the scientific name for us as a species Homo sapiens

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1 Stone Age Test Study Guide Test: Tuesday, October 23 Format: Matching, Multiple Choice, Free Response Notes: Early Humans, Evolution, Lower Paleolithic Era, Human Migration, Upper Paleolithic Era, Agricultural Revolution, Neolithic Era Vocabulary: Paleolithic Era, Evolution, Natural Selection, Ice Age, Mesolithic & Neolithic Eras, Land Bridge, Domestication, Homo sapiens, Hominin, Megalith Homo sapiens Hominin Evolution Natural Selection Ice Age Paleolithic Era Mesolithic & Neolithic Eras Land Bridge Domestication Megalith the scientific name for us as a species any species of primates that are a direct relative or ancestor of us change in the characteristics of a species over several generations the process where species that are best fit for their environment survive and reproduce, while those that are less fit die out. a long period of freezing weather, continent wide ice sheets, and large glaciers the time in human history where our ancestors hunted and gathered for their food the time in human history where our ancestors first farmed and raised their food a strip of land connecting two continents the process of taming & controlling wild animals and plants for personal usage by humans large stones used as monuments or as sites for religious gatherings

2 Early Humans & Evolution 1.) What are the seven characteristics of Homo sapiens? Walking Upright Our Bodies Tools Social Life Large Brains Language & Symbols Changes the world 2.) Homo sapiens are 300,000 years old as a species. 3.) Archeologists know Homo sapiens are that old because they discovered the bones of a Homo sapiens that age in the continent of Africa and it was the oldest ever found 4.) What do archeologists notice about the connection between the age of the hominin bones and the human characteristics they possess? The younger the bones the more human-like they become. 5.) What do archeologists believe is the connection between hominins and Homo sapiens? Hominins are the direct ancestors of Homo sapiens

3 6.) How did our hominin ancestors change over time to become Homo sapiens? By this process of evolution through natural selection historians and scientists believe that over millions of years hominins continually developed DNA mutations that made them fit for their changing environments and ultimately, 300,000 years ago resulted in the creation of a new species of primate Homo sapiens. 7.) Homo sapiens share a common ancestor with chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and all other primates that lived about 56 million years ago. 8.) The hominin that Homo sapiens directly evolved from in the continent of Africa and Homo neanderthalensis directly evolved from in the continent of Europe was Homo heidelbergensis. Lower Paleolithic Era, Migration, & Upper Paleolithic Era 1.) Lower Paleolithic Era (3.3 MYA - 300,000 YA) Both Upper Paleolithic Era (50,000 YA - 10,000 YA) Used basic cutting tools Discovered fire Hunted & gathered their food Ate meat and plants Used tools Lived in groups & communities Practiced religion Made art Used specialized tools Made and wore clothing Only Homo sapiens were alive

4 Word Bank for Venn Diagram: Hunted & gathered their food Ate meat and plants Practiced religion Made art Used tools Used specialized tools Used basic cutting tools Discovered fire Lived in shelters Used language Made and wore clothing Lived in groups/communities Only Homo sapiens were alive 2.) How did archeologists infer that Homo sapiens in the Upper Paleolithic Era had religious beliefs? (What evidence did they find?) Cave art, statues of women, statues of animals, half human/half animal statues, purposeful burial 3.) What did they infer about the religious beliefs of Homo sapiens in the Upper Paleolithic Era? Homo sapiens practiced animism a religious belief centered around animals & spirits 4.) Other than Homo sapiens what hominins have archeologists found outside of Africa? Homo ergaster Homo erectus Homo heidelbergensis Homo neanderthalensis

5 5.) How can archeologists know tell if a species migrated somewhere away from where it evolved? If it s oldest bones are found in one location and more recent of it s bones are found elsewhere 6.) Which of the four species you listed in #4 originally evolved outside of Africa? Homo neanderthalensis 7.) What made these hominins able to leave Africa (unlike the hominins that lived before them)? Newer body shape made them better able to travel longer distances Larger brains could help them deal with more unfamiliar environments Improved tools & technology Ice age climate changes forced them into new environment for resources 8.) What role did land bridges have in the migration of our ancestors around the world? Allowed our ancestors to migrate to places like Australia, the Americas, and the UK 9.) What species was the most successful at migrating? Why? Homo sapiens we had the largest brains, best technology, best body shaped and successfully traveled worldwide Agricultural Revolution & the Neolithic Era 1.) How did the end of the Ice Age affect plant and animal life around the world? planet warmed back up and more plants grew and animals repopulated 2.) What are the three parts of the world where Homo sapiens first started domesticated plants and animals? Near East, Asia, Central & South America

6 3.) Why did the Agricultural Revolution happen? Larger brain sizes may have caused humans to understand how to grow/raise food rather than hunting/gathering it Traditional food sources may have been disappearing as humans became better huntergatherers Growing population sizes may have caused humans to look for more food sources Humans may have accidentally discovered agriculture and saw how much food it could produce Why did the Agricultural Revolution only happen in some areas? Most plants and animals are very difficult to domesticate The few species of plants and animals that were easy to domesticate were found in particular locations 4.) Advantages of Agricultural Revolution More controllable food supply Allowed much more food to be available Permanent settlements Not everyone had to hunt and/or gather Disadvantages of Agricultrural Revolution More time - consuming than hunting & gathering Inequality between individuals Inequality between men & women Warfare & violence Environmental destruction Unbalanced diet Over-reliance on single food sources created risk Disease 5.) How were Neolithic communities like Catal Hüyuk similar and different from the communities of the Paleolithic Era? Only Paleolithic Similar Only Neolithic Hunted & gathered Built homes out of bone Lived in small communities Practiced religion Lived in large communities Lived in permanent homes Made homes out of mud Farmed & raised their food

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