1 World History and Geography to 1500 A.D. Unit VII Eastern Hemisphere Trade
2 During the Medieval Period (500 to 1500 A.D.), several major trading routes developed in the Eastern Hemisphere. These trading routes connected the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia.
3 Major trade patterns of the Eastern Hemisphere from 1000 to 1500 A.D. (see map): The Silk Roads crossed Asia and reached all the way to the Mediterranean basin. They connected China, India, and the Eastern Mediterranean.
4 Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean connected Asia to Africa.
5 Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa connected the Niger River valley to the Mediterranean basin.
6 Northern European links with the Black Sea allowed Europe to connect with markets in Asia. The Black Sea region was a crossroads between Europe and Asia.
7 Western European sea and river trade created connections between European cities.
8 South China Sea and the lands of Southeast Asia were connected by maritime routes.
9 Where were the major trade routes in the Eastern Hemisphere from 1000 to 1500 A.D. (C.E.)?
10 Regional trade networks and long-distance trade routes in the Eastern Hemisphere aided the diffusion and exchange of technology and culture between Europe, Africa, and Asia.
11 Goods: Gold from West Africa
12 Spices from lands around the Indian Ocean
13 Textiles from India, China, the Middle East, and later Europe
14 Porcelain from China and Persia
15 Amber, from the Baltic region, was used to make jewelry and other ornaments.
16 Technology: Paper, from China, diffused through the Muslim world to Byzantium and Western Europe.
17 Waterwheels and windmills from the Middle East became important labor saving technologies as they diffused into Europe. Wind and water power could be used to grind grain into flower.
18 Navigation technology like the compass from China, and the lateen sail from the Indian Ocean region would make long distance sea travel possible.
19 Ideas: Spread of religions across the hemisphere Buddhism from China to Korea and Japan Hinduism and Buddhism from India to Southeast Asia Islam into West Africa, Central and Southeast Asia
20 Printing and paper money from China
21 How did trade facilitate the diffusion of goods and ideas among different cultures?
22 African Civilizations Geography African civilizations developed in Sub- Saharan west and east Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa refers to parts of the African continent south of the Sahara Desert.
23 African geography includes a broad range of environments that can make life there difficult.
24 Most of the African coastline is narrow and has few harbors. It is difficult to travel to the interior of the continent by boat.
25 Deserts: Sahara (north) Kalahari (south)
26 Dense rain forests make agriculture and development difficult.
27 Savannas (grassy plains) cover 40% of the continent.
28 Mediterranean climates are found on the northern coast and southern tip on Africa.
29 African Civilization Trade brought important economic, cultural, and religious influences to African civilizations from other parts of the Eastern Hemisphere.
30 States and empires flourished in Africa during the medieval period, including Ghana, Mali, and Songhai in west Africa, Axum in east Africa, and Zimbabwe in southern Africa.
31 East African Kingdom of Axum Geography Axum was located on the upper Nile River near the Ethiopian Highlands of East Africa.
32 The kingdom of Axum was made up of many people groups, and they conquered their Nubian neighbors who also lived on the upper Nile.
33 Access to the Red Sea and the Nile, gave connected Axum to trade from across the Eastern Hemisphere. Merchants of Axum traded with Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India and the Roman Empire.
34 Religion Christianity also diffused into Axum when king Ezana became a Christian and made it the official religion.
35 The establishment of Christianity was the longest lasting achievement of Axum. Today, Ethiopia is home to millions of Christians.
36 West African Kingdoms Geography Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires were on the Niger River, south of the Sahara Desert.
37 Trans-Saharan Trade The gold salt trade was the most important on the Trans-Saharan trade routes across North Africa.
38 Gold was mined in the forest region around the Niger River and was traded for salt from the Sahara Desert.
39 Religious Influences The native African religion of Animism was practiced early in West African history. Animism is a diverse religion that honors spirits believed to be present in animals, plants, and other natural objects.
40 Islam diffused to West Africa along the Trans Saharan gold salt trade routes. Islam spread through trade, rather than conquest, through Sub- Saharan Africa. Many people who converted to Islam blended their new faith with Animistic practices. Mansa Musa is an example of a prosperous Islamic king of Mali.
41 Trading Cities The cities of Timbuktu and Gao grew along the Niger River of West Africa to facilitate Trans Saharan trade. Timbuktu and Gao were centers of trade and Islamic learning. Timbuktu attracted Muslim doctors, judges, religious leaders, and scholars to its mosques and universities.
42 East African Coast and Southern Trading Centers By 1100, port cities on the east coast of Africa were growing in population and wealth. Muslim and African culture blended in these cosmopolitan trade centers.
43 Raw materials from Africa included: ivory gold leopard skins
44 Products sold in Africa: porcelain bowls (China) jewels (India) cotton cloth (India)
45 Great Zimbabwe Gold and ivory that enriched the coastal cities came from the interior of Southern Africa. The Shona people of southeastern Africa established the city of Great Zimbabwe on an important trade route.
46 Geography of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe was located on a fertile, well watered plateau. The region was between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers.
47 Trade Empire Between 1200 and 1400, the city of Great Zimbabwe was the capital of an empire built on the gold trade. Leaders of Zimbabwe taxed the traders who traveled the region.
48 The city of Great Zimbabwe was the economic, political and religious center of its empire. The walled city covered many acres. The population was more than 10,000.
49 By 1450, Great Zimbabwe was abandoned. Possibly because resources in the area had been exhausted.
50 What were the characteristics of civilizations in sub-saharan Africa during the medieval period?
51 Geography Japanese Civilization Japan is made up of a 4,000 island archipelago located off the coast of China and Korea. An archipelago is a large group or chain of islands.
52 The Japanese archipelago consist of four main islands. Honshu Hokkaido Kyushu Shikoku
53 The Japanese islands have steep volcanic mountains. Only 12% of the land is suitable for farming.
54 Japan s geographic location has shaped the development of its culture. The islands of Japan lie 120 miles from Korea and 500 miles from China.
55 The Sea of Japan or East Sea separates Japan and the Asian mainland. Japan is close enough to China to be influenced by their culture, but far enough away to be safe from invasion.
56 How has Japan s geography influenced its development?
57 Japanese Religion Shinto is an early Japanese religion. Shinto means way of the gods. Shinto is an ethnic religion unique to Japan. Shinto emphasizes the importance of natural features, forces of nature, and ancestors.
58 In Shinto religion, the Japanese emperor and his family were considered direct descendants of the gods. Emperor worship led to a deep loyalty to the state and a belief in Japanese supremacy. (The land was sacred too.)
59 Chinese Cultural Influence on Japan Buddhism Diffuses into Japan Korean travelers first brought Chinese ideas and customs to Japan. In the mid-700s Buddhism was officially accepted in Japan.
60 The teachings of Buddhism were compatible with ancient Shinto practices. Buddhism coexisted with Shinto in Japan and Shinto gods were even worshiped in Buddhist temples. Buddhism helped to shape Japanese aesthetics, politics, literature, philosophy and medicine.
61 Why were Shinto and Buddhism important to the development of Japanese culture?
62 Architecture Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the structures of Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.
63 Written Language The Japanese adopted the Chinese system of writing. Over time, Japanese, and Korea have modified the Chinese characters.
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