Section 2-1: Europeans Set Sail

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1 Name: Date: Section 2-1: Europeans Set Sail Fill in the blanks: Chapter 2 Study Guide 1. The was an epidemic disease that killed as many as 30 million people in Europe during the Middle Ages. 2. The was a period of great change in the European economy. 3. is money or property that is used as an investment to make more money in the form of profits. 4. are companies in which people invest money together and then share profits and losses. 5. The refers to a period characterized by the rebirth of arts, sciences, and learning, especially that of ancient Greece and Rome. 6. The was an instrument that allowed ship navigators to use the stars and planets as a guide while at sea. 7. A refers to when one person or company has sole, exclusive economic control of a good or service. 8., also known as The Navigator, gathered Portugal s finest mapmakers, shipbuilders, etc. to help encourage exploration and trade. 9. The was a small, fast oceangoing vessel used in European exploration efforts. 10. was the first European to reach the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. 11. What was the Black Death? How did it occur? What were its effects on Europe s population? 12. Describe the Commercial Revolution. How did the way in which people did business change? How did this lead to greater power for merchants and farmers?

2 13. Explain how merchant families of Europe, such as the Medici family, became very wealthy. What types of businesses did they operate or invest in? 14. What was the Renaissance? When, where, why, and how did it begin? What kinds of subjects were the focus of the Renaissance? 15. Who were some of the major figures of the Renaissance and what were some of their most famous works and/or contributions? 16. What was the printing press and who was its inventor? How did it change the way people exchanged and/or spread ideas? 17. What were some Renaissance-era technological advances that led to greater interest in exploration? 18. Describe trade during the Commercial Revolution. Over which two continents did most of this trade occur? What were the two primary trade routes between these continents? What kinds of goods were involved?

3 19. What led merchants to search for new trade routes to foreign lands? What other factors led Europeans to take a greater interest in the outside world? 20. Who were two of Portugal s early pioneers of exploration and what kinds of contributions did they make? Section 2-2: Voyages to the Americas Fill in the blanks: 21. was a European explorer who discovered the Americas in The King and Queen of Spain during the late 15 th century was. 23. The ongoing struggle to remove the Islamic Moors from Spain from the 9 th -15 th centuries was called the. 24. A was the term applied to Spanish royal governors. 25. The were the names of the ships used in the initial voyages of Christopher Columbus. 26. To someone means to change their religious beliefs, usually from one religion to another. 27. The, negotiated by the Pope, established the dividing line between Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas. 28. The dividing line mentioned in question 27 was called the. 29. What was Christopher Columbus s motivation for exploration? Why was his plan so risky? 30. What were Ferdinand and Isabella s motivations for helping Columbus with his journey? What kinds of rewards did they promise him if he succeeded? 31. What part of the Americas did Columbus initially explore (i.e. what islands)? What tribal group did he meet? What did he mistakenly call these people and why?

4 32. When Ferdinand and Isabella learned of the natives Columbus met, what was their goal for these people? How did the pope become involved in these events? 33. What problems did Columbus encounter on his later voyages and during his time as viceroy? Section 2-3: The Race for Trade Routes Fill in the blank: 34. was the first European to sail to India around the coast of Africa. 35. was a Portuguese explorer who claimed Brazil for Portugal. 36. was an Italian explorer who discovered North America on behalf of England. 37. was an Italian explorer for whom the Americas are named. 38. was a Spanish explorer who searched for and discovered the South Sea or Pacific Ocean. 39. was a Portuguese explorer who sailed on behalf of Spain and whose crew was the first to sail around the world. 40. A is a narrow passage of water connecting two larger bodies of water. 41. To means to sail or move completely around a spherical or circular object. 42. Who were some early Portuguese explorers and what were their accomplishments? 43. Who were some Italian explorers and what were their accomplishments? For which countries did they sail?

5 44. Which explorer discovered the Pacific Ocean or South Sea? Which explorer s crew was the first to circumnavigate the globe, and what was his fate? Section 2-4: The Opening of the Atlantic Fill in the blank: 45. The collective transfer of plants, animals, diseases, people and ideas from Europe to the New World, and visa-versa, was called the. 46. The hypothetical route that would allow ships to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific in the Northern Hemisphere was called the. 47. was a French explorer who searched for the Northwest Passage and sailed the length of the St. Lawrence River. 48. was a French explorer who founded the colony and city of Quebec. 49. was a Dutch explorer who searched for the Northwest Passage on England s behalf; large bay in Canada named after him. 50. What countries, aside from Spain, began to explore and look for new trade routes between Europe and Asia? What route were many countries and explorers looking for by sailing across the Atlantic? 51. Describe the Columbian Exchange. What kinds of products were involved in this process? What did explorers and other Europeans bring to the New World inadvertently (and reportedly on purpose)? What effect did this have on the native population?

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