Guided Notes Mrs. Watts Eastern Hemisphere

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1 Guided Notes Mrs. Watts Eastern Hemisphere

2 China covers an area of nearly 4 million square miles, about the same size as the United States. One of the physical barriers that separates China from its neighbors is a harsh desert, the Gobi Desert. It spreads over much of China s north. East of the Gobi are low-lying plains. These plains, which cover most of eastern China, form one of the world s largest farming regions. China s northeastern and eastern section receive more rain fall

3 Two great rivers flow from west to east in China. 1-The Huang He, or Yellow River, stretches for nearly 3,000 miles across northern China. To the south, the Chang Jiang, or Yangzi River, cuts through central China. It flows from the mountains of Tibet to the Pacific Ocean. The Chang Jiang is the longest river in Asia

4 Because the rivers run east to west, this tells us that the mountain ranges run east to west. Because the rivers descend from the mountains. When the rivers flood it leaves behind silt As a result, people began to grow crops in the rich soil

5 According to ancient stories, a series of kings ruled early China. Around 2200 BC one of them, Yu the Great, is said to have founded the Xia (SHAH) dynasty Writers told of terrible floods during Yu s lifetime. According to these accounts, Yu dug channels to drain the water to the ocean.

6 Archaeologists have not yet found evidence that the tales about the Xia are true. However, the stories of Xia rulers were important to the ancient Chinese because they told of kings who helped people solve problems by working together. The stories also explained the geography that had such an impact on people s lives.

7 The first dynasty for which we have clear evidence is the Shang, which was firmly established by the 1500s BC. Strongest in the Huang He Valley, the Shang ruled a broad area of northern China. Shang rulers moved their capital several times, probably to avoid floods or attack by enemies.

8 Social order in China became more organized during the Shang Dynasty The social order in the Shang dynasty consisted of nobles, artisans, farmers, and slaves Technology advanced during the Shang period

9 Shang writing has been found on thousands of cattle bones and turtle shells. Priests had carved questions about the future on bones or shells, which were then heated, causing them to crack. The priests believed they could read these cracks to predict the future. Another word for prediction is oracle.

10 The Shang were the first people in China to develop a writing system

11 Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other Chinese dynasty. According to the Zhou Kings heaven gave them the power to lead Land ownership was an important part of the Zhou politics.

12 Stated that moral leadership, not laws, would bring order to china. This meant that leaders should act decently and always try to do the right thing Confucius teachings teachings are compiled into a book called The Analects

13

14 The most famous Daoist teacher is Laozi Believed that all people should live in harmony with nature. Daosim shares many similarities with Buddhism in that they both emphasize peace

15 Shi Huangdi was the leader of the Qin Dynasty and named himself first emperor Shi Huangdi had the Great wall of China built for protection. Shi Huangdi was a follower of legalism and he created a government with strict laws

16 The Qin Dynasty practiced Legalism. Which meant strict laws and punishments in order to make people follow the rules. One example or a punishment was making the axle of your cart the wrong length.

17 The Qin Dynasty affected China by making China strengthening China and making China more unified. It did this through the standardization of money and writing system Despite many improvements during the Qin Dynasty, people resent the Qin government because of how harsh it was.

18 Liu Bang was the first emperor during the Han Dynasty and he was one of the first commoners, or a peasant, who rose to become an emperor. He ruled moderately and reasonably. The Han Dynasty is often known as the Golden Age of China

19 Another ruler during the Han Dynasty was Wudi. Wudi implemented Confucianism in the Han Dynasty and this meant honoring ones family was important

20 To create a strong central government, Wudi took land from the Lords and raised taxed. This made the Lords angry because their land was taken away

21 During the Han dynasty, Chinese painters became experts at painting figures Some technology that was improved during this dynasty was the iron plow and wheel barrow which allowed the Chinese to till more land and raise more crops

22 The silk road developed during the Han Dynasty. It was a 4,000 mile long trade route that began in China and ended at the Mediterranean sea. Because of China s trade with Rome, China became wealthy

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