African History. Return

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1 Kingdoms of Africa

2 African History Africa produced many great civilizations. During the time of the Middle Ages of Europe, the African kingdoms of Mali, Ghana and Songhai were places of advanced learning and great wealth. Return

3 African History At the time of ancient Egypt, Nubia was a powerful force with an advanced culture. Strong leaders and vast natural resources helped these cultures rule large areas of northern and western Africa for hundreds of years.

4

5 The Kushites (aka Nubians) Between seven and eight thousand years ago, the mastery of farming gave rise to the first civilizations in Africa: Egypt, Nubia, and Axum.

6 The Kushites (aka Nubians) A busy trade in ivory, ebony, frankincense, and leopard skins between Egypt and Nubia to its south developed by 2000 B.C

7 The Kushites (aka Nubians) Little is known about the ancient Kushites because they were geographically isolated and they did not write anything down until late in their history.

8 Nubian Hieroglyphs Shorthand Nubian Hieroglyphs Shorthand I T K N W D

9 The Kushites (aka Nubians) Around 1000 B.C., Nubia freed itself from Egyptian control and became the independent state of Kush.

10 The Kushites (aka Nubians) In 750 B.C., the Kushites conquered Egypt, but the Assyrians, whose iron weapons overmatched the bronze and stone of the Kushites, drove them out of Egypt The Kushites returned to their original lands.

11 The Kushites (aka Nubians) The Kushites provided ivory, gold, ebony, and slaves to the Roman Empire, Arabia, and India in return for such luxury goods as jewelry and silver lamps.

12 THE AFRICAN TRADING EMPIRES

13 What did they trade? Gold and Salt!!!

14

15 Ghana Ghana developed in West Africa between the Niger (NI-jhur) and the Gambia Rivers. It was an important kingdom there from about AD300 to about

16 Ghana The rivers helped Ghana to grow rich because they were used to transport goods and develop trade. Ghana also collected taxes from traders who passed through the kingdom.

17 Ghana The kingdom of Ghana probably began when several clans of the Soninke people of west Africa came together under the leadership of a great king named Dinga Cisse.

18 Ghana Ghana had few natural resources except salt and gold. They were also very good at making things from iron.

19 Ghana Ghanaian warriors used iron tipped spears to subdue their neighbors, who fought with weapons made of stone, bone, and wood.

20 Ghana After 700 AD, the religion of Islam began to spread over northern Africa. Islamic warriors assisted tribes being oppressed by the Ghanains This weakened the great civilization of Ghana

21

22 Mali A powerful king named Sundiata ruled this area from around AD. He led the people in conquering and expanding his kingdom to be as great as Ghana had been.

23 Mali Timbuktu became the capital of Mali.

24 Mali Perhaps the greatest king of Mali was Mansa Musa ( ). He developed the gold and salt trade of Mali and his kingdom became very powerful and rich.

25 Mansa Musa was a Muslim, He built many beautiful mosques or Islamic temples in western Africa.

26 Mali In 1324 Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage ( a journey to a holy place) to Mecca, with 60,000 servants and followers and 80 camels carrying more than 4,000 pounds of gold to be distributed among the poor. Of the 12,000 servants 500 carried a staff of pure gold. This showed his power and wealth to the other people he visited.

27 Mali When Mansa Musa died there were no kings as powerful as he was to follow. The great kingdom of Mali weakened. Eventually a group of people known as Berbers came into the area and other people came up from the south to claim territory that was once part of the kingdom. Although Mali fell, another advanced African kingdom took its place, the kingdom of Songhai.

28

29 This map was created in The same trade routes were used by the merchants of the Songhai kingdom. What kinds of pictures do you see on the map and why do you think the mapmaker put them there?

30 The picture above is one artist s idea of what the great Songhai leader, Sunni Ali might have looked like. Sunni Ali saw that the kingdom of Mali was weakening and he led his soldiers to conquer the area. He began the kingdom of Songhai. He also set up a complex government to rule all the lands he had conquered.

31 Songhai Sunni Ali died in 1492 AD. His son took over the rule of Songhai but he did not accept Islam as a religion. Islam was accepted as a religion by many people in northern Africa.

32 Songhai One of Sunni Ali s generals, named Muhammad Ture, overthrew the new king and made himself king of Songhai. Ture was a follower of Islam (Muslim) and so he made Islam the religion of his kingdom.

33 Songhai Songhai remained a rich and strong kingdom under Muhammad Ture s rule. It had a complex government centered in the city of Gao, and great centers of learning

34 Songhai. But later rulers were not as powerful. In the late 1500s, Morocco invaded Songhai to take its rich trade routes. Moroccans had a new weapon, the gun, and the army of Songhai did not. This led to the fall of Songhai.

35

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Many trade routes crossed the savanna through the region farmed by the Soninke people. The Soninke called their leader Ghana, or war chief.

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