UNIT 5: THE STONE AGE

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1 UNIT 5: THE STONE AGE

2 What is the origin of human beings? What is Prehistory? How many stages are there in Prehistory? What was life like in the Palaeolithic Age? What was life like in the Neolithic Age? When does History begin?

3 CONTENTS 1. Prehistory 2. Origin and evolution of human beings 3. Life in the Palaeolithic Age 3.1. Economy and society 3.2. Skills 3.3. Art 4. The Neolithic Revolution 4.1. Economy and society 4.2. Skills 4.3. Art 5. The Stone Age in Spain

4 1. PREHISTORY Prehistory refers to a long period of time that began with the appearance of the first human being and ended with the discovery of the written word. Bones, tools, utensils, weapons and cave paintings from this era are still survive today. The names of the two prehistoric ages refer to the material of the tools used at the time.

5 STONE AGE METAL AGE Palaeolithic ( Old stone ) Neolithic ( New stone ) - They began to use metals to make tools - From the first human - From the B.C. to and weapons. being (2.5 mill.) to B.C. - Some communities B.C. approximately. started to write but the approximately. - They used tools made of way of life was - They used tools made of polished stone. Neolithic. carved stone.

6 2. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN BEINGS

7 CHARLES DARWIN The Origin of Species (1859) CREATION EVOLUTION

8 2. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS The upper primates who walked upright and all their descendants, including human beings, are known as hominids. These primates evolved (through a process called hominization) until they had some of the characteristic features of humans today: Have a more developed brain Think and use language Have the ability to make tools and utensils.

9 WHERE?

10 RIFT VALLEY

11 2. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS

12 2. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS

13 2. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS

14 2. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS

15 2. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS

16 2. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS

17

18

19 ACTIVITIES 1. Match the words with the physical features in the picture and complete the text.

20 ACTIVITIES 2. Match the information with the correct species

21 ACTIVITIES 3. Are the following sentences true or false? Correct the false ones.

22 4. Complete the sentences ACTIVITIES

23 ACTIVITIES 5. Read the text and answer the questions

24 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY What was the climate like?

25 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY What was the climate like? Some very cold periods where large parts of the planet were permanently covered in ice. There were also milder periods

26 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY What did people eat?

27 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY What did people eat? Humans were predators: they lived from hunting and fishing. They used the whole animal: meat, fat, milk, hide, etc. There also gathered wild fruit, eggs, honey, etc. In other words, they consumed nature s products but they did not replace them.

28 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY Where did they live?

29 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY Where did they live? They were nomads: they did not always live in the same place. When the resources ran out in one place, they moved to another to find food. They lived in caves or shelters made of leaves, branches, the skin and bones of animals, and stones. The shelters were grouped to form camps.

30

31 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY Where did they live? Twenty to thirty people lived together in groups known as hordes. Sometimes, various hordes formed a groups called a tribe.

32 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY What was society like?

33 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY What was society like? There was a hierarchy within each group. Some individuals were more important than others: the strongest warrior, the wisest old man and the sorcerer or witch doctor, who knew the properties of plants.

34 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY What did they believe in?

35 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY What did they believe in? We know they had certain religious beliefs from the fact that they buried their dead. They deified the forces of nature (lightening, rain, sun), all of which they needed, admired or feared.

36 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE SKILLS

37 Chopper

38

39

40

41

42 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE SKILLS

43 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE SKILLS

44 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ART The earliest expressions of art are cave paintings. WHERE DID THEY PAINT? On rocks On ceiling and wall caves WHAT DID THEY PAINT? Animals: mammoths, bison, deer, lynxes, wild boar and horses

45 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ART CHARACTERISTICS OF PAINTINGS?

46 Lascaux, France

47 Altamira, Cantabria

48 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ART Characteristics of paintings: Standing alone Very realistically Colours obtained in different ways: o Red from iron or blood o Black from coal o Ochre and Yellow from the earth and plants

49 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ART Characteristics of paintings: Used the protruding parts of the rock to give an impression of relief. Paint applied with the fingers Also they had brushes made of animal hair and spatulas.

50 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ART WHY DID THEY PAINT?

51 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ART There are various theories explaining rocks painting: Humans painted animal because they believed that by painting them, they would be able to hunt them more easily. They needed to express themselves through painting. They simply wanted to express what they had seen.

52 They also made 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ART Batons: small carved pieces of bone and horn in the shape of the head of a horse or a deer.

53 They also made 3. LIFE IN THE PALAEOLITHIC AGE ART Venus statues: little statues of women made of ivory, stone or bone. They are considered fertility symbols, as they feminine physical features are very exaggerated.

54 Willendorf Venus Lespugue Venus

55 ACTIVITIES 1. Match the verbs and nouns to describe the different activities people did.

56 ACTIVITIES 2. Use the verbs to complete the sentences: carved, painted, moved, gathered, used, shared, hunted, buried, defended.

57 3. Answer the questions: ACTIVITIES

58 ACTIVITIES 4. Read the text and answer the question:

59 ACTIVITIES 5. Match each noun with the correct description:

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