Food Research International

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1 Food Reserch Interntionl 43 (2010) Contents lists vilble t ScienceDirect Food Reserch Interntionl journl homepge: Effect of honey powder on dough rheology nd bred qulity Qunyi Tong,b,, Xioyu Zhng b, Fng Wu b, Jingjing Tong b, Pinping Zhng b, Jing Zhng b Stte Key Lbortory of Food Science nd Technology, Jingnn University, Jingsu Wuxi , Chin b School of Food Science nd Technology, Jingnn University, Jingsu Wuxi , Chin rticle info bstrct Article history: Received 4 Februry 2010 Accepted 6 August 2010 Keywords: Honey powder Bred Dough Dough rheology The effects of honey powder on dough rheology nd bred qulity were studied using sugr s controls. Frinogrphic studies showed tht there were higher wter bsorption, shorter development time nd stbility time s honey powder incresed, nd smll degree of softening were obtined for the dough contining 5% honey powder. Extensogrph mesurements showed tht resistnce to extension nd R/E incresed while energy vlue nd extensibility decresed t level of 10% honey. Sensory evlution showed tht the lrgest totl scores were obtined t level of 10% honey. Texture nlysis showed tht honey breds hd low hrdness, dhesiveness, gumminess, chewiness nd high springiness, cohesiveness. The differences of the crust nd crumb colour between honey breds nd the control were significnt (Pb0.05). In conclusion, honey powder could be potentilly useful ingredient s dough improver. Honey usge in the bred formultion supported n improvement in dough rheology, better sensory nd texture properties of bred s compred to control formultion. Addition of 5% 10% honey powder significntly improved the bking qulity of breds Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Honey is nturl biologicl product tht comprises of simple sugrs (glucose nd fructose: 70 80%), wter (10 20%), nd other minor constituents such s orgnic cids, minerl slts, vitmins, proteins, phenolic compounds, nd free mino cids (Ouchemoukh et l., 2007). It is ordinrily liked by consumers for its nutrceuticl vlue, chrcteristic flvor, sweetness, nd texture (Subrmnin et. l., 2007; Umesh Hebbr, & Rstogi, 2007). Honey cn be used in bred formultion to increse overll qulity of the product nd to extend its shelf life. However, liquid honey is viscous nd difficult to disperse in the dough, limiting its use in the food industry (Glbe, Anderson, & Goldmn, 1970). By contrst, honey powder (dry honey) mde from liquid honey cn be dispersed esier, nd so it hs been more widely used in bred-bking industry for improving bred qulity. Bred is one of the most widely consumed food products in the world nd bred mking technology is one of the oldest technologies known. This technology hs been evolving continuously s new mterils, equipment nd processes re being developed (Selomulyo & Zhou, 2007). The impcts of vrious ingredients on sensory nd nutritionl qulity of bred hve been widely studied (Brcens & Rosell, 2005; Plesss et. l., 2005; Pherson, Bektou, Nigm, & Koutins, 2005). Addo (1997) exmined the effects of honey on the rheologicl properties of frozen whet flour dough nd found tht t 4 6% (flour bsis) liquid or dry honey improved the rheologicl properties of frozen dough nd the Corresponding uthor. School of Food Science nd Technology, Jingnn University, Jingsu Wuxi , Chin. Tel.: E-mil ddress: (Q. Tong). freshness of bred by incresing both the R/E vlues (Resistnce to extension/extensibility vlues) nd moisture. Freshness is one of the chrcteristics tht consumers most pprecite in bred (Fiszmn et l., 2005). Fresh bred typiclly presents n ppeling tn crust, plesnt rosted rom, fine slicing chrcteristics, soft nd elstic crumb textures, nd moist mouthfeel. The loss of bred freshness is chrcterized by incresed crumb hrdness nd decresed flvour nd rom. In generl, loss of moisture nd strch retrogrdtion re ccepted s the two min mechnisms leding to the firming of the crumb (Selomulyo & Zhou, 2007). During the formultion of bkery products, honey powder is included in dough formultion in order to improve their nutritionl, sensory nd keeping qulity. It lso hs significnt effect on dough rheologicl properties. Honey powder contributes to yellowy crumb nd golden brown crust, increses fermenttion or mixing tolernce of dough, nd cuses bked products to remin fresher nd more moist. So enhncement of the fresh qulity nd/or inhibition of stling of bkery products cn be chieved by using honey powder. The objective of this study is to investigte the effects of honey powder on dough rheology nd bred qulity, to understnd its chrcteristics well nd then to use it effectively. Qulity prmeters (volume, colour, texture, smoothness, springiness, nd mouthfeel) of breds formulted with different honey powder levels re lso compred. 2. Mterils nd methods 2.1. Mterils Commercil bred flour (Png Thi 1650 high-grde Bred Flour) ws provided by COFCO Industry Png Thi Co.Ltd. (Qin Hung Do, /$ see front mtter 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi: /j.foodres

2 Q. Tong et l. / Food Reserch Interntionl 43 (2010) Chin). Honey powder (include 25% strch in it) ws provided by Yncheng Humei Honey Products Co. Ltd. (Yncheng, Chin). Bred improver (M III model) nd dry bker's yest were obtined from Meishn Muri Yest Co., Ltd. (Pnyu, Chin). Butter oil substitute ws provided by Chng Gunn Co., Ltd. (Tiwn, Chin). Milk powder, sugr, eggs, slt nd food bg were purchsed t locl mrket. Chemicls used were of regent grde Bred preprtion Bred smples were prepred using stright dough method (GB/T ) with slight modifiction. The compositions of the selected dough formultion used in control bred comprised of 500 g flour, 240 g wter, 90 g sugr, 40 g butter oil substitute, 20 g milk powder, 6 g dry bker's yest, 6 g bred improver 5 g fine slt, nd one egg (totl bout 50 g). For the fifteen bred smples contining honey powder, the dough formultion ws identicl with tht of the control bred except tht the sugr ws replced by honey powder. Sugr nd honey contents vried from 1 to 15% on flour bsis. Flour, fine sugr, honey powder, milk powder were uniformly mixed in stirrer (SM-5D model, Sinmg Mchine Co. Ltd., Wuxi, Chin) using dough hook, followed by the ddition of yest nd bred improver. The dough ws prepred in the stirrer for 1 min t 40 rpm, nd 10 min t 70 rpm fter egg nd wter were dded. Finl dough temperture ws 28 C. The dough ws rested in bulk for 10 min, divided into pieces of 100 g, rounded by hnd (bll shpe), nd submitted to n extr fermenttion period of 10 min (intermedite proof). The dough ws then kneded, put in well-gresed pns, proofed t 37 C nd 85% reltive humidity for 2 h nd bked in n electric oven set t upper temperture 170 C nd down temperture 220 C for 20 min. Bred ws removed from the pns nd cooled t 25 C for 1 h before testing Anlysis of dough Frinogrph mesurements of dough Properties of dough were investigted using frinogrph-e (Brbender, Duisburg, Germny) ccording to stndrd method (GB/T , Chin). The 300 g mixing bowl ws used nd the mixing ws t the stndrd speed of 63 rpm t 30 C. Wter bsorption, development time, stbility time, degree of softening (12 minute fter mximum), nd mixing tolernce index of the smples were recorded Extensogrph mesurements of dough Brbender extensogrph-e (Brbender, Duisburg, Germny) ws used to study the effects of honey powder on the energy vlue, resistnce to extension, extensibility nd R/E vlue in 45 min ccording to Chinese ntionl stndrd (GB/T , Chin) Anlysis of bred Physicl properties of bred Lof weights nd volumes were mesured 1 h fter removl from the oven. Lof ws weighed using n electronic blnce nd lof volume ws mesured using the rpeseed displcement method (Plesss et l., 2005). The specific volume ws clculted by dividing lof volume by lof weight. The moisture content of smples ws determined by AACC 44-15A stndrd method (Americn Assocition of Cerel Chemists, 2000). The dt reported were the verges of three replictes of ech formultion Sensory evlution of bred qulity The sensory evlution ws performed using descriptive profile test bsed on Chinese ntionl stndrd (GB/T , Chin). A pnel consisting of 9 trined university students from the School of Food Science in Jingnn University performed the sensory evlution of bred smples. The totl mrk of sensory evlution for one smple ws 100 points including volume 35, crust colour 5, crust texture 5, crumb colour 5, crumb texture 25, smoothness 10, springiness 10 nd mouthfeel 5. The intensity of ttributes ws scored by scle of 1 (extremely low) to highest score of index point (extremely high). The vocbulry of the descriptions nd the intensity level of references for ll ttributes were generted through consensus. Sensory evlution ws mde fter storge of 1, 2, 3, 4 nd 5 dys t 22±2 C nd 75±5% RH. Bred ws sliced utilizing Sinmg slice mchine (Wuxi, Chin). Ech bred slice ws served on plte nd covered with odorless plstic film. The experiment ws conducted nd bsed on rndomized complete block design nd new rndom number ws ssigned to ech bred tretment t ech testing session to prevent bis. Ech pnelist evluted 16 breds in one occsion. The tsted smples were disgorged nd plin wter ws used for rinsing the plte between smples. Tests were replicted 3 times Texture of crumb Texture profile nlysis (TPA) of bred ws done using TA.XT 2i model texture nlyzer (Stble Micro System Co. Ltd., Surrey, Englnd) equipped with 5 kg lod cell 1 dy fter bking. A cylindricl probe of 25 mm in dimeter ws ttched to the crosshed. The instrument test prmeters were set s following: the pre-test speed: 2.0 mm/s; crosshed speed: 1 mm/s; post-test speed 10.0 mm/s; rupture test distnce 1%; distnce 50%; nd time 5.00 s. Bred loves were cut into slices of 15 mm thick ech nd the ends were discrded. Texturl properties (hrdness, dhesiveness, springiness, chewiness, gumminess, cohesiveness, nd resilience) of bred slices were evluted s per Bourne (2002). All the tests were conducted in triplicte, nd verge vlues were reported. Bred slices were compressed twice to give TPA from which three primry texturl prmeters (Pons & Fiszmn, 1996) were obtined: hrdness (bred firmness), springiness, nd cohesiveness, s clculted by the texturometer softwre. Hrdness vlues 1 nd 2 were the mximum pek forces (g) during the first nd second cycles, respectively. Cohesiveness ws the rtio between the second cycle re nd the first cycle re, nd dhesiveness ws the negtive force re recorded during the first cycle, representing the work necessry to pull the compression plunger wy from the smple. Springiness ws defined s the height in mm the food smple recovered during the time tht elpsed between the end of the first cycle nd the strt of the second cycle. Gumminess ws the product of hrdness 1 nd cohesiveness. Modulus ws the slope of the rising curve during the first cycle. Mens nd stndrd devitions for TPA prmeters were clculted nd used for correltion nlysis Crust nd crumb colour Crust nd crumb colours were determined using Konic Minolt CR-400 chrommeter (Konic Minolt Co., Ltd, Osk, Jpn). Crust colour ws mesured t the surfce of bred crust nd crumb colour ws mesured t the center prt of crumb fter the bred ws cut into hlf pieces. Averges of three mesurements of L (brightness), (redness), b (yellowness) vlues nd ΔE (the totl colour difference ) were recorded Sttisticl nlysis Anlysis of vrince (ANOVA) ws conducted using the SPSS 12.0 Generl Liner Model procedure (SPSS inc., USA). The clculted men vlues were compred using Duncn's multiple rnge test with significnce level of Pb0.05 (Anil, 2007). 3. Results nd discussion 3.1. Frinogrph results The frinogrph results of doughs were given in Tble 1, showing severl interesting observtions. First, wter bsorbtion ( ) decresed

3 2286 Q. Tong et l. / Food Reserch Interntionl 43 (2010) Tble 1 Frinogrph dt of doughs contining sugr or honey power. Sugr/flour(%) or honey power/flour(%) Wter bsorption (%) s sugr level incresed while it incresed s honey powder level incresed. This ws becuse fructose nd strch in honey powder could bsorb more wter in dough thn sugr. Secondly, development time nd stbility time of dough contining honey powder ws shorter thn tht of dough contining sugr. Thirdly, degree of softening decresed s sugr level incresed, but it would hve more complicted chnges s honey powder level incresed. Degree of softening decresed when smll mount of honey powder( 5%) ws dded into dough nd it incresed when the mounts of honey powder ws more thn 5%. However, too much honey powder (N10%) could weken the intension of dough nd could cuse dough stickiness problem during kneding, mking the dough difficult to work. Thus, higher qulity of bred with looseness nd tenderness could be mde with the dough contining certin level of honey powder (5 10%) contrsted with the control The result of extensogrph mesurements The extensogrphic properties of dough smples contining sugr or honey powder were given in Tble 2. When no sugr or honey powder ws dded into the flour, re (energy vlue) of dough ws 130 cm 2. It incresed slowly s sugr level incresed, while it decresed s honey powder incresed until honey powder/flour ws 10%. Resistnce to extension ws 616 EU nd extensibility ws 144 mm, so R/E vlue ws 4.3 for control dough. Resistnce to extension, extensibility nd R/E did not chnge drmticlly s the sugr content incresed during 45 min ging for the dough contining sugr. As shown in Tble 2, R/E vlues reched mximum when honey powder/flour ws 10%. The ddition of honey powder t b10% level strengthened the dough rheologicl properties, so the honey powder led to perceptible chnge of mturity of the dough during ging with incresing R nd R/E vlues s compred with the control. On the other hnd, high level of honey powder (N10%) would weken dough rheologicl properties The results of sensory evlution Development time (Min) Stbility time (Min) Degree of softening (FU) Sugr/flour ± ± ± ± ± ± ±0.2 8± ± ± ±0.3 6± ± ± ±0.3 2±0.1 Honey powder/flour ± ± ± ± ± ± ±0.2 2± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± g flour. The effects of honey powder on the sensory evlution of bred were shown in Tble 3. The bred formulted with 5 10% honey powder displyed good sensory qulity s compred to the control. Sensory ttributes (volume, crust colour, crust texture, crumb colour, crumb texture, smoothness, springiness, nd mouthfeel) of bred were improved s honey powder incresed up to 10% honey powder/flour level. Honey powder bred hd lrger volume thn sugr bred, this ws becuse honey could ccelerte yest growth to generte high mount of gs. Breds contining honey powder hd yellow crumb nd yellow brown crust colours, which ws due to the high mount of fructose in honey powder to promote Millrd rection. The qulity chnges of bred contining sugr or honey powder fter 2 dys storge were shown in Tble 4. Qulity ttributes of sugr bred deteriorted considerbly fter storge in just 2 dys, especilly, crust texture, smoothness, springiness nd mouthfeel. Their totl scores vried from to However, when sugr ws prtilly substituted by honey powder, the sensory qulities of bred were improved, nd the totl scores of honey bred were significntly higher thn sugr bred fter 2 dys storge. Becuse fructose in honey powder tends to bsorb more moisture thn sugr, the incorportion of honey powder resulted in higher retention of moisture in bred crumbs, thereby retrdting stling nd extending the shelf life The results of texture nlyzer of bred qulity Hrdness, dhesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, springiness, cohesiveness nd resilience were texture ttributes of bred. These ttributes of bred could be determined by TPA. The results of texture profile nlyzer of breds contining honey powder were shown in Tble 5. After cooling nd before storge, there ws no obvious difference in crumb hrdness (dt not shown) between honey nd the control bred smples. However, the sugr bred becme hrder thn the honey breds fter storge. Tble 5 indicted tht honey breds hd lower hrdness, dhesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, but higher springiness, cohesiveness thn the control bred fter 1 dy storge. It is lso worth noting tht incresing honey powder level decresed hrdness, dhesiveness, gumminess nd chewiness. On the other hnd, springiness nd cohesiveness ttributes were incresed, lthough chnges in resilience were not significnt. The incresed bred softness s the honey powder content incresed my be ttributed to the fructose present in honey ws more hygroscopic thn sugr. This is reflected to the higher moisture content of honey bred fter storge (dt not shown). The positive effect of honey powder on yest ctivity nd gs production during fermenttion, in combintion with the softening effect promoted by fructose on the gluten proteins led to increse in volume of loves nd longer shelf life. It ppered tht honey powder hd softening effect on crumb hrdness. The other results of the stored bred indicted tht there were significntly (Pb0.05) different dhesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, springiness, cohesiveness between the honey breds nd the control bred, but resilience did not obviously chnge. The lower hrdness, dhesiveness, gumminess, chewiness nd higher springiness, cohesiveness nd resilience would give honey bred good qulity Crust nd crumb colour The colour of bred is relted to physico-chemicl chrcteristics of the rw dough nd chemicl rections tht tke plce during bking which re Tble 2 Extensogrph dt of doughs contining sugr or honey power. Sugr/flour(%) or honey power/flour(%) Are (Energy vlue) (cm 2 ) Resistnce to extension (EU) Extensibility (mm) R/E (EU/mm) Sugr/flour 0 146±2 616±3 144±2 4.3 ± ±1 682±5 142±3 4.8 ± ±2 556±4 159±2 3.5 ± ±1 588±5 155±3 3.8 ±0.1 Honey powder/flour 0 146±2 616±3 144±2 4.3 ± ±1 798±6 111±2 7.2 ± ±2 771±4 101±1 7.6 ± ±1 643±2 116±3 5.6 ± g flour.

4 Q. Tong et l. / Food Reserch Interntionl 43 (2010) Tble 3 Results of sensory evlution of bred contining different mounts of honey powder. H/F (%) Volume (35) Crust colour (5) Crust texture (5) Crumb colour (5) Crumb texture (25) Smoothness (10) Springiness (10) Mouthfeel (5) Totl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±1.4 H/F: Honey powder/flour. dependent on operting conditions, such s Millrd rections nd crmeliztion which cuse browning of bked products during bking. The effects of honey powder on the bred colour were shown in Tble 6. The crust of the honey powder breds hd significntly higher L vlues nd b vlues, lower vlues nd ΔE vlues s compred with those of the control bred. The more glucose nd fructose in honey powder cused greter extent of Millrd browning rection in the crust, thereby intensifying the crust colour of honey breds. The honeyed breds showed yellower crumb thn the control bred, gin due to Millrd browning rection of reducing sugrs in honey with protein in the flour. Compred with the crust, the crumb of the honey bred gve much higher L vlues, but much lower vlues, b vlues nd ΔE vlues. This lighter colour ws due to the lower extent of Millrd Browning rections tht tke plce in the crumb thn crust. Crumb L vlue nd ΔE vlue decresed, crumb vlue nd crumb b vlue incresed s honey powder level incresed. 4. Conclusion Frinogrph results showed tht honey powder hd significnt wekening effect on dough rheologicl properties. The frinogrph results for dough smples contining honey powder showed tht wter bsorption incresed s honey powder incresed, while development time, stbility time nd degree of softening were t cceptble rnge. Bsed on the results of extensogrph, resistnce to extension/extensibility (R/E) of dough contining honey powder incresed over the control dough. On the other hnd, over loding of honey powder (N10%) could cuse the dough to develop stickiness problem during kneding. Honey powder could potentilly be used s dough improver. Honey powder usge in the bred formultion supported n improvement in dough rheology, better sensory ttributes, nd enhnced texture properties of bred s compred to the control formultion. The ddition of honey powder t 5 to 10% level improved the bking qulity by retrding stling nd incresing shelf life. They lso hd desirble effect on the colour development of crust nd crumb of bred. When honey powder ws incorported into the bred, the products hd higher volume, softer crumb, nd yellower colour. Sensory evlution by consumer pnel lso reveled tht the pnel preferred the breds mde from dough contining 5 10% honey powder nd were eqully stisfied with either the fresh breds or the breds fter 2 dys storge. The breds contining 5 10% honey powder hd the highest totl sensory evlution scores. Bsed on these results, 5 10% honey powder ddition could be recommended in bred mking s substitute of sugr. Additionl studies would be required to elucidte the role of honey powder on other qulity chrcteristics of breds. Acknowledgement The uthors grtefully cknowledge the finncil support from Chin Ntionl Agriculturl Science nd Technology Achievements Trnsformtion Fund Progrms (2007GB2C100111). Tble 4 The qulity chnges of bred contining sugr or honey powder fter 2 dys storge. Dys Volume (35) Crust colour (5) Crust texture (5) Crumb colour (5) Crumb texture (25) Smoothness (10) Springiness (10) Mouthfeel (5) Totl # ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±0.5 # ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±0.6 # ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±0.9 # ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±0.9 # ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±1.0 The first five lines mrked with # were breds contining sugr.

5 2288 Q. Tong et l. / Food Reserch Interntionl 43 (2010) Tble 5 The results of texture profile nlyzer of breds contining honey powder. H/F(%) Hrdness (g) Adhesiveness Springiness Cohesiveness Gumminess Chewiness Resilience ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±0.01 Texture profile nlysis (TPA) ws done 1 dy fter bking. H/F: Honey powder/flour. Tble 6 The results of crust colour or crumb colour of bred contining honey powder. H/F (%) Crust colour Crumb colour L b ΔE L b ΔE ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±0.5 H/F: Honey powder/flour. References Addo, K. (1997). Effects of honey type nd level on the bking properties of frozen whet flour doughs. Cerels Food World, 42, Americn Assocition of Cerel Chemists (2000). Approved methods of AACC Method 44-15A., 10th edn. St Pul, MN: Americn Assocition of Cerel Chemists. Anil, M. (2007). Using of hzelnut test s source of dietry fiber in bredmking. Journl of Food Engineering., 80, Brcens, M. E., & Rosell, C. M. (2005). Effect of HPMC on the microstructure, qulity nd ging of whet bred. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, Bourne, M. C. (2002). Food texture nd viscosity, 2nd ed. : Acdemic Press. Fiszmn, S. M., Slvdor, A., & Vrel, P. (2005). Methodologicl developments in bred stling ssessment: ppliction to enzyme-supplemented brown pn bred. Europen Food Reserch Technology, 221, GB/T , (1993). Bred bking qulity of whet flour-stright dough method. Chin. GB/T , Whet flour Physicl chrcteristics of doughs Determintion of wter bsorption nd rheologicl properties using frinogrph. Chin. GB/T , Whet flour Physicl chrcteristics of doughs Determintion of wter bsorption nd rheologicl properties using n extensogrph. Chin. Glbe, E., Anderson, P. W., & Goldmn, P. F. (1970). Dried honey nd dry molsses. Bkers' Digest, 4, Ouchemoukh, S., Louileche, H., & Schweitzer, P. (2007). Physicochemicl chrcteristics nd pollen spectrum of some Algerin honeys. Food Control, 18, Plesss, S., Pherson, L., Bektou, A., Nigm, P., & Koutins, A. A. (2005). Bred mking using kefir grins s bker's yest. Food Chemistry, 93, Pons, M., & Fiszmn, S. M. (1996). Instrumentl texture profile nlysis with prticulr reference to gelled systems. Journl of Texture Study, 27, Selomulyo, V. O., & Zhou, W. B. (2007). Frozen bred dough: Effects of freezing storge nd dough improvers. Journl of Cerel Science, 45, Subrmnin, R., Umesh Hebbr, H., & Rstogi, N. K. (2007). Processing of honey: A review. Interntionl Journl of Food Properties, 10,

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