WARM-UP: HUNTER- GATHERERS. What is a hunter-gatherer? Who hunts? Who gathers? What is hunted? What is gathered? How will you get these things?

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1 WARM-UP: HUNTER- GATHERERS What is a hunter-gatherer? Who hunts? Who gathers? What is hunted? What is gathered? How will you get these things?

2 PALEOLITHIC & NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION Societies Begin

3 HOMOSAPIENS EMERGED IN EAST AFRICA BETWEEN 100,000 AND 400,000 YEARS AGO Early Humans were Hunters and Gatherers -whose survival depended on the availability of wild plants and animals.

4 Paleolithic Age Begins with Early Man Paleolithic means Old Stone Age -from crude stone tools of the time.

5 PALEOLITHIC AGE HUNTER-GATHERERS: 1. Nomadic: migrated in search of food, shelter and water -animal migration & vegetation cycles 2. Invented the first tools, including simple weapons Shelter

6 DURING THE OLD STONE AGE 3. Learned how to make and use fire 4. Lived in clans

7 HUNTER-GATHERERS IN PALEOLITHIC AGE 5. Developed oral language -What will a language enable? 6. Created cave art - CroMagnon

8 CAVE ART 1. Most famous is located in France at the Lascaux Caves. 2. Found throughout Australia, Europe and the Americas. 3. May depict: Hunting & daily life Religious Rituals Their surrounding world.

9 SETTLED AGRICULTURE OR FARMING LED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF CIVILIZATION. What major advancement by man led to the advancement of civilization? Settlement,communities

10 NEOLITHIC OR AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION Neolithic means New Stone Age Agricultural Revolution is the change from huntergatherer societies to farming cultures This happened 10,000 years ago or 8,000 BCE

11 HOW DID THIS HAPPEN? REASONS FOR THE CHANGE Climate: Warmer Climates led to crop growth. Rising temperatures worldwide provided longer growing season and drier land for cultivating/ growing plants. Paleolithic- Average temperature = 51 degrees Neolithic- Average temperature = 55 degrees More grain caused a population boom.

12 More mouths to feed societies needed to find lots of food that hunting and gathering did not support. Need for food= Farming! Farming allowed humans to develop permanent settlements and they no longer had to travel for food (nomadic).

13

14 EARLY METHOD OF FARMING Slash and Burn #1 Trees and or grasses are cut down and then burnt. #2 Ashes fertilize the soil. #3 Farmers plant for one or two years, then move to a new space.

15 DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS (AND PLANTS) Domestication = the taming of animals. This was a SLOW process. Some of the first animals to be domesticated included: camels, horses, and pigs Happening at the same time around theworld.

16 FARMING DOMESTICATION OF PLANTS During the Neolithic age across theglobe, agriculture developed with unique crops such as: Corn, Wheat, and Sweet Potatoes

17 Social Consequences of Agriculture Changes because agriculture started: People lived in one place and no longer carried all possessions Farmers could grow more food than they needed. Social Consequences or Results because of Changes: Develop towns, communities, no longer nomadic, stockpile goods, culture develops Develop trading, bartering, specialization, store food, make things/ get jobs, population increase Land and water become valuable economic resources Male warriors competed for land, water, and power. People owned land and water, created conflict or war/ competition, live near water Became leaders- rankings,social classes, rulers, women s power and

18 SO WHAT? The real change in the Neolithic Revolution was that people could shift from hunting and gathering to planned agriculture. Why is this important? People could begin living in villages permanent homes= developedtowns, communities They were no longer nomadic, could stockpile goods They did not have to carry possessions. People could stop spending entire lives following food

19 Farmers could grow more food than they needed. Culture develops Land and water became a valuable economic resource Male warriors competed for land, water, and power.

20 NEOLITHIC AGE HOW IS THIS AGE CHARACTERIZED? 1.Developed agriculture or farming 2.Domesticated Animals 3.Used advanced tools- hand-axes and spears, the WHEEL 4. Made pottery 5. Developed weaving/sewing skills (clothing) 6. More advanced language develops

21 -STONEHENGE IN EN G LA N D WAS STARTED IN THE NEOLITHIC AGE AND FINISHED IN THE BRONZE AGE -ÇATALHÖYÜK IN ANATOLIA/TURKEY IS AN EXAMPLE OF A NEOLITHIC SETTLEMENT CURRENTLY UNDER EXCAVATION BC to 6300 BC Housed up to 6,000 people in Turkey

22 -JERICHO IS A PERMANENT SETTLE- MENT BETWEEN 9,500 AND 9000 B.C. -AS THE WORLD WARMED UP, A NEW CULTURE BASED ON AGR ICULTURE AND SEDENTARY DWELLING BEGAN Aleppo- in modern day Syria. Difficult to excavate because modern cities now sit on top of the sites

23 TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES 1.Plow- domesticated oxen 2.Fertizer- ashes,manure 3.Loom- weaving linen and wool 4.Wheel- transportation 5.Baked clay brickconstruction 6. Calendars- measure the seasons in order to plant.

24 NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION Cave Art Neolithic

25

26 PALEOLITHIC/NEOLITHIC VENN DIAGRAM Come up with at least 5 differences and at least 5 similarities between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age.

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32 Food-hunting /gathering Shelter- caves/not permanent Clothing/Climate-Animal Skins & Colder Temperatures Communication-basic language Technology/Tools-used fire, first tools (wood/stone)/weapons, sewing skills Religion & Art- Cave paintings & burial rites for dead -Lived in Social Groups -Stone tools/weapons -Prehistory -Sewing & Cooking skills -Celebrated Art Food-developed agriculture & domesticated animals Shelter-permanent villages Clothing/Climate-Weaving skills (clothing, Warmer Temperatures Communication-Advanced Language Technology/Tools-wheel, cloth, calendar, advanced stone tools, ax heads, and weaving Religion & Art- pottery & advanced religion

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