nutripro Sodium l l l It s time to shake things up Balancing taste & health Sodium goes global Know your Salts Nestlé Professional Nutrition Magazine

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1 nutripro Nestlé Professional Nutrition Magazine l l l Balancing taste & health Sodium goes global Know your Salts Sodium It s time to shake things up

2 A matter of Taste & Health A dash of salt is something few chefs could live without. The melt in your mouth crystal we know as table salt is actually sodium chloride, and the sodium in this and many other foods and drinks is a source of many health concerns. As health organizations around the world find more links between excessive sodium intake and our risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, or stroke, they re advising consumers to watch how much of it they ingest. Some organizations are even recommending that people eat out less often, but for many, that is not a realistic solution. Instead, we should find a way to give consumers what they want: the pleasure of dining out with the reassurance that they can find flavorful, lower sodium options that please both their senses and their health care providers. Striking a balance As consumers become more aware of sodium, it could change the way they want to eat. A recent report from the National Marketing Institute said approximately 42% of consumers would like less sodium in their food and about 50% check sodium on the label of packaged foods. That doesn t mean we should eliminate salt altogether. In Salted: A Manifesto on the World s Most Essential Mineral, With Recipes, author Mark Bitterman says knowing how to use salt effectively is probably the single most important skill a chef has. While adding salt is often a quick, easy way to enhance taste, it s even more fun to add flavor to a dish through other ingredients. ingredient-driven kitchens. Many chefs enjoy using kosher or sea salt in cooking, or flaky salt as a finishing touch that s rich in taste and texture. Salt is even being paired with sweetness in desserts like salted caramel ice cream or chocolate covered pretzels. The takeaway? There s plenty of reason to keep salt in your toolkit. The key is to use it thoughtfully by balancing flavor and texture and considering the overall sodium level of foods. In fact, artisanal and specialty salts are becoming more prominent in today s Is sea salt healthier than other salts? 2 There is a popular perception that you can use less sea salt and still provide the same amount of flavor. However, experiments show that this is not the case, and using less sea salt results in a less salty taste, just as it would with any other type of salt. Did you know? Salt is a biological necessity for both animals and humans, with a long and illustrious history in both lcultural and culinary terms. 3

3 A hot topic Sodium s been on the earth forever, so why is it still a hot topic today? A matter of excess While sodium is found in many popular foods around the planet, recent studies show that eating (or drinking) too much has been linked to health problems such as: High blood pressure 1 Diabetes Kidney disease Osteoporosis Gastric cancer Lowering the risk Some studies suggest that reducing intake by just 400 mg/day over 10 years could decrease: 5 Coronary heart disease by 20,000 40,000 cases per year Stroke by 11,000 23,000 cases per year. It s everywhere Adding salt while cooking or dining only accounts for some of the sodium people consume. Many prepared foods contain a great deal of sodium, and some is even found naturally in everyday foods and drinks. Chicken breast Low fat milk Perrier water Shellfish Naturally Occuring Sodium (per 100g) 63 mg 52 mg 1 mg 392 mg How common is high blood pressure? High blood pressure is found in: Over 35% of people in England 2 Over 33% of Americans 3 Besides being used to flavor food, sodium is also found in many special ingredients used to enhance or preserve food. Over 65% of people in Poland 4 Less than 6% of people in rural India 4 Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Sodium benzoate Sodium caseinate Sodium citrate Sodium nitrate Sodium phosphate Sodium propionate Sodium saccharin Leavening agent in batters; crispiness enhancer in breadings Flavor enhancer Preservative Thickener and binder Controls acidity in soft drinks Curing agent in meat Emulsifier and stabilizer Mold inhibitor Artificial sweetener 4 5

4 issue A worldwide Health issues have made reducing sodium intake a hot topic around the world, and scientific understanding is changing rapidly. Cultural Variations A comparison of milligrams of sodium consumed daily in typical diets around the world. (circle size indicates sodium intake) Finland 3291 Some northern Japanese groups who preserve their food with salt 10,300 World Health Organization (WHO) 2006: Recommended that countries implement sodium reduction strategies. Also encourages food manufacturers and foodservice to take initiatives to reduce sodium content. 6 U.K.: Food Standards Agency 2006: Proposed target sodium levels for a wide range of food categories and guidelines for meals in institutions aimed to meet the recommended level of 2,400 mg of sodium per day Netherlands UK France Italy China Japan The European Union Framework for Salt Reduction Initiatives 2009: Developed voluntary program to reduce salt levels in certain food categories, including catering and restaurant meals, by a minimum of 16% over four years. 7 U.S.: Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2010: Published strategies to reduce sodium consumption to less than 2,300 mg sodium per day through a coordinated approach including food manufacturers, restaurants and other foodservice operators. 8 China 2006: China is taking several steps to reduce sodium intake, including advocating a higher-potassium diet to lower sodium, providing free salt spoons to help people stay within the 2400 mg of sodium per day recommendations, and increasing messaging to eat more fruits and vegetables. Chile : Chilean Ministry of Health research showed that salt intake of their population reached 9.8 grams of salt (3920mg sodium) per day. As a result a target of less than 5 grams of salt per day by 2020 has been set. 10 USA Canada Venezuela Brazil 4324 Yanomamo Tribe in the rainforests of Brazil 200 South Africa 3250 Australia 3427 Foods that fight back Good Sources of Potassium World Health Organization guideline 2000 mg We know sodium can raise blood pressure, but certain other foods can help lower it. Making meals that are high in potassium, low in fat, and rich in minerals is one way to help protect our health. 6 Fruits (banana, kiwi, passion fruit, apricot) Green vegetables (artichoke, broccoli, bamboo shoots, spinach) Legumes (all kinds of peas, beans, and lentils) Potatoes Sweet potatoes Mushrooms The amount of sodium consumed and the sources responsible for it vary widely around the planet. However, in most countries, populations and cultures, sodium intakes are much higher than recommendations. 7

5 Did you know? Half the world s salt comes from the sea, and the other half comes lfrom salt mines. Know your salts Different salts have different flavors influenced by the minerals and other factors where they are found. The texture of some salts, such as the flaky crystals of fleur de sel, can also add a different sensorial experience. Salts can even be smoked or roasted, like traditional Korean bamboo salt, to enhance flavors. It s a delight to explore and experiment with a variety of different salts. Salt? Sodium? What s the difference? Are salt and sodium the same thing? Not quite. What you find in your saltshaker is sodium chloride, a chemical compound made up of 40% sodium and 60% chloride. Salt is often fortified with iodine, a neccesary nutrient for metabolism. Flavored & colored salt Salt can be used as a carrier for other flavors. A few tasty options include celery salt, garlic salt, onion salt, or even herbally flavored salts such as basil or rosemary salt. Flake salt Produced by surface evaporation, this super-light salt is easy to measure by hand, which helps the chef control how much is used. It adds a crunchy texture to foods. Fleur de sel Known as flower of the salt, this has the finest, most delicate flakes. Its specific harvesting conditions make it more difficult and costly to produce. It is typically used as a condiment, not a cooking salt. Unrefined sea salt This salt is created through the natural process of evaporating seawater. If not processed to remove impurities, it will contribute a lot of flavor and color. Who needs it? Sodium is an essential nutrient, which means we all need a little to keep our bodies running smoothly. Sodium helps with important tasks like: Regulating fluids Balancing electrolytes Keeping nerves and muscles functioning Kosher salt Often used in cooking for its non-iodized flavor, its large crystals make it easy to add by hand. Himalayan salt This rose-colored salt is hand mined from seawater and salt lakes which evaporated over 250 million years ago inside caves in Pakistan. Protected from modern pollution, it is extremely pure and clean. 8 Transporting glucose and amino acids across cell membranes 9

6 Changing taste As a chef, you can help your patrons discover the many exciting ways to flavor dishes without a lot of salt. Here are a few to try: Pizza More: Vegetables (peppers, spinach, dried tomatoes, avocado), fruits (pineapple, pears, apples), unsalted nuts, chicken Less: Pepperoni, extra cheese Pasta More: Tomato-based sauces, in-season vegetables steamed or lightly sautéed, chicken Less: Cheese, sausage Burgers More: Fresh vegetables (lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers), avocadoes, jalapeños, sautéed onions and mushrooms Less: Cheese, BBQ sauce Sandwiches More: Fresh vegetables (lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers), fresh herbs (basil), roasted peppers, avocadoes, sautéed onions and mushrooms, chicken, egg, mozzarella cheese, reduced-fat mayo Less: Cheddar cheese, pickles, mustard Salads More: Fresh greens, vegetables and fruits, dried fruits (raisins and cherries) unsalted nuts, dressings on the side Less: Salty nuts or seeds, dressings on the salad The Balance Because potassium can help reduce sodium in the body, you can balance higher sodium ingredients with higher potassium foods such as tomatoes, potatoes, mushrooms, spinach or sweet potatoes to name a few. Adjusting the palate Humans (even babies) have a preference for sweet and salty flavors. However, these tastes can be changed, and people can adapt to either lower or higher levels of saltiness. When changes are made gradually, they may go by almost unnoticed. 11 How low can you go? Nestlé Professional s experiments suggest that 10% of the sodium can be removed from a recipe before people notice a difference. If you re planning to reduce sodium on your menu, try small reductions over a period of time to evolve diners tastes. It s stealthy, but it works. Did you know? The word salary comes from the Latin salarium, which referred to the money paid to Roman soldiers for the lpurchase of salt and thus the expression worth his salt

7 In the kitchen Spice it up Creative tips for cooking with (or without) salt Lowering sodium gives you a perfect opportunity to experiment with new flavor combinations that are big on taste, but low in sodium. Adding lower sodium items to your menu will be appreciated by health-conscious patrons, and adding flavor will be enjoyed by all. Instead of salt, try these intriguing matches: 12 With beef: bay leaf, marjoram, nutmeg, onion, pepper, sage, thyme With chicken: ginger, marjoram, oregano, paprika, rosemary, sage, tarragon, thyme With fish: curry powder, dill, dry mustard, lemon juice, marjoram, paprika, pepper With carrots: cinnamon, cloves, marjoram, nutmeg, rosemary, sage With tomatoes: basil, bay leaf, dill, marjoram, onion, oregano, parsley, pepper With potatoes: dill, garlic, onion, paprika, parsley, sage With greens: onion, pepper, lemon juice Change your techniques increase the acidity in a dish to replace some or all of the salt. A small amount of lemon juice, vinegar, tomato juice will balance and enliven all the other flavors, without registering as sour or acidic on the tongue. Brown or caramelize foods to boost flavor without the addition of salt. Enlist the help of your ingredients take advantage of seasonal offerings and make them abundant on the plate. Peak-season fruit and vegetables are the most flavorful. if you use frozen, canned or other prepared foods, investigate lower sodium, reduced sodium, or no-saltadded versions. rinse canned foods, such as tuna, to remove some sodium before serving. try oven-roasting vegetables with olive oil or fruit salsas to serve over meat or fish. add salt crystals as a finishing touch to provide higher salt perception when the crystals hit the tongue. This technique gives you more taste with less sodium. Favorite methods from the chefs at Nestlé Professional Did you know? People who smoke are less sensitive to salt than those who don t smoke. If you or members of your kitchen staff are smokers, caution them lagainst using a heavy hand with the saltshaker. 1. instead of steaming fish, try pan-frying it with a small amount of oil. That allimportant Maillard reaction between sugars and proteins always works to build flavor. 2. other cooking techniques that add lots of flavor include braising, grilling and roasting. 3. Most people are familiar with the technique of marinating proteins to add flavor, but vegetables can also be marinated. This really helps layer on the flavor. 4. lock in flavor with sous vide, the technique of cooking ingredients in a vacuum-sealed pouch, usually for a long time at a low temperature. 5. use precious specialty ingredients like truffle oil or fine sea salt to finish a dish. Before serving meat or potatoes, sprinkle on a small amount of smoked salt, or drizzle on some nut oil for a robust addition that will hit the taste buds first

8 Move over salt Experiment with umami Looking for another taste to please the Umami can also be enhanced through palate? Try the flavor-boosting power of the cooking process. Try caramelizing umami, the so-called fifth flavor (after onions or browning meat through sweet, salty, sour and bitter). Although roasting or sautéing. Or use a sparing many umami ingredients are high in amount of anchovy paste or Parmesan sodium (including anchovy paste, cured cheese to provide a lot of flavor with just meats and aged cheeses, Worcestershire a touch of sodium. sauce and olives), others are sodiumfree. Sources 1. American Heart Association. About high blood pressure Scientific Advisory committee on nutrition (SACN): Salt and Health The stationery office CDC. Vital signs: prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension United States, and MMWR. 2011;60(4): Worldwide prevalence of hypertension: a systematic review. [Review], Kearney, Patricia M a; et al. Journal of Hypertension. 22(1):11-19, January Bibbins-Domingo K, Chertow GM, Coxson PG et al. reductions in cardiovascular disease projected from modest reductions in dietary salt. N Engl J Med. 2010; Feb 18; 362 (7): WHO. Reducing salt intake in populations: report of a WHO forum and technical meeting, 5-7 October 2006, Paris, France. World Health Organization 2007, Geneva Switzerland. 7. European Union (EU). National Salt Initiatives-implementing the EU Framework for salt reduction initiatives. June IOM (Institute of Medicine) Strategies to reduce sodium intake in the United States., Washington D.C. 9. Food standards Agency (FSA). Salt reduction targets, May Pan American Health Organization new.paho.org/hq/ 11. IOM (Institute of Medicine) Strategies to reduce sodium intake in the United States., Washington D.C 12. Essentials of Nutrition for Chefs by Powers C, Abbott Hess M You ll find umami in: Tomatoes Mushrooms Potatoes Sweet potatoes Most meats and seafood Carrots Spinach Green tea Walnuts and almonds Peas and other legumes Red bell peppers Winter squashes It s Personal Sensitivity to salty taste differs from person to person, which can be a challenge when you are serving over 100 meals per day to 100 different people. These differences are due to several factors including number of taste receptors on the tongue, overall health, and environmental influencers. Some medicines can also change how a person experiences taste. One solution is to use a minimal amount of salt and let each diner customize the meal. Further reading Salted: A Manifesto on the World s Most Essential Mineral, With Recipes, author Mark Bitterman McGee on Food and Cooking: An Encyclopedia of Kitchen Science, History and Culture by Harold McGee 2004 NutriPro is a publication of Nestlé Professional 2012 Editorial Team: Patricia Siwajek, Tim Wolfe Editor: Karin Lannon Photography: Yolanda Gonzalez, Nestlé Professional 14 15

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10 ضع الملح جانبا المصادر اخترب أطباقك مع األومامي هل تبحث عن طعم آخر يلب مجيع األذواق جر ب قوة األومامي يف تعزيز النكهة وهي الطعم األاسيس اخلامس إىل جانب المالح واحللو واحلامض والمر. ورغم أن كثريا من مقادير األومامي غنية بالصوديوم )مبا يف ذلك عجينة األنشوفة اللحم المقدد األجبان المعت قة صلصة رسيسترياشير والزيتون( إال أن بعضها اآلخر خال من الصوديوم. كما ميكن تعزيز نكهة األومامي من خالل عملية الطهي. لذا جر ب قيل أو حتميص البصل أو اللحم حىت حتصل عىل اللون الذهب أو استخدم كمية قليلة من عجينة األنشوفة أو جبنة البارمزيان لتمنح أطباقك نكهة آرسة بلمسة من الصوديوم. 1. مجعية القلب األمريكية. حول ارتفاع ضغط الدم اللجنة العلمية االستاشرية للتغذية :)SACN( الملح والصحة مكتب القرطاسية مراكز مكافحة األمراض واتقاهئا.CDC العالمات احليوية: انتاشر وعالج ارتفاع ضغط الدم والسيطرة عليه الواليات المتحدة األمريكية و التقرير األسبوعي لألمراض والوفيات. :)4( االنتاشر العالمي الرتفاع ضغط الدم: مراجعة مهنجية. ]مراجعة[ كريين باتريشيا م وآخرون. جملة ارتفاع ضغط الدم. 22 )1(:19-11 كانون الثاين كريستني بيبيزن دومينغو جلني شريتو باميال كاكسون وآخرون. احلد من أمراض القلب واألوعية الدموية المتوقعة من خالل تقليل كمية الملح يف الطعام. N. Engl J Med 18 فرباير 2010 :)7( منظمة الصحة العالمية. احلد من تناول السكان للملح: تقرير منتدى منظمة الصحة العالمية واالجتماع الفين. من 5 إىل 7 أكتوبر 2006 باريس فرناس. منظمة الصحة العالمية 2007 جنيف سويرسا. 7. االحتاد األورويب. مبادرات الملح الوطنية: تنفيذ إطار االحتاد األورويب فيما يتعلق مببادرات احلد من الملح. يونيو معهد الطب اسرتاتيجيات للحد من تناول الصوديوم يف الواليات المتحدة. واشنطن. 9. وكالة المعايري الغذائية.)FSA( أهداف تقليل الملح. مايو منظمة الصحة للبلدان األمريكية. new.paho.org/hq 11. معهد الطب اسرتاتيجيات للحد من تناول الصوديوم يف الواليات المتحدة. واشنطن. 12.»أاسسيات التغذية للطهاة«تأليف كاثرين باورز وماري أبوت هيس يوجد طعم األومامي يف: الطماطم معظم اللحوم الاشي األخرض الفلفل احللو األمحر الفطر واألسماك اجلوز واللوز القرع الشتوي البطاطا اجلزر البازالء والبقوليات البطاطا احللوة السباخن األخرى الذوق.. أمر خاص ختتلف حاسسية استقبال الرباعم الذوقية للملح من شخص آلخر وهذا ما يشك ل حتديا كبريا للطهاة عند احلاجة لتحضري 100 وجبة يوميا ل 100 شخص خمتلف عىل سبيل المثال. وتعتمد هذه االختالفات عىل عدة عوامل مهنا عدد المستقبالت الذوقية يف اللاسن والصحة العامة والمؤثرات البيئية. كما قد تؤثر بعض األدوية عىل استشعار الشخص لألذواق. ولذلك فاحلل هو استخدام كمية قليلة من الملح أثناء الطهي وترك األمر لكل شخص كي يضيف الملح حسب رغبته. كتب إضافية»الملوحة: بيان بأشن المعدن األهم يف العالم«مع وصفات للمؤلف مارك بيرتمان.»الطهي واألطعمة من منظور ماكجي: موسوعة علم وتارخي وثقافة المطبخ«للمؤلف هارولد ماكجي لمزيد من المعلومات يرجى مراسلتنا عرب فريق التحرير: باتريشيا سيواجيك تيم ولف المحرر: كارين النون التصوير الفوتوغرايف: يوالندا غونزاليس نستله بروفيشنال ١٥ 14

11 يف المطبخ أض ف لمسة فنية نصاحئ مبتكرة للطبخ مع )أو بدون( ملح يتيح لك تقليل كمية الصوديوم يف طعامك اختبار أطباق جديدة لذيذة الطعم وقليلة الصوديوم. وهذا ما سيجعل منك حمط إعجاب من قبل المهتمني بالصحة والباحثني عن الطعم اللذيذ عىل حد سواء. جر ب هذه المقادير الهشية معا بدال 12 من الملح: مع حلم البقر: ورق الغار المردقوش جوزة الطيب البصل الفلفل المرميية والزعرت. مع الدجاج: الزجنبيل المردقوش األوريغانو البابريكا الروزماري المرميية الطرخون والزعرت. مع السمك: مسحوق الكاري الشبت اخلردل اجلاف عصري الليمون المردقوش البابريكا والفلفل. مع اجلزر: القرفة القرنفل المردقوش جوزة الطيب الروزماري والمرميية. مع الطماطم: الرحيان ورق الغار الشبت المردقوش البصل األوريغانو البقدونس والفلفل. مع البطاطا: الشبت الثوم البصل البابريكا البقدونس والمرميية. مع اخلضار: البصل الفلفل وعصري الليمون. عز ز نكهة أطباقك مع األطعمة البنية أو المحرضة بالكراميل دون إضافة الملح. جر ب إضافة اخلضار المشوية يف الفرن مع زيت الزيتون أو صلصات الفاكهة إىل أطباق اللحم أو السمك. أض ف رشة من الملح كلمسة أخرية عىل طبقك لتمت ع حواسك الذوقية بطعم مالح فوري وتستمتع بطعم لذيذ ال حيتوي عىل كمية كبرية من الصوديوم. استنجد مباسعدة مقاديرك اخلاصة استفد من المنتجات الموسمية واجعلها تغمر ذوقك بنكهة ال ت وصف. فال ألذ من الفاكهة واخلضار يف ذروة موسمها. إن كنت تستخدم األطعمة المجمدة أو المعلبة أو غريها من األطعمة اجلاهزة فاحبث عن األطعمة المنخفضة بالصوديوم أو اخلالية من الملح. اغسل األطعمة المعلبة مثل التونة للتخلص من بعض الصوديوم قبل التقديم. غري فنون طبخك l قم بزيادة احلموضة يف طبقك الستبدال نكهة الملوحة بشكل جزيئ أو كيل وذلك عرب إضافة كمية صغرية من عصري الليمون أو اخلل أو عصري الطماطم لتحصل عىل نكهة متوازنة مع مجيع النكهات األخرى دون أن تشعر حبموضة عىل لاسنك. هل تعلم المدخنون أقل حاسسية للملح من غري المدخنني فإن كنت أنت أو أحد طاقم مطبخك من المدخنني فحذار من استخدام كمية كبرية من الملح. أاسليب مفضلة من حمرتيف الطهي يف نستله بروفيشنال 1- بدال من طهي األسماك عىل البخار جر ب قلهيا مع كمية صغرية من الزيت. إذ أن تفاعل ميالرد الهام جدا بني السكريات والربوتينات ينتج نكهة لذيذة للغاية دامئا. 2- الشوي والتحميص والطهي يف الطاجن هي تقنيات طبخ أخرى تضيف المزيد من النكهة عىل أطباقك. 3- كثري من الناس عىل دراية بأسلوب نقع الربوتينات إلضافة نكهة خاصة ولكن ما ال يعلمونه أن نقع اخلضار ياسعد عىل إضفاء نكهة لذيذة أيضا. 4- حافظ عىل النكهة باتباع طريقة طهي الطعام يف أكياس مفرغة من الهواء وعادة ما يتم ذلك لمدة طويلة ضمن درجة حرارة منخفضة. 5- استخدم المقادير الفاخرة واخلاصة مثل زيت الكمأة أو ملح البحر الناعم كلمسة احرتافية عىل طبقك. قبل تقديم اللحوم أو البطاطا أضف كمية صغرية من الملح المدخن أو زيت اجلوز لتكسب طبقك نكهة قوية تأرس الرباعم الذوقية من أول لمسة. ١٣ 12

12 l تغيير الطعم تتوف ر اآلن أمام الطهاة طرق عديدة إلضافة نكهة استثنائية عىل أطباقهم دون استخدام الكثري من الملح وهنا نعرض بعضا مهنا: البيزتا أكث من اخلضار )الفلفل األخرض واألمحر السباخن الطماطم المجففة األفوكادو( والفواكه )األناناس الكمثى التفاح( مع الدجاج والمكرسات غري المملحة. قل ل من البربوين واجلبنة المعكرونة أكث من صلصات الطماطم والدجاج واخلضار المحصودة يف موسمها مع طبخها عىل البخار أو قلهيا قليال قل ل من اجلبنة والسجق الربغر أكث من اخلضار الطازجة )اخلس الطماطم اخليار( واألفوكادو واجللبنوس والبصل المقيل والفطر قل ل من اجلبنة وصلصة الشواء السندوياشت أكث من اخلضار الطازجة )اخلس الطماطم اخليار( واألعاشب الطازجة )الرحيان( والفلفل المشوي واألفوكادو والفطر والبصل المقيل والدجاج والبيض وجبنة الموزاريال والمايونزي قليل الدسم. قل ل من جبنة التشيدر والمخلالت واخلردل السلطات أكث من اخلضار الطازجة والفواكه العادية والمجففة )الزبيب والكرز( والمكرسات غري المملحة وضع الصلصات جانبا قل ل من المكرسات الماحلة أو البذور والصلصات التوازن الغذايئ ياسعد البوتاسيوم عىل تقليل الصوديوم يف اجلسم لذلك ميكنك تناول األطعمة الغنية بالبوتاسيوم مثل الطماطم والبطاطا والفطر والسباخن والبطاطا احللوة لتعديل نسبة الصوديوم الناجتة عن األطعمة الغنية به. ضبط حاسة الذوق خيتلف مدى تفضيلنا للنكهات الماحلة واحللوة من شخص آلخر مبا يف ذلك األطفال. ولكن اخلرب الاسر أن هذه التفضيالت قابلة للضبط وميكننا تغيري مستوى تقب لنا للملوحة صعودا أو نزوال. وعند القيام هبذا التعديل تدرجييا فلن نشعر هبذا التغيري إطالقا. إىل أي مدى ميكن تقليل الرغبة بالملح أثبتت التجارب اليت أجرهتا نستله بروفيشنال أنه من الممكن تقليل نسبة الصوديوم يف الطعام بنسبة 10 دون أن يالحظ أحد الفرق. لذلك قل ل نسبة الصوديوم يف طعامك بكميات قليلة لمدة من الوقت لتعديل ذوق متناويل الطعام فهذه خطة تفي بالغرض وإن بدت لك رضبا من االحتيال. هل تعلم أن كلمة Salary باللغة اإلجنلزيية واليت تعين الراتب بالعربية كلمة مشتقة من كلمة salarium وهي كلمة التينية تشري إىل المال الذي كان ي دفع للجنود الرومان لرشاء الملح. ومهنا جاء التعبري اإلجنلزيي salt worth his أي الشخص اجلدير باالحرتام. ١١ 10

13 خفايا األمالح ختتلف األمالح وختتلف نكهاهتا حسب المعادن والعوامل األخرى الداخلة يف تركيهبا. فقد تضفي تركيبة بعض األمالح مثل ملح فلور دو سيل نكهة خاصة متزيه عن غريه. كما قد تأيت األمالح م دخ نة أو حم م صة لتعزيز النكهة مثل ملح اخلزيران الكوري التقليدي. لذلك فمن الممتع التعر ف عىل أنواع الملح ونكهاهتا المتمزية. l نصف ملح العالم يأيت من البحر والنصف اآلخر هل من مناجم الملح. تعلم ملح الملح الم نك ه والملو ن ي ستخدم الملح إلعطاء لمسة خاصة عىل بقية النكهات. ومن بعض هذه األمالح المنك هة اللذيذة: ملح الكرفس وملح الثوم وملح البصل أو األمالح بنكهة األعاشب مثل ملح الرحيان أو إكليل اجلبل. فلور دو سيل ي عرف هذا الملح باسم»زهرة الملح«ويتم اختياره من أجود ذرات الملح وأكثها نعومة ضمن ظروف حصاد خاصة جتعل تكلفة إنتاجه أعىل من غريه. وغالبا ما ي ستخدم كمنك ه للطعام وليس كملح للطعام. صوديوم ملح الرقائق يتم إنتاج هذا الملح بواسطة عملية التبخري السطحي ليكون خفيفا للغاية ويهس ل عىل الطاهي عملية حاسب المقدار الالزم لالستخدام. كما يضيف نكهة مقرمشة عىل الطعام. ملح البحر اخلام ينتج هذا الملح عن طريق تبخ ر مياه البحر بشكل طبيعي. وإن لم خيضع لعمليات معاجلة إلزالة شوائبه فستبقى النكهة واللون قويان فيه. ما الفرق هل الملح والصوديوم عنرص واحد ليس متاما فالملح الذي تتناوله يتكون من كلوريد الصوديوم وهو مرك ب كيميايئ يتكون من 40 صوديوم و 60 كلوريد. وغالبا ما يتم تدعيم الملح باليود وهو عنرص غذايئ رضوري لعملية التمثيل الغذايئ. هل حنتاجه مجيعا ي عترب الصوديوم عنرصا غذائيا هاما ولذلك فالقليل منه رضوري للحفاظ عىل ناشط أجاسمنا إذ ياسعد اجلسم عىل القيام بالمهام الهامة التالية: تنظيم السوائل موازنة الكهرل يف اجلسم احلفاظ عىل عمل األعصاب والعضالت نقل اجللوكوز واألمحاض األمينية عرب أغشية اخلاليا ملح كوشري ي ستخدم هذا الملح غالبا يف الطبخ ألنه خال من اليود ومن الهسل إضافته باليد بفضل حباته الكبرية. ملح جبال الهيمااليا يتمزي هذا الملح بلونه الوردي ويأيت من حبريات الملح اليت تبخرت منذ أكث من 250 مليون سنة داخل الكهوف يف باكستان. وهو ملح بغاية النقاوة والنظافة بفضل ابتعاده عن مظاهر التلوث احلديثة. ٩ 8

14 10,300 قضية عالمية اختالفات حضارية مقارنة مقدار استهالك الصوديوم اليومي بالميليغرام بين أنظمة غذائية قياسية حول العالم. )يشير حجم الدائرة إلى مقدار الصوديوم المستهلك( الصني 3250 لقد أصبح موضوع احلد من تناول الصوديوم قضية عالمية نظرا للماشكل الصحية اليت يسبهبا ويرتافق ذلك مع تغري المفاهيم العلمية جتاه الصوديوم برسعة ملحوظة. منظمة الصحة العالمية )WHO( 2006: أوصت المنظمة دول العالم باتباع اسرتاتيجيات فعالة للحد من تناول الصوديوم. كما تشج ع مصانع المواد الغذائية واخلدمات الغذائية عىل اختاذ مبادرات جد ية للحد من الصوديوم يف منتجاهتا. ⁶ اإلطار األورويب لمبادرات احلد من الملح 2009: طو ر برناجما تطوعيا لتخفيض مستويات الملح يف بعض األغذية مبا فهيا وجبات المطاعم ومبا ال يقل عن 16 عىل مدى أربع سنوات. ⁷ الواليات المتحدة: معهد الطب )IOM( 2010: نرش اسرتاتيجيات للحد من اسهتالك الصوديوم إىل أقل من 2300 ملغ يف اليوم وذلك من خالل هنج منس ق يشمل مصانع المواد الغذائية والمطاعم وغريها من مقدمي اخلدمات الغذائية. ⁸ الصني 2006: تتخذ الصني كثريا من اخلطوات للحد من تناول الصوديوم وتشمل دعوة التباع نظام غذايئ حيتوي عىل كمية أعىل من البوتاسيوم ولتقليل نسبة الصوديوم مع تقديم مالعق ملح جمانية من أجل ماسعدة الناس عىل عدم جتاوز احلد الموىص به من الصوديوم والبالغ 2400 ملغ يوميا وزيادة النصاحئ بتناول المزيد من الفواكه واخلرضوات. تشييل : أظهرت حبوث أجرهتا وزارة الصحة التشيلية أن سكان تشييل يتناولون ما معدله 9.8 غ من الملح )3920 ملغ من الصوديوم( يف اليوم الواحد. ونتيجة لذلك تم وضع هدف يقتيض تقليل هذا المعدل إىل 5 غ من الملح يوميا حبلول 10 العام اليابان أسرتاليا بعض المجموعات اليابانية الشمالية اليت حتفظ طعامها باستخدام الملح إيطاليا هولندا فنلندا فرناس المملكة المتحدة كندا أمريكا المملكة المتحدة: وكالة المعايري الغذائية 2006: اقرتحت حتديد مستويات معينة من الصوديوم يف كثري من المواد الغذائية إضافة إىل توجهيات لتناول الوجبات يف المؤساست هبدف تلبية الكمية الموىص هبا يوميا واليت تبلغ 2400 ملغ. ⁹ جنوب أفريقيا قبيلة يانومامو يف غابات الربازيل المطرية 200 الربازيل فزنويال 3427 أغذية تقاوم الصوديوم من المعروف أن الصوديوم قد يؤدي إىل ارتفاع ضغط الدم ولكن بعض األغذية األخرى ميكن أن تاسعد يف خفضه. ومن بني الطرق اليت تاسعد عىل محاية صحتنا هي تناول وجبات غنية بالبوتاسيوم والمعادن وحتتوي عىل كميات قليلة من الدهون. مصادر صحية للبوتاسيوم الفواكه )الموز الكيوي باشن فروت والمشمش( اخلضار اخلرضاء )اخلرشوف الربوكيل أغصان اخلزيران والسباخن( البقوليات )مجيع أنواع البازالء والفاصوليا والعدس( البطاطا البطاطا احللوة الفطر توجهيات منظمة الصحة العالمية 2000 mg ختتلف مصادر الصوديوم وكمياته المسهتلكة عىل حنو واسع يف مجيع أحناء المعمورة. ولكن اسهتالك الصوديوم لدى معظم البلدان واحلضارات والشعوب أعىل بكثري من المقادير الموىص هبا. ٧ 6

15 موضوع هام و جد الصوديوم عىل هذه األرض منذ األزل فلماذا يستمر احلديث عنه إىل يومنا هذا االسهتالك الزائد للملح عىل الرغم من وجود الصوديوم يف كثري من األطعمة الشعبية يف مجيع أحناء العالم إال أن درااست حديثة أظهرت أن تناول )أو رشب( كميات كثرية منه قد يؤدي إىل ماشكل صحية مثل: ارتفاع ضغط الدم ¹ مرض السكري أمراض الكىل هاششة العظام رسطان المعدة ما مدى انتاشر مرض ارتفاع ضغط الدم يعاين كثريون من ارتفاع ضغط الدم ومهنم: أكث من 35 من سكان إنكلرتا ² أكث من 33 من سكان األمريكيتني ³ أكث من 65 من سكان بولندا ⁴ أقل من 6 من سكان المناطق الريفية يف الهند ⁴ التقليل من خماطر الصوديوم تشري بعض الدرااست إىل أن احلد من تناول الصوديوم إىل 400 ملغ يف اليوم أل كث من 10 أعوام قد يؤدي إىل تقليل احتمالية اإلصابة باألمراض التالية: ⁵ أمراض القلب التاجية مبعدل إىل حالة يف السنة السكتة الدماغية مبعدل إىل حالة يف السنة متواجد يف كل مكان ال يشك ل الملح المضاف إىل الطعام أثناء طهيه أو تناوله سوى نسبة قليلة من الصوديوم الذي تسهتلكه أجاسمنا إذ حتتوي الكثري من األطعمة اجلاهزة عىل كمية كبرية من الصوديوم كما قد يتواجد بشكل طبيعي يف كثري من المأكوالت والمرشوبات. صدر الدجاج احلليب قليل الدسم مياه برييري المحار نسبة الصوديوم الطبيعية )يف 100 غ( 63 ملغ 52 ملغ 1 ملغ 392 ملغ باإلضافة إىل استخدام الصوديوم لتعزيز نكهة الطعام يوجد الصوديوم يف كثري من المقادير المستخدمة حلفظ األغذية أو تعزيزها. بيكربونات الصوديوم جلوتومات أحادي الصوديوم بزنوات الصوديوم كازينات الصوديوم سيرتات الصوديوم نرتات الصوديوم فوسفات الصوديوم بروبيونات الصوديوم سكارين الصوديوم ختمري العجني وتعزيز قرمشة المخبوزات تعزيز النكهة مادة حفظ األغذية زيادة السماكة والتماسك التحكم حبموضة المرشوبات الغازية مادة معاجلة يف اللحم مستحلب وموازن مانع تعف ن حميل اصطناعي ٥ 4

16 إهنا مسألة ذوق و صحة قليل من الطباخني فقط قادرون عىل االستغناء عن الملح يف حتضري أهشى الوصفات. نعم إنه يذوب يف الفم فنقع يف غرامه وال نعرفه إال مبسمى الملح ولكن احلقيقة أن هذا المركب المستاسغ هو كلوريد الصوديوم والصوديوم هنا كما يف كثري من المأكوالت والمرشوبات مصدر للعديد من الماشكل الصحية. وجدت منظمات الصحة يف مجيع أحناء العالم ترابطا وثيقا بني اإلفراط يف تناول الصوديوم والمخاطر اليت نواجهها من ارتفاع ضغط الدم وأمراض القلب والسكتة الدماغية لذا ينصحون بتقليل مقدار تناول الصوديوم. بل إن بعض المنظمات حتث عىل عدم اإلكثار من تناول الطعام يف المطاعم وغريها ولكن كثريا من الناس جيدون هذا احلل صعب التطبيق لذلك ينبغي علينا أن نكث ف جهودنا إلجياد طريقة بديلة تلب تطلعاهتم.. أال وهي التلذ ذ بتناول وجبة قليلة الصوديوم خارج المزنل حبيث تريض أحاسيهسم الذوقية ومتطلباهتم الصحية. حتقيق التوازن أصبح المسهتلكون أكث وعيا لمخاطر الصوديوم وهذا ما قد يغري طريقة تناولهم للطعام. فقد أوضح تقرير صادر مؤخرا عن معهد التسويق الوطين أن ما يقرب من 42 من المسهتلكني يرغبون بتقليل نسبة الصوديوم يف طعامهم وأن حوايل 50 يتحققون من نسبة الصوديوم عىل غالف المواد الغذائية. ولكن هذا ال يعين أن نستغين عن الصوديوم بشكل هنايئ. فها هو الكاتب مارك بيرتمان يقول يف جممل حدثيه عن المعدن األ كث أهمية يف الطعام عىل مستوى العالم أن استخدام الملح بطريقة صحيحة»رمبا يكون واحدا من أهم مهارات الطهي عىل اإلطالق«. ورغم أن إضافة الملح يف كثري من األحيان أمر هسل ورسيع إلضفاء نكهة لذيذة إال أن إضافة مقادير أخرى قد تكون أكث متعة لدى حتضري وجبة هشية. يف احلقيقة خيتلف استخدام نوع الملح باختالف المناطق والوصفات فالعديد من الطهاة يفضلون استخدام ملح كوشري أو الملح البحري يف الطهي أو الملح اخلشن الغين بطعمه وتركيبته كلمسة هنائية عىل أطباقهم. وقد يتم أيضا إضافة الملح إىل احللويات مثل آيس كريم الكراميل المملح أو قطع البسكويت المملحة والمغطاة بالشوكوالتة. أما بالنسبة للوجبات اجلاهزة فهناك الكثري من األسباب لالحتفاظ بالملح ضمن حاجياتك. والهدف.. استخدام الملح بصورة مدروسة توازن بني النكهة وجودة الطعام وتراقب مستويات الصوديوم يف الطعام. هل يعترب الملح البحري صحيا أكث من غريه ينترش لدى الكثريين تصور أن بإمكاهنم استخدام ملح البحر بكميات أقل واحلصول عىل ذات الطعم يف نفس الوقت. ولكن التجارب أثبتت خطأ هذا المعتقد إذ أن استخدام كمية أقل من ملح البحر يؤدي إىل ملوحة أقل يف الطعام كما هو احلال مع أي نوع آخر من الملح. هل l تعلم يشك ل الملح رضورة بيولوجية للحيوانات والبرش وله تارخي طويل وهام عىل المستوى الثقايف ويف فنون الطهي. ٣ 2

17 l l l nutripro مجلة التغذية من نستله بروفيشنال حق ق التوازن بين الطعم والصحة الصوديوم قضية عالمية تعر ف على خفايا األمالح الصوديوم حان وقت تغيري المفاهيم

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