Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations

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1 Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations 9 CHAPTER 1 : FROM HUMAN PREHISTORY TO EARLY CIVILIZATIONS

2 Overview Prehistory: period before writing History: period after invention of writing, allowed communities to record & store info. Basic development: Hunting and foraging Agriculture Complex society (Major development of first complex societies 3500 B.C.E. 500 B.C.E.) Key issue: surplus capital

3 Development of Hominids Animals adapt themselves to environment (Evolution) Video: Evolution UM6NOARlO4 Hominids (primate species including humans) adapt environment to themselves Use of tools Language Complex cooperative social structures

4 Fat Boy Slim VIDEO: om/watch?v=ub747ppr mj8

5 Homonids Australopithecus = southern ape Discovery of skeleton AL-288-1, north of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Nicknamed Lucy Homo erectus = upright walking man Neandert(h)als = became extinct Homo sapiens = consciously thinking man Homo sapiens sapiens (that s us!)

6

7 Global Migrations of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

8 Quickwrite: Write for 3 minutes no stopping! Use the map on pp. 8 9 to support the Out of Africa hypothesis.

9 Global Migrations of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

10 Push vs. Pull Factors Push Factors Factors that drive people from their current location Examples: Pull Factors Factors that draw people to a location Examples:

11 11 Migration By 13,000 B.C.E., Homo sapiens had migrated to every part of world Evidence = archaeological finds Sophisticated tools Choppers, scrapers, axes, knives, bows, arrows Cave and hut-like dwellings Use of fire, animal skins Hunted several mammal species to extinction Climatic change may have accelerated process

12 Paleolithic Society Paleolithic Era = Old Stone Age Hunting-gathering peoples NO individual accumulation of property or social distinctions based on wealth = egalitarian existence. Social distinction based on age, strength, courage, virility/fertility Neanderthals in Paleolithic age

13 Hunting and gathering Hunting and gathering (foraging) lifestyle = Egalitarian Equal contribution Men (hunters) - Provides meat Interdependent Live in small bands (more efficient) Women (gatherers) - Provides plants, fruits, nuts, roots Exploit env. systematically (seasonal migrations) Hunt with purpose & use brain Development of weaponry, animal-skin disguises, stampeding tactics (Lighting of fires, etc., to drive game into kill zones)

14 14 Creativity of Homo sapiens Able to accumulate/transmit info. Sewing Beads, necklaces Sculptures Fish for added food Adv. tools for hunting Cave paintings (animals & humans) Bow and arrow a dramatic improvement in humans power over nature Venus figurines shows evidence of worship 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

15 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15

16 Mesolithic Era Middle Stone Age Improved tools (rafts, etc.) Domestication of animals Increased conflict Video: Domestication of dogs

17 Cause and Effect: Neolithic Revolution Neolithic Revolution

18 Neolithic Era Agriculture became way to sustain life through continuous food source before McDonalds. New Stone Age Beginning of agriculture Agriculture = cultivating of plants and animals (aka farming) Distinction in tool production Chipped vs. polished Relied on cultivation for subsistence Men: herding animals rather than hunting Women: nurturing vegetation rather than foraging Effects of spread of agriculture Slash-and-burn techniques Exhaustion of soil promotes migration Diffusion of crops

19 Early Agriculture 10,000 2,000 B.C.E.

20 Origins and Early Spread of Agriculture

21 Agriculture and Change Most important change = population explosion

22 Agriculture and Population Growth , The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

23 Agriculture and Change Neolithic Settlements Agricultural economy and increasing population led to new forms of social organization. Settled in permanent villages Earliest known = Jericho in present-day Israel (before 8000 B.C.E.) w/ 2,000 ppl. Concentration of many people in villages led to specialization of labor - with food surplus, some people did other work. Çatal Hüyük (modern-day Turkey) B.C.E. 5,000 people Made pots, baskets, textiles, leather, stone/metal tools, jewelry, etc.

24 Çatal Hüyük A reconstruction of the first city in the world, Catal Huyuk, Anatolia, present day Turkey. This city flourished from about 6250 BCE to 5400 BCE, and was excavated in part in The rectangular shape of the buildings: as there is no readily available stone to build defensive walls, the buildings were made to face inwards, with no windows on the outside. The only entrance to the city was through ladders leading onto the roofs of the outside buildings. The streetless city offered a high degree of protection from outside attackers in this way - if under attack, the outside ladders were withdrawn, and any would be attacker was faced with a solid wall and no gate or other weak point.

25 Agriculture and Change Specialization of Labor Pottery (needed to store/cook food) Metallurgy Copper (jewelry/tools) BCE Bronze 3000 BCE Iron 1500 BCE Textile (domesticated plants/ animals for better fiber) Mostly women Social Distinctions Accumulated wealth Neolithic pottery, excavated from Yung Long & Tuen Mun (Hong Kong) Trade surplus food/manufactured goods for gems, jewelry Ownership of land (privatization) = economic power (especially for families who passed down wealth)

26 Multi Flow Map: Cause and Effect Neolithic Revolution Neolithic Revolution

27 Neolithic Villages vs. Cities Cities cities = larger, more complex than villages (i.e. governors, administrators, tax collectors to run city & priests to transmit values/traditions) cities influenced political, economic, & cultural life of larger region (i.e. political = extending authority/military power, economic = marketplaces/trading, cultural = schools/temples to spread traditions/values)

28 Neolithic Culture Science Neolithic people observed natural world to ensure good harvest. Learned weather was based on position of sun, moon and stars (early calendar system) Religion Worshipped Venus figurines to ensure fertility Celebrated/worshipped other deities associated w/ cycle of life death regeneration (for humans and harvests)

29 Agriculture begins Origins of Civilization Population increases Villages form (near water source) Specialization of labor Social classes emerge Cities are born Civilization begins

30 Agriculture and Resistance to Change Many hunter-gathering societies resisted farming Southern Africa Australia (Aborigines) Islands of SE Asia Northern Japan N. America (combined with seasonal farming) Central Asia (Mongols) Why? Agriculture became most important economic system, but not only one Hunting gathering and nomadic herding continued

31 Characteristics of Nomadic Societies Nomadic societies commonly referred to as barbarians Few records exist Violent lifestyle Outstanding fighters (reputation for cruelty) hospitable Often peaceful, beneficial relationship with settled agricultural societies Seasonal travel (weather, food, etc.) Male dominated society (some women held important positions, even fought) Valued courage, heroism Major nomadic peoples: Indo- Europeans, Hittites, Xiongnu (Huns)

32 Compare and Contrast: Double Bubble Map Paleolithic Era vs. Neolithic Era Paleolithic Era Neolithic Era

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