ml, if the mean is 200 ml and the standard deviation is 15 ml? c. What is the probability that a cup contains more than 224 ml, if the mean is 200 ml and the standard deviation is 15 ml? d. What is the probability that a cup contains between 191 and 209 ml, if the mean is 200 ml and the standard deviation is 15 ml?
34 Event and Probability (cont.) a. How do you represent the probability of the event that the amount of coffee dispensed by a coffee machine in a cup is less than 224 ml? Step 1: Let Y (or any variable) be the event that the amount of coffee dispensed by a coffee machine in a cup. Step 2: We can represent the probability of the event that the amount of coffee dispensed by a coffee machine in a cup is less than 224 ml as P(Y < 224).
35 Event and Probability (cont.) b. Can you find the probability that a cup has less than 224 ml, if the mean is 200 ml and the standard deviation is 15 ml? Note that we can only use the Standard Normal Table to find the probability, after we have standardized the raw score to a z-score. How do we standardized the raw score to a z-score? In short, we need to compute the z-score.
36 Event and Probability (cont.) Step 1: Recall: z = (x - µ)/σ In this case, x = 224, µ = 200, and σ= 15. We can compute the z-score as follows: z = (x - µ)/σ = ( )/15 = 24/15 = 1.60 Step 2: After we have standardized the raw score x = 224 to z-score z = 1.60, we can use the Standard Normal Table to find the probability of the event that the amount of coffee dispensed by the coffee machine in a cup is less than 224 ml. In another words, we simply need to find the area under the standard normal curve to the left of z = P(Y < 224) = P(Z < 1.60) = (94.52%) What does this mean? This means 94.52% of all coffee dispensed by a coffee machine is less than 224 ml. In another words, the probability is that a randomly selected cup of coffee dispensed by a coffee machine will contain less than 224 ml.
37 Event and Probability (cont.) c. Can you find the probability that a cup contains more than 224 ml, if the mean is 200 ml and the standard deviation is 15 ml? In this case, the probability of the event that a cup contains more than 224 ml can be solved by using the complementation rule. P(Y > 224) = 1 - P(Y 224) = = (5.48%) What does this mean? This means 5.48% of all coffee dispensed by a coffee machine is more than 224 ml. In another words, the probability is that a randomly selected cup of coffee dispensed by a coffee machine will contain more than 224 ml. Note: In continuous case, P(Y 224) = P(Y < 224) =
38 Event and Probability (cont.) d. What is the probability that a cup contains between 191 and 209 ml, if the mean is 200 ml and the standard deviation is 15 ml? Step 1: Standardize the two raw scores: x 1 = 191 and x 2 = 209 x 1 = 191, µ = 200, and σ= 15. We can compute the z-score as follows: z 1 = (x 1 - µ)/σ = ( )/15 = -9/15 = x 2 = 191, µ = 200, and σ= 15. We can compute the z-score as follows: z 2 = (x 2 - µ)/σ = ( )/15 = 9/15 = 0.60
39 Event and Probability (cont.) d. What is the probability that a cup contains between 191 and 209 ml, if the mean is 200 ml and the standard deviation is 15 ml? Step 2: Use the Standard Normal Table to find the probability of the event that the amount of coffee dispensed by the coffee machine in a cup is less than 191 ml. P(Y < 191) = P(Z < -0.60) = (27.43%) Similarly, use the Standard Normal Table to find the probability of the event that the amount of coffee dispensed by the coffee machine in a cup is less than 209 ml. P(Y < 209) = P(Z < 0.60) = (72.57%)
40 Event and Probability (cont.) d. What is the probability that a cup contains between 191 and 209 ml, if the mean is 200 ml and the standard deviation is 15 ml? Step 3: Compute P(Z < 0.60) - P(Z < ) = = (45.14%) What does this mean? This means 45.14% of all coffee dispensed by a coffee machine is between 191 ml and 209 ml. In another words, the probability is that a randomly selected cup of coffee dispensed by a coffee machine will contain between 191 and 209 ml. Note: In continuous case, P(Z ) = P(Z < ) =
41 Do Not Use a Normal Model Do not use a Normal model when the distribution is not unimodal and symmetric.
42 What Can Go Wrong? Don t use the mean and standard deviation when outliers are present the mean and standard deviation can both be distorted by outliers. Don t round your results in the middle of a calculation. Don t worry about minor differences in results.
43 What have we learned? The story data can tell may be easier to understand after shifting or rescaling the data. Shifting data by adding or subtracting the same amount from each value affects measures of center and position but not measures of spread. Rescaling data by multiplying or dividing every value by a constant changes all the summary statistics center, position, and spread.
44 What have we learned? (cont.) We ve learned the power of standardizing data. Standardizing uses the SD as a ruler to measure distance from the mean (zscores). With z-scores, we can compare values from different distributions or values based on different units. z-scores can identify unusual or surprising values among data.
45 What have we learned? (cont.) We ve learned that the Rule can be a useful rule of thumb for understanding distributions: For data that are unimodal and symmetric, about 68% fall within 1 SD of the mean, 95% fall within 2 SDs of the mean, and 99.7% fall within 3 SDs of the mean.
46 What have we learned? (cont.) We see the importance of Thinking about whether a method will work: Normal Assumption: We sometimes work with Standard Normal tables. These tables are based on the Normal model. Data can t be exactly Normal, so we check the Nearly Normal Condition by making a histogram (is it unimodal, symmetric and free of outliers?) or a normal probability plot (is it straight enough?).
47 What have we learned? 1. Explain what it means for a variable to be normally distributed or approximately normally distributed. 2. Explain the meaning of the parameters for a normal curve. 3. Identify the basic properties of and sketch a normal curve. 4. Identify the standard normal distribution and the standard normal curve. 5. Determine the area under the standard normal curve. 6. Determine the z-score(s) corresponding to a specified area under the standard normal curve. 7. Determine a percentage or probability for a normally distributed variable. 8. State and apply the rule. 9. Explain how to assess the normality of a variable with a normal probability plot. 10. Construct a normal probability plot.
48 Credit Some of the slides have been adapted/modified in part/whole from the slides of the following textbooks. Weiss, Neil A., Introductory Statistics, 8th Edition Weiss, Neil A., Introductory Statistics, 7th Edition Bock, David E., Stats: Data and Models, 2nd Edition
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