Chapter 1 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section One Early Humans (pages 19 25

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1 Due Date: I. PREHISTORY 1. Define prehistory: A. Archaeology and Anthropology 1. Define archaeology: Chapter 1 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section One Early Humans (pages Name: 2. Define artifacts: 3. Define anthropology: II. EARLY STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT A. From Homonids to Homo Sapiens 1. Define hominids: 2. Where and how long ago did the first hominids appear on earth? 3. Define Homo erectus: 4. How was homo erectus different from earlier hominids? 5. Identify the two distinct groups of Homo sapiens: B. The Spread of Homo Sapiens Sapiens 1. What happened to the Neanderthals? 2. Who are the descendants of the Homo sapiens sapiens? III. THE HUNTER-GATHERERS OF THE OLD STONE AGE 1. Define Paleolithic Age: Neanderthals Homo Sapiens Sapiens A. The Paleolithic Way of Life 1. How did early humans feed themselves and their families? 2. Define nomads:

2 B. The Roles of Men and Women 1. Using the table below, describe the roles of men and women in the Paleolithic Age Roles of Men Roles of Women C. The Use of Fire 1. Explain how humans used fire in the Paleolithic Age as a tool, and what it allowed them to accomplish. D. The Ice Ages 1. During the last Ice Age (ending about 10,000 years ago), how were humans able to survive in the colder climates of northern Europe, Asia, and North America? E. Creating Art 1. Why some do historians believe early humans spent a great deal of effort creating remarkably realistic animal paintings on cave walls in places like Lascaux, France?

3 Chapter 1 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Two The Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization (pages 27 31) I. THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION 1. Define Neolithic Revolution: 2. How did systematic agriculture (farming) and the domestication of animals change the ways humans fed themselves? A. The Growing of Crops 1. Identify where the following early crops were first grown systematically: Southwest Asia (The Middle East): Southeast Asia : Mesoamerica (South America and Central America) : B. Neolithic Farming Villages 1. What did growing crops on a regular basis allow humans to do? 2. During the Neolithic Age, a settlement like Catal Huyuk (in modern day Turkey) would be considered large for the time. What was the estimated population of this early settlement? 3. Why were some people able to perform jobs (like making jewelry or weapons) other than farming in these early villages? C. Consequences of the Neolithic Revolution 1. Summarize how the development of systematic farming has changed the way people live for the last 10-12,000 years. 2. Explain how systematic farming RADICALLY changed the relationship between men and women. D. The End of the Neolithic Age 1. What innovation in tool making marked the end of the Neolithic Age? 2. How had small farming villages changed by the end of the Neolithic Age?

4 I. THE EMERGENCE OF CIVILIZATION 1. Take a look at the 6 basic characteristics of a civilization. Do you believe that you can have a (complex) civilization without one or more of these characteristics? Yes or No? EXPLAIN why. A. The Rise of Cities 1. Where did the first civilizations develop? AND why do you believe people settled in those particular places? B. The Growth of Governments 1. Why did early civilizations create governments? What services/roles did they perform for early civilizations? C. The Role of Religion 1. What roles did religions play in early civilizations? What purpose did they serve? D. A New Social Structure 1. Social structure simply means, haves, have nots, and everyone in between. This is measured in terms of power, wealth, and prestige (respect). Rank the following groups from TOP TO BOTTOM in the early river valley civilizations: Farmers, artisans, crafts people Slaves Rulers, priests, government officials, and warriors E. The Use of Writing 1. What was writing used for? This is the only reason it was invented F. Artistic Activity 1. What kind of art (INCLUDING ARCHITECTURE) was produced and developed in early civilizations?

5 I. THE IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHY 1. Mesopotamia is Greek for between two rivers. Which two rivers supported the Mesopotamian civilizations? 2. What allowed the people of Mesopotamia to control the irregular flooding that occurred along the two rivers? II. THE CITY-STATES OF ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA 1. Define the term city states: A. Sumerian Cities 1. What did the ancient Sumerians build their walled-cities with? B. Gods, Goddesses, and Rulers 1. Define ziggurat and explain what these buildings were devoted to: 2. Define theocracy: 3. Where did Sumerians believe the power of their king to rule over others came from? C. Economy and Society 1. Where did the Mesopotamians trade in the east? Where did they trade in the west? 2. Complete the figure below describing the Sumerian social structure: Sumerian Social Structure Nobles included the following people: Commoners included the following people: Slaves performed which tasks?

6 II. EMPIRES IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA 1. Sargon led a group of people known as the Akkadians, and was the first to do what in human history? 2. Define empire: 3. Who was the leader of Babylon, a city that rose to create a new empire after the fall of the Akkadian Empire? III. THE CODE OF HAMMURABI 1. Describe the penalties for criminal offenses. 2. Under the code, what would happen to city officials who failed to perform their duties? 3. Define patriarchal: 3. How were women not well protected by the Code of Hammurabi? IV. THE IMPORTANCE OF RELIGION 1. Define polytheistic: V. THE CREATIVITY OF THE SUMERIANS A. Writing and Literature 1. Define cuneiform: 2. What did early Mesopotamians use writing for? 3. Why is writing important for a civilization? B. Sumerian Technology 1. List some of the most important inventions the Sumerians created:

7 Chapter 2 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Two Egyptian Civilization: The Gift of the Nile (pages 45 53) I. THE IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHY 1. Along which river was the ancient Egyptian civilization located? 2. What made Egypt relatively safe, secure and free of the regular invasions that occurred in Mesopotamia? II. THE IMPORTANCE OF RELIGION 1. What does the resurrection myth of Osiris symbolize? III. THE COURSE OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY 1. What was characteristic of Egypt s three major periods Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom? A. The Old Kingdom 1. What made the pharaohs of Egypt more than just a king/queen? 2. Who helped the pharaohs rule over such a large civilization? B. The Pyramids 1. What was the purpose of the pyramids in Egypt? Pharoah C. The Middle Kingdom 1. This period is known as the golden age of Egyptian civilization. What accomplishments were made during this time? D. The New Kingdom 1. What allowed the Hyksos to defeat the Egyptians? 2. What allowed the Egyptians to drive out the Hyksos after almost 100 years of their rule?

8 3. After the collapse of the New Kingdom, what became of the Egyptian civilization? SUMMARIZE! IV. SOCIETY IN ANCIENT EGYPT 1. Describe the Egyptian social structure: Egyptian Social Structure Pharaoh Who would have belonged in the upper class? Who would have belonged to the middle class? Who was the largest group in Egyptian society? V. DAILY LIFE IN ANCIENT EGYPT 1. Describe the rights and privileges women had in Egypt. VI. WRITING AND EDUCATION 1. In Egypt, who went to school to learn to read and write? VII. ACIEVEMENTS IN ART AND SCIENCE 1. Which developments in Egyptian art (including architecture) and science do you find the most significant?

9 I. THE ROLE OF NOMADIC PEOPLES Chapter 2 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section 3 New Centers of Civilization (pages 54-60) 1. What is the MAJOR difference between pastoral nomads and people in settled communities (cities)? 2. What were 3 basic ways in which pastoral nomads and people in cities interacted? 3. What was one of the most important group of nomadic people in the ancient world (the spoke a common language)? II. THE PHOENICIANS 1. What made the Phoenicians so prosperous? 2. What is so significant about the Phoenician alphabet? Where can you find its influence today?

10 III. THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL 1. What religion did the Israelites/Hebrews/Jews follow? 2. Which two religions that developed later were influenced by the religion of the Israelites/Hebrews/Jews? C. The Spiritual Dimensions of Israel 1. Define monotheism: 2. The Jews believed that God had created a set of rules (a contract/covenant) to follow. What was this covenant called? 3. Read over commandments If EVERYONE followed these, would we need many other laws, police, or courts? 3. What are the two MAIN differences between Judaism, and other religions of western Asia (Middle East) and Egypt?

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