Eastern Hemisphere African Empires

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1 Eastern Hemisphere African Empires

2 Eastern Hemisphere in the Middle Ages Europe Asia Africa India

3 Background: During the Medieval Period several major trade routes developed in the Eastern Hemisphere. These trading routes developed among Europe, Africa, & Asia.

4 Major trade routes (1000 to 1500 AD/ CE) Silk Roads across Asia to the Mediterranean Basin Maritime (ocean) routes across the Indian Ocean Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa Northern European links with the Black Sea Western European Sea and River trade South China Sea and Lands of Southeast Asia

5 Silk Roads across Asia to the Mediterranean Basin

6 Maritime (ocean) routes across the Indian Ocean Spices Traded *MARITIME Routes in Blue

7 Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa Gold and Salt Traded

8 Northern European links with the Black Sea Modern Day

9 Western European Sea and River trade

10 South China Sea and Lands of Southwest Asia

11 Goods, Technology, Ideas What is important about the trade routes? Regional trade networks and long-distance trade routes in the Eastern Hemisphere helped or aided the diffusion and exchange of technology, goods, ideas, and culture between Europe, Africa and Asia.

12 Goods Textiles-India, China, the Middle East, and later Europe Spices- lands around the Indian Ocean Porcelain- China and Persia Amber- Baltic Regions (Northern Europe) Gold- West Africa

13 What technology is being adapted? Where from? Paper- from China through the Muslim world to Byzantium and Western Europe Waterwheels- (Rome, China) and windmills (NW Europe, Middle East) Navigation Compass from China, lateen sail from Indian Ocean

14 What religions are being spread? Buddhism from China to Korea and Japan Hinduism and Buddhism from India to S.E. Asia Islam into West Africa, Central and Southeast Asia Other ideas? Printing and paper money from China

15 African civilizations developed in sub-saharan West and East Africa States and Empires that flourished in Africa during the Medieval Period: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai in West Africa Axum in East Africa Zimbabwe in Southern Africa

16 Ghana, Mali, and Songhai in West Africa

17 Axum in East Africa Zimbabwe in Southern Africa

18 What influenced these African Empires the most? Trade brought important economic, cultural and religious influences to African civilizations from other parts of the Eastern Hemisphere.

19 Axum Location? Near the Ethiopian Highlands and the Nile River Unique? Christian kingdom

20

21 Zimbabwe Location relative to the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers On coast of the Indian Ocean City of Great Zimbabwe as capital of a prosperous (rich) empire

22 Great Zimbabwe- stone houses CE -near important trade routes -Land was great for farming -raised cattle -gold and ivory -taxed traders -Religion is important part of society -religious center- ancestry worship

23 Zimbabwe Video 3 min 8&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_saf ety_mode=1&safe=active A student project but very informative

24 Abdalla video West African Kingdoms Videos Ghana, Mali and Songhai 1. Ghana 2. Mali 3. Songhai

25 Ghana CE - Used iron - Taxed traders - Arab traders brought Islam and set up trading posts. - Arab traders risk traveling to West Africa for gold in exchange for salt.

26 Mali Salt mines be.com/watch?v=m Z1eQ99Triw -Mandika people -Participated in gold trade -Expanded to northern and western coast of Atlantic ocean. -Size of western Europe -Accepted Islam and spread it Timbuktu Islamic center.

27 Songhai - Took over weak Mali - Millions speak language - Traditions are passed down - Islam dominant

28 West African Kingdoms- Ghana, Mali, Songhai empires What geographical features were they near? Location relative to Niger River and the Sahara Desert Two important goods? gold and salt to trans-saharan trade What was the major city? Timbuktu

29 West African Kingdoms City of Timbuktu as center of trade and learning Video on Timbuktu: watch?v=d6wkaiezxgo& feature=related&safety_mo de=true&persist_safety_m ode=1&safe=active

30 Video Notes Timbuktu Mansa Musa- gave away gold, lots to Cairo. He used his wealth to spread Islam. Built Mosques and brought Muslim scholars Became the Islamic center of trade.

31 Salt be.com/watch?v=j vnu0v6hcuo The 14th century the city of Timbuktu in West Africa was five times bigger than the city of London, and was the richest city in the world. Mansa Musa, was the emperor of the 14th century Mali Empire. His procession reportedly included 60,000 men, including 12,000 slaves who each carried 4 lb of gold bars and heralds dressed in silks who bore gold staffs, organized horses, and handled bags. The animals included 80 camels which each carried lb of gold dust. Musa gave the gold to the poor he met along his route. Musa not only gave to the cities he passed on the way to Mecca, including Cairo and Medina, but also traded gold for souvenirs. It was reported that he built a mosque every Friday. At the time of his death in 1331, Mansa Musa was worth the equivalent of 400 billion dollars(?). At that time Mali Empire was producing more than half the

32 What other things influenced West African Kingdoms? Role of animism and Islam Animism spirits in animals, plant, natural forces, that play in important role in regulating daily life

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