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1 Native American Tribes Study Guide Test: JACOBS: Friday, October 1 st REYOR: Tuesday, October 5 th. Name: Date: Vocabulary Migration: moving from one region to another. Ancient Americans migrated to North America when they followed animals from Asia. Nomad: people who do not live in one place people who travel to find food. Western Plains Indians were nomads who followed the buffalo herds. Irrigation: a way of supplying water to crops with streams, ditches, or pipes. The Hopi Indians used irrigation to water their crops. : the type of weather a place has over a long period of time. The climate of the Arctic caused the Inuits to build igloos of ice. Pueblo: means town in Spanish. The Hopi Indians lived in them. The Hopi Indians used adobe clay to make their pueblo houses. Potlatch: a time when people would gather together to share food and gifts. After the wedding, the tribe celebrated with a potlatch dinner. Staple: a main crop used for food. Corn was a staple crop for many Indian tribes. Teepee: a shelter made from buffalo skins and wooden poles. Used when tribes had to move about to different areas. The Nez Perce brought along their teepees to camp in during their hunting trip. Ceremony: a special event, in which people gather to express important beliefs. The elders went to the Bean Dance Ceremony to thank the gods for their abundant crop. Adobe: clay used to build houses in the southwest region. The Hopi used adobe to build their homes.

2 How did Native American tribes use their environment to survive? TRIBE INUIT Arctic Freezing cold temperatures, long winters Ice, snow, ocean Wildlife Seal, whale, fish, caribou Igloos (made from blocks of ice) Meat for food Fur & skin for clothing Bones for tools How did the Inuit Indians use the natural resources of their region to survive? The Inuits lived in the Arctic region, which was very cold. Their land was covered in ice and snow. In order to survive, the Inuits built shelter from blocks of ice to protect them from the arctic winds and low temperatures. They fished for whale, seal, and fish from the ocean, and hunted caribou on land. The Inuits used every part of the animals they hunted and fished. They ate the meat, used the fur and skin for clothing, and the bones to make tools like spears and spoons.

3 KWAKUITL Pacific Northwest Cold winters, mild summers Ocean, rivers, land, forest (wood) Ocean & Rivers Wood (cedar) Food Salmon was main source of food (surplus used for storage) Berries Shredded cedar bark for clothing Villages near the water; built large homes of wood How did the Kwakiutl Indians use the natural resources of their region to survive? The Kwakiutls lived in the Pacific Northwestern region of North America. They experienced cold winter months and warmer and milder summers. They relied on their natural resources in all seasons. During the spring, summer, and fall, the Kwakiutl lived in camps set up along the coast or rivers so that they could fish and gather berries. Their biggest food source was salmon and they had such a surplus that they were able to store salmon away for the winter months. The heavily wooded region provided the Indians with plenty of wood, which they used to build large houses in villages. During winter months, they lived in their villages. Also, because the Kwakiutls not herd animals, they did not have cotton or fur to make clothing. Instead, they learned how to shred the bark of cedar trees for clothing. What important resource did the Kwakiutl catch in rivers? They caught salmon. Spring, summer, fall lived near water for fishing Winter lived in villages What resources did they use to make clothing? They used cedar bark. How did the Kwakiutls spend their time during the winter? They lived off the food they hunted and gathered during the other seasons, and they spent time weaving and holding celebrations.

4 HOPI Southwest Hot, very dry with little rainfall Sticks, stones, clay Irrigation Indians dug long, narrow ditches from rivers to field Adobe style homes made from clay Crops corn (staple), beans, squash Pottery for storage How did the Hopi Indians learn how to use their climate and environment for survival? The Southwest region is very hot and dry with very little rain so the Hopi Indians had to learn how to use their water wisely. The rivers in the region got their water from melting snow. The Hopi Indians used irrigation to water their crops. They dug long ditches from rivers for water to travel from. This helped them grow crops like corn, squash, and beans. They used the clay from the land to build their adobe style homes, which were large and housed many families. They also used clay to make storage containers for their food and tools to eat with. They were the first people to use natural resources in this manner. Why did the Hopi make pots? They made pots to store their food and water in. What were two methods that Hopi Indians used to water their crops? They used irrigation and they planted their corn deep into the earth so that the roots would reach water. Why did the Hopis grow crops instead of hunting and gathering? Probably because the dry climate limited the amount and variety of plants and animals that they could have hunted or gathered. List three ways that Hopi adapted to the dry climate of the Southwest. They built shelters using stones and clay and they irrigated their crops.

5 PAWNEE Eastern Plains Eastern Plains = Plenty of rainfall Wide, open grassland, rivers Farmed Spring & Fall (corn, squash, beans) Hunted Summer & Winter (buffalo) Lodges made of earth, bark, and grass Teepees made from wood poles and buffalo skin Why did the Pawnee Indians farm during certain times of the year and hunt during the other times of the year? During the spring and fall, the Eastern Plains received plenty of rainfall, which made farming easier. During the summer, rainfall was not as frequent and during the winter, temperatures were too cold to grow crops. It was during those times that hunting was required for food and clothing. The Indians used the skin and fur of the buffalo for clothing and for the coverings of their teepees. How might the lives of the Pawnee have been different if they did not have plenty of rain as a natural resource? They may have had to rely on hunting more for food. They may have had to travel more.

6 NEZ PERCE Northwest PLATEAU (between cascades & Seasonal cold winters, mild, warmer summers Rivers, forests, mountains/plateaus Food Traveled along rivers to fish for salmon and gather berries During winter, settled in villages

7 SEMINOLE South Eastern Woodlands Hills, Mountains, Valleys, Plains Rain, forests, ocean, rivers, wildlife, plants Cold winters, warm summers Winter Clothing made from deerskin Warmer homes with walls Summer Clothing made from grass, and other light materials Homes only had a roof Food Hunted deer, rabbits, bear Used plants for food too Settled in one place (cleared forests to plant) How did the Seminoles consider the warmer temperatures in the South when building their homes? They built homes with only a roof to protect them from the rain.

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