SPAIN. Conquistadors. Hernando Cortes VS. The Aztecs. Francisco Pizarro VS. The Incas

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SPAIN. Conquistadors. Hernando Cortes VS. The Aztecs. Francisco Pizarro VS. The Incas"

Transcription

1 Hernando Cortes VS. The Aztecs SPAIN The Aztecs were a Native American civilization that had gained substantial wealth from trading and heavy payments of tribute from conquered peoples. By the time Hernando Cortes of Spain landed in Mexico with his 600 soldiers, the Aztecs were in control of most of present-day Mexico. According to legend, the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, characterized by light skin, red hair, and light eyes, was supposed to return to Earth. This described appearance is very similar to European appearance, and may be why the Aztecs originally greeted the Spaniards with food, gold, and women. The Spaniards, however, approached the Aztecs with an entirely different attitude. They had a strong sense of supremacy and intended to convert the natives to Christianity (specifically Catholic). The Spanish conversion methods were extreme though. The Spaniards gathered the natives together and shouted the essentials of the Bible, oblivious to the fact that the Aztecs did not understand their language. Often if the natives refused to fall to their knees and pray, the Spaniards assumed they were rejecting the word of God and killed or enslaved them. Upon arrival in North America, Cortes founded the colony of New Spain in Mexico, and by November took the Aztec leader, Montezuma, hostage. This event led to an Aztec uprising. The Aztecs drove the Spaniards out of Tenochititlan (Aztec s capital city), but Cortes survived and led the final attacks on Tenochititlan. Throughout the warfare, the Spaniards were aided by the gruesome advantage of disease. It is estimated that threequarters of the native population died of violence or diseases like small pox and measles in just the first century of the conquest. Also, other native tribes helped Cortes due to their own hatred of years of warfare and sacrifice brought by the Aztecs. Finally, the Aztec capital fell on August 13, The Spaniards destroyed the Aztec city, and built Mexico City on top of it. Virtually all of Aztec culture was carelessly destroyed in the conquest. Francisco Pizarro VS. The Incas Conquistadors Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who traveled through much of the Pacific coast of South America along Peru. He "discovered" the Incan empire and conquered it brutally and quickly, stealing immense hoards of gold, silver, and other treasures. Atahualpa, the 13th and last emperor of the Incas, had just won a civil war against his half-brother (Huáscar), and had executed Huáscar and his family. Atahualpa had invited Pizarro to a celebratory feast, thinking that the Spanish were not much of a threat. Pizarro ambushed Atahualpa and killed thousands of his men. Atahualpa offered a huge ransom for his own release, but Pizarro took the treasure and had Atahualpa strangled to death on Aug. 29, 1533 instead; this was the end of the Incan empire. After looting and generally destroying the Incan capital of Cusco, Pizarro founded Lima.

2 FRANCE After explorations that focused mainly around present day Canada and the Great Lakes region, furs from wild animals were brought back to France causing an eruption in demand. The original mission to seek the Northwest Passage, if not forgotten along the way, definitely became secondary to the highly profitable fur trade. It was not long before the British saw how much money was being made by the French in the fur trade. Both British and French were soon sending shiploads of beaver pelts back to Europe. The competition between Britain and France already active in Europe and the colonies became fierce. Both countries wanted to control North America and its resources. The fur trade in North America began with the earliest contacts between Native peoples and Europeans. Native peoples across the continent had long had their own network of trading relationships. The new relationship with the Europeans initially fit into traditional trading patterns. Both Europeans and Native peoples profited during the early years of the trade. Native peoples received new trade goods,such as metal tools, and Europeans received furs and knowledge and technology to help them live and travel in North America s unfamiliar environment. Within a few years of their arrival on the continent, French and British fur traders competed with one another to form trading relationships with Native peoples. From the beginning, the Natives eagerly sought European goods and paid for them in furs (the most desired being beaver furs). Native traders used British French rivalries to their advantage. They frequently demanded, and received, better terms and goods in exchange for a partnership. Many French traders took Native women as wives. Native peoples had a tradition of building alliances with other communities through marriages, so the practice was easily accepted. The fur traders and the companies they worked for also encouraged these relationships. French officials believed the marriages would strengthen friendships and trade with Natives. They hoped that marriage to French men would encourage Native women and their children to adopt French language, religion, and culture in a process known as acculturation. To the surprise and dismay of French authorities, the process of acculturation worked both ways: many of their French traders began adopting Native ways of life. In time, a new culture and people arose from these unions. Fortunes could be made in the fur trade, and competition between companies and traders was fierce. Especially in later years, the drive to beat their competition and increase profits encouraged the use of alcohol as a trade item. Some companies also used alcohol to smooth trade negotiations. The traders began to find that some Native trading partners began to say they had all the trade goods they wanted or needed. Some communities could not see the point in accumulating more. Alcohol, however, was a different kind of trade good. Unlike knives and blankets, it was consumable and addictive. As the fur trade moved into the nineteenth century, alcohol became a significant part of the fur trade. In 1634, Father Paul Le Jeune, a Jesuit priest at Québec, reported the views of a local Native leader on the European desire for beaver pelts: The Beaver does everything perfectly well, it makes kettles, hatchets, swords, knives, bread; in short, it makes everything. The[y] have no sense; they give us twenty knives like this for one Beaver skin.

3 COLUMBUS When Columbus first saw the Native Arawaks that came to greet him and his crew he spoke with a peaceful and admiring tone. They... brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things... They willingly traded everything they owned... They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features... They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane.... They would make fine servants... With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want. After several months in the Caribbean, Columbus, who had otherwise described the Natives as gentle people wrote (they are) evil and I believe they are from the island of Caribe, and that they eat men. He also described them as savage cannibals, with dog-like noses that drink the blood of their victims. Columbus forced the Natives to work in gold mines until exhaustion. Those who opposed were beheaded or had their ears cut off. In the provinces of Cicao all persons over 14 had to supply at least a thimble of gold dust every three months and were given copper necklaces as proof of their compliance. Those who did not fulfill their obligation had their hands cut off, which were tied around their necks while they bled to death some 10,000 died handless. In two years time, approximately 250,000 Indians on Haiti were dead. Many deaths included mass suicides or intentional poisonings or mothers killing their babies to avoid persecution by the conquistadors. According to Columbus, in a few years before his death, Gold is the most precious of all commodities; gold constitutes treasure, and he who possesses it has all he needs in the world, as also the means of rescuing souls from purgatory, and restoring them to the enjoyment of paradise. In addition to putting the Natives to work as slaves in his gold mines, Columbus also sold sex slaves to his men some as young as 9. Columbus and his men also raided villages for sex and sport. In the year 1500, Columbus wrote:... girls; those from nine to ten are now in demand. After a multitude of complaints against Columbus about his mismanagement of the island of Hispaniola, a royal commissioner arrested Columbus in 1500 and brought him back to Spain in chains. Though he was stripped of his governor title, he was pardoned by King Ferdinand, who then payed for a fourth voyage by Columbus.

4 PORTUGAL In 1418, the monarchy of Portugal started to support the expansion of exploration of the world s oceans. Prince Henry The Navigator, started schools for sailors and navigators to support this cause. The Portuguese first focused their attention on the west coast of Africa. Why? They wanted to continue the Crusades, or Holy Wars against the Muslims. They wanted to find GOLD! They wanted to find trade routes to Asia that would bypass the Middle East. Timeline of Exploration Dias explores the west Da Gama goes Cabral coast of Africa around the southern lands in tip of Africa into the modern Indian Ocean. day Brazil Impact! The Portuguese exploration of Africa leads to contact with various African tribes. These tribes sell people from rival tribes to the Portuguese as slaves. This is the beginning of the Transcontinental Slave Trade. The Portuguese were able to take control of sea routes to Asia. This allowed them to cut off the rest of Europe from trade with Asia for a time. In Brazil, natives are forced into slave labor on sugar plantations. Slaves are also forced to convert to Christianity. Finally, European disease is introduced and a huge percentage of the native population dies. Long term impact: The sugar industry continues to be one of Brazil s most important cash crops. The Portuguese language is still widely spoken in Brazil. In 1808, the native Brazilians finally over through the Portuguese controlled government and become and independent nation.

5 NATIVES Aztec Empire - Mexico To be taken over by Cortes of Spain Taino/Arawak People - Caribbean To be taken over by Columbus for Spain A major element of Aztec life was religion. A polytheistic people, they often practiced human sacrifice to please their gods. The people believed that they owed a blood-debt to the gods. So, animals would be sacrificed, as well as humans. Also, there was ritual bloodletting, where people would cut themselves to offer their blood to the gods. We don't know how many were sacrificed over the years - it's possible that some accounts are exaggerated - but it was probably thousands each year. Some estimates claim 20,000 a year. In a sacrifice, the victim would be painted as a part of the ritual, they would be placed on a slab where their heart would be removed and held up to the sun. The body would be thrown down the stairs of the temple/pyramid. The body would be disposed of in various ways, such as feeding animals at the zoo or putting on display (the heads). There are some accounts of cannibalism, but it's uncertain if this was practiced to any great extent. There were other ways that humans would be sacrificed - shot with arrows, drowned, burned, or otherwise mutilated. Killing in a fight (like the Roman gladiators) also took place. Incan Empire - Peru, South America To be taken over by Pizarro of Spain! Within four years of Columbus' arrival on the island of Hispaniola, his men had killed or exported one-third of the original Indian population of 300,000. Within another 50 years, the Taino people had been made virtually extinct.! An alternate view of the extinction of the Arawak/Taino people is that dying at the hands of the Spanish could almost be seen as a blessing in disguise. This is because there was another tribe, a ferocious one called the Caribs, who were on the verge of pouncing on the Arawaks and putting them to an even more horrible end. These Caribs were, you see, eaters of human flesh. Following hard on the heels of the Arawaks, they had gobbled their way up through several Caribbean Islands, settling on each island like a swarm of locusts in a field, and only moving on when they had gorged themselves on every available Arawak. By the time of Columbus's arrival, the Caribs had eaten their way through many of the small islands and already were licking their chops for the meat walking about in Puerto Rico. When Atahualpa, a major Incan leader, won a crushing defeat over his brother he gained control of the empire. To make sure he kept his power, Atahualpa then invited the other leading members of the empire to the city of Cusco claiming he wanted to give part of the empire to them and his brother. This was just a trick, however, and Atahualpa killed them all when they had arrived in the capital so as to eliminate any threats to his throne.

6 PRIMARY SOURCE: From a Spanish Missionary This account is froma book written by Bartolome de Las Casas. He was a missionary and conquistador. He took part in the conquest of Cuba. These firsthand accounts lead one to believe he was very troubled by what he participated in and witnessed. There is no doubt about it; the Spanish were cruel in their conquest for gold and land. Events like these listed below did nothing to help relations between the different cultures. Instead it was a major reason why the Taino / Arawak peoples became extinct. Though we think his account of the events are mostly based in truth, there has been speculation by historians that he exaggerated some of the numbers to gain more hype for his book sales. Atrocities of the Spanish Conquistadors in the West Indies c The Spaniards with their horses, their spears and lances, began to commit murders and other strange cruelties. They entered into towns and villages, sparing neither children nor old men and women. They ripped their bellies and cut them to pieces as if they had been slaughtering lambs in a field. They made bets with each other over who could thrust a sword into the middle of a man or who could cut off his head with one stroke. They took little ones by their heels and crushed their heads against the cliffs. Others they threw into the rivers laughing and mocking them as they tumbled into the water. They put everyone they met to the edge of the sword. One time I saw four or five important native nobles roasted and broiled upon makeshift grills. The cried out pitifully. This thing troubled our Captain that he could not sleep. He commanded that they be strangled. The Sergeant (I know him and his friends from Seville) would not strangle them but put bullets into their mouths instead. I have seen all these things and others infinite. Most tried to flee. They tried to hide in the mountains. They tried to flee from these men. Men who were empty of all pity, behaving like savage beasts. They are nothing more than slaughterers and enemies of mankind. These evil men had even taught their hounds, fierce dogs, to tear natives to pieces at first sight. AND, when, although rare, the Indians put to death some Spaniards upon good right and law of justice; the Spaniards made an agreement that for every one Spaniard killed they had to slay one hundred Indians. One time the Indians came to meet us and receive us with food and good cheer! Instead, the devil, which had put himself in the Spaniards, put them all to the edge of the sword in my presence, without any cause whatsoever, more than three thousand souls. I saw there such great cruelties, that never any man living either have or shall see the like. In three or four months (myself being present) there died more than six thousand children, which the Spanish had sent into the Gold mines.

Cortes and Pizarro, Columbian Exchange, and Colonial Empires

Cortes and Pizarro, Columbian Exchange, and Colonial Empires Cortes and Pizarro, Columbian Exchange, and Colonial Empires Arrival of Spanish to Mexico Cortes came in 1519 Claimed land for Spain s king and queen He took 11 ships, 100 sailors, 500 soldiers, cannons,

More information

Fall of the Aztec & Inca Civilizations

Fall of the Aztec & Inca Civilizations Fall of the Aztec & Inca Civilizations Part Two Discuss with your Elbow Buddy: 1. Describe the Incan Empire. 2. Describe the Aztec Empire. 3. How are they similar and different? Christopher Columbus asks

More information

Fall of the Aztec & Incan Empires

Fall of the Aztec & Incan Empires Fall of the Aztec & Incan Empires Spain Vs. Portugal Christopher Columbus asks both countries to sponsor his voyage--spain agrees. Portugal saw the wealth that Spain was gaining, and wanted to be part

More information

Fall of the Aztec & Incan Empires

Fall of the Aztec & Incan Empires Fall of the Aztec & Incan Empires Unit Seven Notes Bennett Warm Up! Discuss with your Elbow Buddy: 1. Describe the Incan Empire. 2. Describe the Aztec Empire. 3. How are they similar and different? Spain

More information

Lesson 1: The Voyages of Columbus

Lesson 1: The Voyages of Columbus Lesson 1 Summary Lesson 1: The Voyages of Columbus Use with pages 134 138. Vocabulary expedition a journey made for a special purpose colony a settlement far from the country that rules it Columbian Exchange

More information

Section 1. Objectives

Section 1. Objectives Objectives Analyze the results of the first encounters between the Spanish and Native Americans. Explain how Cortés and Pizarro gained control of the Aztec and Inca empires. Understand the short-term and

More information

Conquest in the Americas. World History

Conquest in the Americas. World History Conquest in the Americas World History First Encounters in the Americas Columbus landed in the New World in 1492. He landed in the Caribbean on islands we now call the West Indies. The Native Americans

More information

Europe & the Age of Exploration Part 1

Europe & the Age of Exploration Part 1 Europe & the Age of Exploration Part 1 World Review European connections to Asia The writings of Marco Polo had increased European interest in trade with Asia. Goods, especially spices and silks, were

More information

Prince Henry the Navigator

Prince Henry the Navigator Prince Henry the Navigator 1394-1460 Portugal Sponsored voyages of exploration along west African coast; supported study of navigation Motivation: To spread Christianity; to establish trade in Africa to

More information

Spain Builds an Empire

Spain Builds an Empire Spain Builds an Empire Spanish Conquistadors Conquistador- conqueror We came here to serve God and the king and also to get rich Bernal Diaz del Castillo 3 G s- God, Glory, Gold Spain became one of the

More information

The Age of European Explorations

The Age of European Explorations The Age of European Explorations 1400-1800 By the 1400 s Europeans were in contact with Africans, Asians, and Americans. This is known as the GLOBAL AGE. Wherever Europeans went, they brought their culture

More information

EQ: What was the impact of exploration and colonization on Europe?

EQ: What was the impact of exploration and colonization on Europe? EQ: What was the impact of exploration and colonization on Europe? Reasons for Exploration God spread of Christianity Goods to trade and become wealthy (gold and spices) Glory explorers were seen as heroes

More information

In the late 1400 s scientific discoveries and the desire for wealth led to an age of exploration. New technologies allowed Europeans to travel

In the late 1400 s scientific discoveries and the desire for wealth led to an age of exploration. New technologies allowed Europeans to travel Motives and Impact In the late 1400 s scientific discoveries and the desire for wealth led to an age of exploration. New technologies allowed Europeans to travel further and discover distant lands with

More information

The Beginnings of Our Global Age: Europe and the Americas

The Beginnings of Our Global Age: Europe and the Americas The Beginnings of Our Global Age: Europe and the Americas Conquest in the Americas 1492 Columbus meets the Taino in the West Indies He claims their land for Spain; takes several back to Spain Conquistadors

More information

Natives & Europeans Collide Study Guide

Natives & Europeans Collide Study Guide Natives & Europeans Collide Study Guide 1. Locate Spain on the Map. 2. Locate France on a Map. 3. Locate England on the Map. England Spain France HINT: Elmo Fell & SPrained his ankle 4. What country did

More information

Exploration ( )

Exploration ( ) Exploration (1400-1607) - For many years, people in Europe knew of a distant land to the east called Asia, or the Far East. - They wanted to explore routes to the Far East - During this unit we will learn

More information

Encounters with Europe THE EARLY MODERN WORLD ( )

Encounters with Europe THE EARLY MODERN WORLD ( ) Encounters with Europe THE EARLY MODERN WORLD (1450 1750) The reaction toward European exploration varied in Africa, Indian Ocean states, and in the Americas. For example, whereas some saw practical benefits

More information

Exploration & Colonization. Mr. Wilson AP World History Wren High School

Exploration & Colonization. Mr. Wilson AP World History Wren High School Exploration & Colonization Mr. Wilson AP World History Wren High School Motives for European Exploration Desire to gain direct access to Asian luxuries Collapse of Mongols increased price of goods Avoid

More information

EARLY AMERICAS. Ice age and the Olmec

EARLY AMERICAS. Ice age and the Olmec EARLY AMERICAS Ice age and the Olmec LAND BRIDGE Beringia- Land bridge that connects Asia and America. Large glaciers during the Ice Age locked up water so that it was possible to walk across on land Animals

More information

The Aztec and the Spanish Unit Test

The Aztec and the Spanish Unit Test The Aztec and the Spanish Unit Test 4 1 2 3 5 1) Where on the map is the Aztec Empire located? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) 5 2) Where on the map is Spain located? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) 5 Artifact #1 Artifact

More information

An Age of Exploration. Chapter 1 Section 2

An Age of Exploration. Chapter 1 Section 2 An Age of Exploration Chapter 1 Section 2 The World in the 1400s: The Americas The Americas were home to two powerful civilizations: the Incas and the Aztecs Pg 12 The World in the 1400s: The Americas

More information

Prince Henry the Navigator

Prince Henry the Navigator Prince Henry the Navigator 1394-1460 Portugal Sponsored voyages of exploration along west African coast; supported study of navigation Motivation: To spread Christianity; to establish trade in Africa to

More information

Prince Henry the Navigator

Prince Henry the Navigator Prince Henry the Navigator 1394-1460 Portugal Sponsored voyages of exploration along west African coast; supported study of navigation Motivation: To spread Christianity; to establish trade in Africa to

More information

BRAINIAC CASE FILE #1

BRAINIAC CASE FILE #1 BRAINIAC CASE FILE #1 Portugal Begins the Age of Exploration Key Explorers The key figure in early Portuguese exploration was Prince Henry, the son of King John I. Nicknamed the Navigator, Henry was not

More information

Text 1: Conquistadores Arrive in the Americas. Topic 2 Lesson 1: Spanish Colonization and New Spain

Text 1: Conquistadores Arrive in the Americas. Topic 2 Lesson 1: Spanish Colonization and New Spain Text 1: Conquistadores Arrive in the Americas Topic 2 Lesson 1: Spanish Colonization and New Spain Conquistadors Bernal Díaz del Castillo was one of the many Spanish conquistadors or conquerors, who marched

More information

Aztec and Inca Review

Aztec and Inca Review Aztec and Inca Review Why take the risk? The Spanish took the great risk of exploring unknown land because: They wanted to obtain more gold and silver. They wanted to claim more land. They wanted to spread

More information

EUROPEAN SOCIETIES AROUND OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors that led European countries to explore the world

EUROPEAN SOCIETIES AROUND OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors that led European countries to explore the world EUROPEAN SOCIETIES AROUND 1492 OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors that led European countries to explore the world Factors that encouraged exploration Crusades Growth of commerce Population increase Rise

More information

10/16/14. Age of Exploration. Contact and Conflict

10/16/14. Age of Exploration. Contact and Conflict 10/16/14 Age of Exploration Contact and Conflict 1450-1700 2 Guiding Questions How and why did Europeans undertake ambitious voyages of expansion? What was the impact (long term/short term) on colonized

More information

The Arrival of the Spanish. Mexico 1519 Peru 1526

The Arrival of the Spanish. Mexico 1519 Peru 1526 The Arrival of the Spanish Mexico 1519 Peru 1526 The strangers bodies are completely covered, so that only their faces can be seen. Their skin is white, as if it were made of lime. They have yellow hair,

More information

They built a magnificent city called Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City).

They built a magnificent city called Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City). Aztecs arrived in the Valley of Mexico in 1100s (central Mexico, including present day Mexico City). They built a magnificent city called Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City). Diorama of Tenochtitlan This was

More information

EARLY AMERICAS. Ice age and the Olmec

EARLY AMERICAS. Ice age and the Olmec EARLY AMERICAS Ice age and the Olmec LAND BRIDGE Beringia- Land bridge that connects Asia and America. Large glaciers during the Ice Age locked up water so that it was possible to walk across on land Animals

More information

7th Grade US History Standard # Do Now Day #21. Do Now

7th Grade US History Standard # Do Now Day #21. Do Now Course: US History/Ms. Brown Homeroom: 7th Grade US History Standard # Do Now Day #21 Aims: SWBAT identify the purpose of Columbus voyage and its effects SWBAT compare and contrast the traditional story

More information

Bartholomeu Dias. Cape of Good Hope 1487

Bartholomeu Dias. Cape of Good Hope 1487 Bartholomeu Dias Cape of Good Hope 1487 Vasco da Gama India 1498 Pedro Alvares Cabral Brazil Christopher Columbus! Pirates in the Mediterranean! Cut out the middle man in trade! Wealth and riches King

More information

Binder Page Name Period New Spain & New France

Binder Page Name Period New Spain & New France Binder Page Name Period New Spain & New France Date When the explorers arrived in the New World, why did they think that they could take the land for their countries when the Native Americans were already

More information

SSWH8 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the development of societies in Central and South America.

SSWH8 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the development of societies in Central and South America. SSWH8 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the development of societies in Central and South America. a. Explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and Inca empires. Olmecs were

More information

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION American history in VOA Special English. I m Steve Ember.

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION American history in VOA Special English. I m Steve Ember. STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION American history in VOA Special English. I m Steve Ember. Generations of schoolchildren have been taught that Christopher Columbus discovered the New World.

More information

First Contact: The Norse

First Contact: The Norse European Contact First Contact: The Norse The Vikings were the first Europeans to establish colonies in the Americas, as early as the 10 th century AD Norsemen from Iceland first settled Greenland in the

More information

Columbus was thrilled. In a later letter, he wrote, I write this to tell you how in thirty-three

Columbus was thrilled. In a later letter, he wrote, I write this to tell you how in thirty-three Section: 2. Spain Starts an Empire Marco Polo s book continued to be read over the next two centuries. This was a time of great change in Europe. The rediscovered writings of ancient Greeks and Romans

More information

made it seem like a bad location at first glance)

made it seem like a bad location at first glance) Early Americas ! Yucatan Peninsula (modern day Guatemala)! Dense rainforest blocked out the sun (which made it seem like a bad location at first glance)! Swamps and sinkholes provided the Maya with a

More information

Chapter 20 Section 2 European Nations Settle North America. Chapter 20 Section 2 European Nations Settle North America 3/26/13

Chapter 20 Section 2 European Nations Settle North America. Chapter 20 Section 2 European Nations Settle North America 3/26/13 Spain has success and others want in on everything. 1494 Treaty of Tordessillas divided the newly discovered lands between Portugal and Spain. Other counties ignored the treaty. Want to build own empire

More information

Welcome back to World History! Thursday, January 18, 2018

Welcome back to World History! Thursday, January 18, 2018 Welcome back to World History! Thursday, January 18, 2018 Sit with the groups you ve been working with the past few days- be ready to present about your country! You need your notes out and something to

More information

European Discovery and the Conquest of America

European Discovery and the Conquest of America European Discovery and the Conquest of America Native Culture Ancient land bridge and migration over centuries At time of Eur. Discovery -> perhaps 54 million?; 2000 distinct languages? Thousands of peoples

More information

The Crusades led to a market for Asian goods in Europe.

The Crusades led to a market for Asian goods in Europe. I. What led to the Age of Exploration? The Crusades led to a market for Asian goods in Europe. Marco Polo was a 13 th century Italian who travelled through Asia to China. This sparked interest in Asia.

More information

Study Guide- Age of Exploration

Study Guide- Age of Exploration Name Study Guide- Age of Exploration Binder Page Period Date (Know how.) What technology allowed the Europeans to explore? [Know what each one does] Caravel (ship) Astrolabe / Quadrant Magnetic compass

More information

Clash of Cultures: Two Worlds Collide By UShistory.org 2017

Clash of Cultures: Two Worlds Collide By UShistory.org 2017 Name: Class: Clash of Cultures: Two Worlds Collide By UShistory.org 2017 The Aztec empire was an advanced civilization that ruled in Mexico before Spanish explorers arrived. This informational text discusses

More information

The World Economy. Chapter 17

The World Economy. Chapter 17 The World Economy Chapter 17 Reasons for European Expansion/exploration 1. Trade domination route to Asian markets 2. Profit motive mercantilism 3. Raw materials/natural resources 4. Markets 5. Political

More information

Plantations in the Americas THE EARLY MODERN WORLD ( )

Plantations in the Americas THE EARLY MODERN WORLD ( ) Plantations in the Americas THE EARLY MODERN WORLD (1450 1750) Shortly after 1600 Europeans were beginning to prosper from growing tobacco in the West Indies. This product became very popular and some

More information

Clash of Cultures: Cortes Conquers Moctezuma and the Aztecs

Clash of Cultures: Cortes Conquers Moctezuma and the Aztecs Clash of Cultures: Cortes Conquers Moctezuma and the Aztecs By USHistory.org, adapted by Newsela staff on 03.21.17 Word Count 751 Titled "Entrance of Cortes into Mexico," this illustration shows Spain's

More information

The Beginning of the Age of Exploration

The Beginning of the Age of Exploration The Beginning of the Age of Exploration The Impact of the Renaissance on Exploration: Inspired a new sense of adventure & curiosity New scientific advances made expanding exploration possible Increased

More information

WHAT TO STUDY FOR CHAPTER 3 TEST

WHAT TO STUDY FOR CHAPTER 3 TEST WHAT TO STUDY FOR CHAPTER 3 TEST 3. How did Columbus reach the Americas? In the late 1400 s King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, from Spain, wanted their share of the Asian spice trade. Even though he was

More information

American History Unit 1: Age of Exploration (Part 02)

American History Unit 1: Age of Exploration (Part 02) American History Unit 1: Age of Exploration (Part 02) Christopher Columbus I. Christopher Columbus A. Born near Genoa, Italy in 1451. 1. Expert navigator. B. Columbus had a radical idea. 1. Thought the

More information

The Americans (Reconstruction to the 21st Century)

The Americans (Reconstruction to the 21st Century) The Americans (Reconstruction to the 21st Century) Chapter 1: TELESCOPING THE TIMES Exploration and the Colonial Era CHAPTER OVERVIEW Native Americans develop complex societies. Starting in 1492, Europeans

More information

THE AGE OF DISCOVERY ( )

THE AGE OF DISCOVERY ( ) THE AGE OF DISCOVERY (1350-1750) AGE OF DISCOVERY The writings of Marco Polo increased European interest in trade with Asia. Goods, especially spices and silks, were carried overland through Constantinople

More information

The Aztec Empire: The Last Great Native Civilization in Mesoamerica

The Aztec Empire: The Last Great Native Civilization in Mesoamerica The Aztec Empire: The Last Great Native Civilization in Mesoamerica By History.com, adapted by Newsela staff on 08.20.17 Word Count 665 Level 790L An Aztec dancer poses for a photo during a ceremony celebrating

More information

Government city-states

Government city-states Government All Maya people shared the same religious beliefs, had the same social structure, and used the same written language. However, they lived in different city-states (a Maya city and the land it

More information

Name Period. Maya, Aztec & Inca Civilizations Latin America Notes. The Maya

Name Period. Maya, Aztec & Inca Civilizations Latin America Notes. The Maya Name Period Maya, Aztec & Inca Civilizations Latin America Notes Class Objective: The Maya From. is known as the of Mayan civilization. Mayan Geography Central America: Rugged terrain, hilly Tropical Climate

More information

Land bridge Pre-European contact Development of cultural regions Language map

Land bridge Pre-European contact Development of cultural regions Language map Land bridge Pre-European contact Development of cultural regions Language map 1 Land bridge between North America and Asia Archaeological evidence has been discovered that shows the sea levels were lower

More information

ExplorationColonizationPart1.notebook October 09, 2018

ExplorationColonizationPart1.notebook October 09, 2018 "a disk floating on a great ocean", only 3 continents (Europe, Asia, Africa) life was hard enough, focused on own survival religious wars led to more trade with people in Asia and Africa (the Crusades)

More information

ONLY CONNECTION TO COUNTRY CONNECTION TO COUNTRY FACT!

ONLY CONNECTION TO COUNTRY CONNECTION TO COUNTRY FACT! 4 CONNECTION TO COUNTRY 1.2 FIRST HCONTACTS CONNECTION TO COUNTRY For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people the word country means the area from which they and their family come. But connection

More information

1. First Americans-----Pre-Columbian. notes

1. First Americans-----Pre-Columbian. notes 1. First Americans-----Pre-Columbian notes Pre- Columbian time period. First Americans came from Asia Crossed the Bering Strait during the Ice Age Following a food source Gradual migration Early Human

More information

Chapter 4: How and Why Europeans Came to the New World

Chapter 4: How and Why Europeans Came to the New World Chapter 4: How and Why Europeans Came to the New World Section 4.3 - Ocean Crossing When sailors cross the ocean, they need a way to stay on course. They have no landmarks to guide them in the open sea.

More information

3 4 SPANISH EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST OF AMERICA,

3 4 SPANISH EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST OF AMERICA, 3 4 SPANISH EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST OF AMERICA, 1492-1610 1492 1610 Columbus was right. The spirit of adventure brought many explorers to America. Here is an overview of Spanish explorers, who came first.

More information

The World of the 1400s. What Was Going On?

The World of the 1400s. What Was Going On? The World of the 1400s What Was Going On? When European colonizers arrived in the Western Hemisphere, they found two continents that were certainly NOT empty of inhabitants. The Native Americans The earliest

More information

Conquistadors & Slavery

Conquistadors & Slavery Name Date e Conquistadors & Slavery "Glory & Gold" Learn more about this topic! Each section gives more detail on one of the lyrics from the song. Read each section, and then respond by answering the question

More information

Chapter 1 Study Guide New World Beginnings: 33,000 B.C-A.D. 1769

Chapter 1 Study Guide New World Beginnings: 33,000 B.C-A.D. 1769 Name: Date: Per. Chapter 1 Study Guide New World Beginnings: 33,000 B.C-A.D. 1769 You need to know the historical significance of the following key terms. I suggest you make flashcards. 1. Marco Polo 2.

More information

Name Class Date. Down 1. The Maya built these buildings to. 2. The Aztec leader killed by the. 4. He and his troops conquered the

Name Class Date. Down 1. The Maya built these buildings to. 2. The Aztec leader killed by the. 4. He and his troops conquered the Name Class Date The Early Americas BIG IDEAS 1. The Maya developed a civilization that thrived in Mesoamerica from about 250 until the 900s. 2. The strong Aztec Empire, founded in central Mexico in 1325,

More information

European Exploration and the New Global Age 1400s -1600s

European Exploration and the New Global Age 1400s -1600s European Exploration and the New Global Age 1400s -1600s Global Changes Amid the 1400s in Europe, advances in technology and trade would impact world history and change the globe forever These changes

More information

The Civilizations of America

The Civilizations of America The Civilizations of America advanced societies were developing in isolation in the Americas While classical civilizations were developing in the Mediterranean & Asia Text Title During the Neolithic Revolution,

More information

Three G s Gold Obtain bullion (gold and silver) Export raw materials (timber, fur) and/or grow cash crops (tobacco, indigo) to make a profit Glory

Three G s Gold Obtain bullion (gold and silver) Export raw materials (timber, fur) and/or grow cash crops (tobacco, indigo) to make a profit Glory Unit 2 Unit 2, Notes 1 Three G s Gold Obtain bullion (gold and silver) Export raw materials (timber, fur) and/or grow cash crops (tobacco, indigo) to make a profit Glory Discover secrets of the New World

More information

Vocabulary. Red = in book Black = terms to be used in our upcoming notes. Jump to first page

Vocabulary. Red = in book Black = terms to be used in our upcoming notes. Jump to first page Vocabulary Conquistador Royal Fifth Francisco Pizarro Monopoly Hacienda Social class Treaty Hernan Cortes Debt peonage Mestizo Peninsular (Montezuma) Red = in book Black = terms to be used in our upcoming

More information

Unit 3: European Explorers

Unit 3: European Explorers Unit 3: European Explorers http://mryoungtms.weebly.com/european-explorers.html https://quizlet.com/class/5155476/ 1 E x p l o r e r s Motivations, Obstacles, and Accomplishments of European Explorers

More information

Ancient Mayans. KP Classroom

Ancient Mayans. KP Classroom Ancient Mayans The Mayans were an ancient American group of people that lived in areas of Central America and Mexico from 1500 BC until around 900 AD. Because the Mayans were untouched by other people

More information

Europe- 2. How did the nobles in Europe gain their wealth?

Europe- 2. How did the nobles in Europe gain their wealth? Name Period Video: America Before Columbus Date 1. What types of natural wealth were in the Americas before Europeans arrived? Europe- 2. How did the nobles in Europe gain their wealth? What problem has

More information

DISEASE PLANTS ANIMAL. Directions: Summarize the ideas of the readings in the chart below using point-form. Point-form Summary Notes

DISEASE PLANTS ANIMAL. Directions: Summarize the ideas of the readings in the chart below using point-form. Point-form Summary Notes ANIMAL PLANTS DISEASE Social Studies Name: Directions: Summarize the ideas of the readings in the chart below using point-form. Point-form Summary Notes Social Studies Name: Directions: On the map below,

More information

Intermediate World History B. Unit 6: Exploration Changes the World. Lesson 1: Clash of Civilizations Pg

Intermediate World History B. Unit 6: Exploration Changes the World. Lesson 1: Clash of Civilizations Pg Intermediate World History B Unit 6: Exploration Changes the World Lesson 1: Clash of Civilizations Pg. 239-249 Lesson 2: The Spanish and Portuguese Empires Pg. 251-261 Lesson 4: Songhai, Benin, and the

More information

Unit 1 A New World Rising Grade 5 Social Studies/ELA Curriculum Lesson 3: Great Civilizations Emerge in the Americas.

Unit 1 A New World Rising Grade 5 Social Studies/ELA Curriculum Lesson 3: Great Civilizations Emerge in the Americas. Aztec Religion One of the most important aspects of Aztec religion was the sun. The Aztecs called themselves the "People of the Sun". They felt that in order for the sun to rise each day the Aztecs needed

More information

The Native American Experience

The Native American Experience The Native American Experience NATIVE PEOPLE AND GROUPS The First Americans Archaeologists believe that migrants from Asia crossed a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska sometime between 13,000 and 3,000

More information

Number of Indentured Servants in Virginia ,456 4,122 1,

Number of Indentured Servants in Virginia ,456 4,122 1, PART I 1. New England was settled by. A. German-speaking immigrants seeking economic opportunity B. Puritans seeking economic opportunity C. Dutch seeking freedom from religious persecution in Europe D.

More information

APWH chapter 18.notebook January 11, 2013

APWH chapter 18.notebook January 11, 2013 Chapter 18 Plantation Agriculture in the Colonial Americas The first cash crop in the Caribbean was tobacco. By the 17th century, the Lesser Antilles were under Dutch, English, and French rule, and their

More information

Chapter 2 The Planting of English America, Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies,

Chapter 2 The Planting of English America, Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies, Chapter 2 The Planting of English America, 1500 1733 Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619 1700 Characteristics of European Settlement in North America Spain: Florida, Mexico, SW Conquistadores,

More information

Chapter Two. When Worlds Collide

Chapter Two. When Worlds Collide Chapter Two When Worlds Collide 1492-1590 Part One Introduction When Worlds Collide 1492-1590 How does this drawing illustrate the idea of worlds colliding in the Americas? 3 Chapter Focus Questions What

More information

December 11, Study Guide

December 11, Study Guide Epic Epic Epic Study Guide "Hands down, this is the best study guide I've ever seen," - Abraham Lincoln Bonjour! I wish I were alive today so that I myself might be able to complete this study guide. Au

More information

CAUSES OF EXPLORATION. READING and ASSIGNMENT. Read the excerpt below. Use the reading to complete the section of the graphic organizer.

CAUSES OF EXPLORATION. READING and ASSIGNMENT. Read the excerpt below. Use the reading to complete the section of the graphic organizer. Most Europeans had little knowledge of the world outside of their manor. Manors were self-sufficient. That is, people made almost everything they needed. Life for peasants was hard. They struggled to produce

More information

Section 2-1: Europeans Set Sail

Section 2-1: Europeans Set Sail Name: Date: Section 2-1: Europeans Set Sail Fill in the blanks: Chapter 2 Study Guide 1. The was an epidemic disease that killed as many as 30 million people in Europe during the Middle Ages. 2. The was

More information

The Age of Exploration. Europe Encounters the World

The Age of Exploration. Europe Encounters the World The Age of Exploration Europe Encounters the World Why did explorations happen when they did? A variety of factors all came together to make the time period (1450-1700) the age of exploration Some of these

More information

February 10, Study Guide

February 10, Study Guide Epic Epic Epic Study Guide "Hands down, this is the best study guide I've ever seen," - Abraham Lincoln Bonjour! I wish I were alive today so that I myself might be able to complete this study guide. Au

More information

Page 1 of 5.

Page 1 of 5. Page 1 of 5 http://a1204.g.akamai.net/7/1204/1401/04021016011/images.barnesandnoble.com/images/7380000/7382166.jpg Three Day worksheet for episodes one and two, seven period day. Read through all of the

More information

Were the Aztecs really that brutal? Basic Introduction to the Aztecs. The Aztecs

Were the Aztecs really that brutal? Basic Introduction to the Aztecs. The Aztecs Basic Introduction to the Aztecs The Aztecs Were the Aztecs really that brutal? found their city. Who were they? The Aztecs were a very successful ancient civilisation who lived in what is now central

More information

Leif Eriksson Leif Eriksson Viking Greenland Vinland first to step foot in North America

Leif Eriksson Leif Eriksson Viking Greenland Vinland first to step foot in North America Leif Eriksson Leif Eriksson was a Viking from Greenland. Vikings were combative, plundering seafarers or pirates. He sailed the northern Atlantic Ocean and settled briefly in North America which he called

More information

Settling Virginia VS. 4

Settling Virginia VS. 4 WHAT IS AGRICULTURE? Settling Virginia VS. 4 Farming: It includes growing crops and/or raising livestock. growing crops raising animals The economy of colonial Virginia was based on agriculture. Most Virginians

More information

The Earliest Americans. Chapter 1 Section 1

The Earliest Americans. Chapter 1 Section 1 The Earliest Americans Chapter 1 Section 1 Terms to Know Migration a movement of people or animals from one region to another Environments--climates and landscapes that surround living things Culture--

More information

UNIT 2- GEORGIA S COLONIZATION

UNIT 2- GEORGIA S COLONIZATION UNIT 2- GEORGIA S COLONIZATION European Exploration and Settlement Essential Question: Why did European countries explore, claim, and settle the North American continent? The 3 G s During the early to

More information

Mexican History and Systems of Empire

Mexican History and Systems of Empire Mexican History and Systems of Empire Day 1: The Conquest of Mexico 1. I can explain the systems the Spaniards put in place in New Spain and how they impacted Mexico over the long term. 2. I can use OPVL

More information

CIVILIZATIONS OF EARLY CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA

CIVILIZATIONS OF EARLY CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA CIVILIZATIONS OF EARLY CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA STANDARD 6-4.3: COMPARE THE CONTRIBUTIONS AND THE DECLINE OF THE MAYA, AZTEC, AND INCA CIVILIZATIONS IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, INCLUDING THEIR FORMS

More information

Spain in North America. 1580s: Franciscan Missionaries were working in the Southwest New Mexico became a missionary colony No gold to exploit

Spain in North America. 1580s: Franciscan Missionaries were working in the Southwest New Mexico became a missionary colony No gold to exploit Spain in North America 1580s: Franciscan Missionaries were working in the Southwest New Mexico became a missionary colony No gold to exploit New France Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608 to consolidate

More information

Chapter 16: The First Global Age ( ) First Encounters: Columbus landed in the islands that are now called the West Indies Tainos lived in

Chapter 16: The First Global Age ( ) First Encounters: Columbus landed in the islands that are now called the West Indies Tainos lived in Chapter 16: The First Global Age (1492-1750) First Encounters: Columbus landed in the islands that are now called the West Indies Tainos lived in villages and grew corn, yams, and cotton, which they wove

More information

First Visitors From Europe

First Visitors From Europe THE AGE OF EXPLORATION In the 1400s, European explorers first met Native Americans. For the next three centuries, European explorers and settlers expanded their influence across North and South America.

More information

Unit 2, Activity 1, Age of Discovery Vocabulary

Unit 2, Activity 1, Age of Discovery Vocabulary Unit 2, Activity 1, Age of Discovery Vocabulary Key Term? Example Definition Scientific Revolution Heliocentric theory Telescope Cartography Compass Caravel Astrolabe Commercial Revolution Indentured servitude

More information

The Age of Exploration

The Age of Exploration The Age of Exploration A Resource to Accompany History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism Teachers Curriculum Institute 1 Introduction In this reading, you will learn about the Age of Exploration.

More information

Lesson 1: Traveling Asia s Silk Road

Lesson 1: Traveling Asia s Silk Road Lesson 1 Summary Lesson 1: Traveling Asia s Silk Road Use with pages 102 104. Vocabulary emperor the ruler of an empire magnetic compass a tool sailors use to see what direction they are traveling The

More information