The Arrival of the Spanish. Mexico 1519 Peru 1526

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1 The Arrival of the Spanish Mexico 1519 Peru 1526

2 The strangers bodies are completely covered, so that only their faces can be seen. Their skin is white, as if it were made of lime. They have yellow hair, though some of them have black. Their beards are long and yellow, and their moustaches are also yellow. Their hair is curly, with very fine stands. Their trappings and arms are all made of iron. They dress in iron and wear iron casques on their heads. Their swords are iron; their bows are iron; their shields are iron; their spears are iron. They have deer without antlers. Their deer carry them on their backs wherever they wish to go. These deer, our lord, are as tall as the roof of a house. As for their food, it is like human food. It is large and white, and not heavy. It is something like straw, but with the taste of a cornstalk, of the pith of a cornstalk. It is a little sweet, as if it were flavored with honey; it tastes of honey, it is sweet-tasting food.

3 "there was a mountain range or small mountain floating in the midst of the water, and moving here and there without touching the shore. My lord, we have never seen the like of this, although we guard the coast and are always on watch. A thing like a ball of stone comes out of its entrails: it comes out shooting sparks and raining fire. The smoke that comes out with it has a pestilent odor, like that of rotten mud. This odor penetrates even to the brain and causes the greatest discomfort. If it is aimed against a mountain, the mountain splits and cracks open. If it is aimed against a tree, it shatters the tree into splinters. This is a most unnatural sight, as if the tree had exploded from within.

4 People/Terms Galleon: Spanish war ships used to carry troops and supplies across the Atlantic Conquistador: Term used to describe the Spanish conquerors and explorers of the 16th century (1500s) Hernan Cortes: Spaniard who conquered the Aztecs ( ) Francisco Pizarro: Spaniard who conquered the Inca ( ) Malinche: Native American, she served as Cortes' interpreter during his campaign against the Aztecs

5 Aztecs vs Cortes Cortes arrived in 1519 with 508 men and 16 horses Gathered allies from the many tribes who were treated harshly by the Aztec Empire. Moctezuma (Montezuma) welcomed Cortes, unsure whether this new arrival from the East was actually Quetzalcoatl, an Aztec God destined to return that year. After entering the city, the vastly outnumbered Cortes took Montezuma hostage.

6 Quickly, Montezuma began to lose influence with his people, and was killed by the Spanish. After the death of Montezuma, the Spanish attempted to flee the city at night, but were discovered and attacked by vengeful Aztecs. 1/3 of the Spanish made it out of the city, the rest were killed or drowned during the escape, or were sacrificed.

7 The Fall of Tenochtitlan After the Spanish escaped from the city, a smallpox epidemic wiped out half the Aztec population. Cortes returned with reinforcements after the disease had run its course and took control of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City)

8 Things the Aztecs had that the Spanish had never seen: Things the Spanish brought that the Aztecs had never seen: Suspension Bridges Horses Vanilla Disease Chocolate Steel Weapons Rubber Immunity to diseases Pyramids Sewage System

9 Inca vs Pizarro Francisco Pizarro arrived in the Inca Empire with 167 men, searching for cities of gold and hoping to find the wealth that Cortes and other Conquistadors had discovered. The Sapa Inca Atahualpa arranged to meet Pizarro and arrived with an unarmed group of priests.

10 Pizarro's men ambushed the Incas, killing most and taking the Sapa Inca hostage. The Sapa Inca, recognizing that the Spanish wanted gold and silver, offered them a room full of treasure in exchange for his life.

11 The Inca kept up their end of the bargain, The Spanish did not. Killed the Sapa Inca, and fled with as much treasure as they could carry. Pizarro used the treasure to raise a larger force, and returned with an army to conquer the now disorganized Inca Empire.

12 Compare and contrast the campaigns of Cortes and Pizarro. Conquistador: Cortes Pizarro Conquered Empire: Fact 1 Fact 2 Fact 3

13 Describe the strategies used by both Pizarro and Cortes during their conquests of the Inca and Aztec Empires. What weapons, tools and/or strategies were most effective during the Spanish conquest of the New World?

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