WHI.02: Early Humans

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1 WHI.02: Early Humans WHI.2 The student will demonstrate knowledge of early development of humankind from the Paleolithic Era to the agricultural revolution by a) explaining the impact of geographic environment on hunter-gatherer societies; b) listing characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies, including their use of tools and fire; c) describing technological and social advancements that gave rise to stable communities; d) explaining how archaeological discoveries are changing present-day knowledge of early peoples. Notes WHI.02: Early Humans 9

2 Essential Understandings of Early Humans 1. The life of early hunter-gatherer societies was shaped by their physical environment. 2. Early human societies, through the development of culture, began the process of overcoming the limits set by the physical environment. 3. The beginning of settled agriculture (including permanent settlements) was a major step in the advance of civilization. 4. Archaeologists continue to find and interpret evidence of early humans and their lives. 5. Rivers/waterways were extremely important to early civilizations. Essential Questions about Early Humans 1. More than anything else, what shaped the lives of early hunter-gatherer societies? 2. What were the key characteristics of societies of the Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age)? 3. What were the major characteristics of the Neolithic Era (New Stone Age)? 4. Why were river valleys important to the development civilization? 5. How did the beginning of agriculture and the domestication of animals promote the rise of settled communities? Why do I need to know this? 1. Early humans discoveries helped them survive, grow in numbers, and spread across the globe to inhabit the areas we live in today. 2. New methods for obtaining food and the development of technology laid the foundations for modern civilizations. 3. Contemporary civilizations share the same characteristics typical of ancient civilizations. 4. All major modern cities are located on a river or other body of water. Due Date Assignment Points Points Possible Notes pg. 11, 13 & 15 5 Early Humans Packet 5 Quiz Historical & Geographical Skill and Early Humans 27 Notes WHI.02: Early Humans 10

3 Human Origins in Africa Scientists search for Human Origins 1. (p.7) the time in history before writing 2. (p.7) scientists who learn about early peoples by study the remains of their civilizations 3. (p.7) remains (tools, jewelry, etc.) of an earlier people (ex. tools, jewelry, pottery, etc.) 4. (p.7) a people's unique way of life 5. * to see how old some artifacts are 6. * is an example of and archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic and completed during the Bronze Age 7. (p.8) humans and other creatures who walk upright (p.8) discovered the oldest hominid found to date a. named her " (p.8)" Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) 1. (p.8)(4 million to 1 million B.C.) a. what Lucy was b. first humanlike creature to walk upright 2. (p.9)(2.5 million to 1.5 million B.C.) a. first hominid to use tools to cut meat and crack open bones 3. (p.9)(1.6 million to 30,000 B.C.) a. developed (p.9) ways of applying knowledge, tools and inventions to meet their needs b. were skillful hunters c. first to migrate from (p.9) to (p.9) d. first to use fire and (p.9) e. created cave art Humans (Homo Sapiens) 1. emerged in East Africa somewhere between * years ago 2. migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. 3. (p.10-11)(200,000 to 30,000 B.C.) a. developed religious beliefs and rituals and performed funerals b. lived in caves and temporary shelters 4. (p.12)(40,000 to 8,000 B.C.) a. cooperated with one another and planned their hunts b. skeleton show that they are identical to modern humans 5. Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons overlapped for 10,000 years, causing a competition for land and resources Notes WHI.02: Early Humans 11

4 time frame found where? important firsts Australopithecus Homo Habilis Evolution Homo Erectus Neanderthal Cro-Magnon Notes WHI.02: Early Humans 12

5 Human Origins in Africa Hunter Gatherers 1. earlier hominids (Australopithecus up through Cro-Magnon) were nomads a. nomads (p.12) 2. hunter-gatherers nomads whose food supply depended on (p.12) Neolithic Revolution Neolithic Age 1. Paleolithic Age (400,000-10,000 B.C.) old stone age 2. Neolithic (New Stone) Age began around 10,000 B.C. 3. beginnings of agriculture 4. began planting seeds and growing their own food a. (p.14) method of farming where people cut trees and grass and burned them to clear a field; ashes fertilized the soil b. developed * for agriculture 5. made pottery and developed weaving skills 6. domestication (p.14) 7. allowed for humans to * 8. villages began appearing in * a. provided * for humans and animals b. was a source of water for * c. was a source of * fishing and hunting any wild animals that came to get a drink d. used for * easier than traveling overland 9. Metal Ages a. Copper and Bronze Ages ( B.C.) b. Iron Age (began around 1000 B.C.) Villages Grow Into Cities Economic Changes 1. built irrigation systems to produce surplus crops 2. food surpluses freed some villagers to 3. two important inventions that enabled traders to transport more goods over longer distances were the (p.17) (p.17) Social Changes 1. (p. 17) with varying wealth, power and influence emerged 2. farming peoples worshipped gods based on the (p. 18) Notes WHI.02: Early Humans 13

6 Age Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Dates Procuring Food/ Economy The Stone Ages Tools Society Dwellings Spiritual Beliefs Notes WHI.02: Early Humans 14

7 Villages Grow Into Cities Early Villages and Cities 1. (p.16) one of the oldest villages ever found (in south-central Turkey) a. roughly 6,000 people and made religious shrines dedicated to a mother-goddess 2. Aleppo and Jericho are two examples of early cities in the Fertile Crescent Five Characteristics of a Civilization 1. (p.18) birthplaces of the first civilizations a. have a center of trade, villages do not 2. (p.18) a. (p.18) development of skills in a specific kind of work b. (p.18) skilled workers who make things by hand (jewelry, weapons, clothing) c. an economy based off of *(trading) developed 3. (p.18) a. (p.18) long lasting pattern of organization within a community a. a system of ruling became necessary (p.18) b. (p.18) created temples and worship rituals 4. (p.19) a. new tools for farming like the ox-drawn plow b. (p.19) people began using bronze instead of copper to fashion tools and weapons 5. (p.18) a. priests needed some way to keep track of the yearly calendar and important rituals b. merchants had to record accounts of debts and payments c. (p.18) professional record keepers Notes WHI.02: Early Humans 15

8 Executive Summary DIRECTIONS: In words, write a summary of what you believe are the most important points of these notes on Early Humans. Notes WHI.02: Early Humans 16

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