The Effect of Quinoa on the Taste and Texture of Chocolate Chip Cookies. Hannah Doren Tarryn Hake Mitch Simmonds NUTR 453.

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1 The Effect of Quino on the Tste nd Texture of Chocolte Chip Cookies Hnnh Doren Trryn Hke Mitch Simmonds NUTR 453 November 19, 2012

2 Title: The Effect of Quino on the Tste nd Texture of Chocolte Chip Cookies Abstrct: Due to the incresed mount of people in the United Sttes who re consuming decresing mount of vitl nutrients, such s protein, nd the cses of crdiovsculr disese incresing, dessert with incresed nutrition is very importnt in tody s culture. Thus, the objective of this experiment ws to produce cookie tht hs more nutritionl vlue due to the use of quino, n ncient grin, in plce of flour. This ws to introduce more clcium nd protein, in the form of ll eight essentil mino cids, into the chocolte chip cookies. The texture, color, wter ctivity, nd flvor were tested using technicl equipment nd pnelists for ech of the vrying mounts of quino. The dt nd results from three different trils show tht there is no significnt difference in the texture (both objective nd subjective), color, nd tste of the cookies, while the nutritionl vlue of the chocolte chip cookies were incresed. Introduction: The objective of this experiment ws to crete cookie tht ws reduced in refined crbohydrtes nd provide more vitmins nd minerls, s well s ll the essentil mino cids, without compromising ppel to consumers by mintining sensory spects considered desirble in cookie. It ws hypothesized tht dding quino s substitute to refined ll purpose whet flour would ffect the texture, color nd tste of chocolte chip cookies, mking it n excellent dditive to cookies nd snck foods in generl. Replcement of flour with quino cn help fight rising disese rtes due to insufficient consumption of dietry fiber, protein nd nutrients nd overconsumption of crbohydrtes. Quino is stress tolernt plnt tht hs been cultivted long the Andes for the pst 7000 yers. The grins of the quino plnt hve higher nutritionl vlue thn most of the trditionl grins, nd hve n exceptionl blnce of oil, ft nd protein. This exceptionl blnce hs led quino to be known s good exmple of functionl food. It is known to help reduce the risk of disese nd contins good ntioxidnt effects, which my help keep cells helthy. Mny of the fts in quino re omeg 3 ftty cids which contribute to hert helth (Abugoch Jmes 2009). Quino is lso known to be rich source of protein becuse it is rich source of mino cid content, contining ll essentil mino cids (Veg Gálvez 2010). In the literture nlyzed from previously published reserch it ws found tht quino is gret ingredient to be used in ll types of cooking becuse of its bundnce of nutritionl components. Also, one study estblished tht the protein content of the quino grin ws not ffected much when subjected to high stress conditions (Gonzlez 2011). In one rticle it ws stted tht the quino grin hs protein content tht exceeds tht of brley, rice, nd corn nd is comprble to the mount tht is found in whet grin. Quino s essentil mino cid blnce is excellent becuse of wider mino cid rnge thn in cerels nd legumes (Jmes 2009).

3 While quino mintins itself s functionl food, flour does not hold the sme clout s grin. All purpose whet flour undergoes refining procedure which strips it of mny of its nutrients nd helth benefits, leving mostly crbohydrtes to be bsorbed by the body when eten. These crbohydrtes cuse spikes in the body s glycemic index, which increses the chnce of developing type 2 dibetes (Gross 2004). It ws lso found tht dietry fiber, crbohydrte tht cnnot be digested by humns, hs negtive correltion with developing type 2 dibetes while ft nd protein intke hd no effect. Mny diet relted diseses plgue the United Sttes tody; obesity nd dibetes, s well s complictions such s high blood pressure, hert disese nd stroke (ADA). As shown by Gross, the increse in prevlence cn be linked to decrese in the consumption of fiber, helthy fts nd proteins nd n increse in consumption of refined crbohydrtes in the form of snck foods nd soft drinks. Quino cn be used s substitute for refined flour in common snck foods such s cookies nd ckes, s well s bred. On weight per weight bsis, quino possesses more thn 2.5 times the fiber of ll purpose refined whet flour, s well s 6 times the ftty cids nd 33% more proteins nd mino cids, while contining 84% of the crbohydrte content of flour nd none of its sugr (USDA). Quino lso hs 3 to 10 times more minerls, vitmins nd ftty cids thn refined whet flour (USDA). The inclusion of quino in snck foods could potentilly reduce the risk of disese nd improve ll round nutrition. A study similr to the one proposed substituted mounts of quino for whet flour used for bking bred nd cookies. Vribles of 5%, 10%, 20%, nd 30% of quino (on weight per weight bsis) were used s their substitution mount for flour. It ws found tht the breds they bked with 5 nd 10 percent quino yielded good qulity bred. Another point tht ws discussed ws tht t the 30% quino level, the bred strted to tke on bitter tste. With the cookies it ws found tht the flvor incresed up to 20% quino nd then strted to decrese t 30% quino (Lorenz 1991), which ws tken into considertion when developing the experimentl design for this study. Methods: A. Design The design of this experiment ws to mke chocolte chip cookies by substituting prt of the flour with quino. The recipe used ws clled, Awrd Winning Soft Chocolte Chip Cookies, from the website nd the ingredients re listed below (Borsick). 280, 252, 224 nd 196 g ll purpose flour 0, 28, 56, nd 84 g Ancient Hrvest Quino 5 g bking sod 225 g butter, softened 165 g pcked brown sugr 50 g white sugr 95 g instnt vnill pudding mix

4 2 eggs 5 ml vnill extrct 335 g semisweet chocolte chips This recipe mkes 36 cookies, nd ech time four different btches were mde, including the control, 10%, 20%, nd 30% of the totl originl flour mount being substituted with quino. B. Procedure 1. Prehet oven to 175 C 2. Sift the flour nd bking sod together 3. In lrge bowl, mix together the butter, brown sugr, nd white sugr 4. Bet in the instnt pudding mix to the lrge bowl until blended, nd then stir in the eggs nd vnill 5. Blend in the flour mixture 6. Stir in the chocolte chips 7. Drop cookies by rounded spoonfuls onto ungresed cookie sheets 8. Bke for minutes in oven, or until edges re golden brown The ingredients were lwys mixed t room temperture, with bowls lso t room temperture. The sme utensils were used for ll btches, nd ech portion ws mixed until homogenized, but no more. The control ws timed so tht the following btches could be kept the sme, nd the cookies were lso llowed to cool for ten minutes before collecting dt. C. Recording Objective Testing Dt The Wter Activity System Meter ws used to determine the wter ctivity of the cookies, nd this ws done by breking up piece of ech cookie nd put in one of the wter ctivity system meter plstic cups to cover the bottom nd then plced in the mchine. Between five minutes to 45 minutes lter, the wter ctivity ws mesured s ws the temperture of the cookie s it ws nlyzed. The textures of the cookies were mesured with the Texture Anlyzer, performing two tests per cookie. A whole cookie ws plced under the knife probe nd ws tested, resulting in the cookie being split in two nd the force required to split the cookie recorded on the computer. The second test ws run by tking one hlf of the cookie from the preceding test nd performing the sme procedure. The results of the two tests were then verged. Becuse the chocolte chip cookies require greter force to be penetrted, the knife probe ws used nd preset progrm for cookies ws run on the Texture Anlyzer. This llowed for optimized redings of cookie tensile strength. The Hunter Colorimeter ws used to mesure the color of the chocolte chip cookies. Once cooled, single cookie ws plced in Petri dish, nd the three Hunter prmeters of L,, nd b were collected. Additionl informtion on these procedures my be found in the Food Chemistry Lbortory Mnul (2 nd edition) written by C. Wever nd J. Dniel, 2003, pges

5 For ech tril, eight pnelists evluted the cookies, which were seprted by their mount of quino, plced on wx pper, nd ssigned rndom three digit number. The trils were served in non consecutive order nd the ssigned numbers did not increse or decrese with the mount of quino included to ensure rndomiztion nd no bis. The evlution sheet is ttched below. D. Sensory Evlution Plese tste the smples in front of you, rinsing your mouth with wter nd crcker in between ech smple. On the scle below, plese mrk on the line tht best describes the texture of ech cookie. 467 Modertely hrd Slightly soft Extremely soft Extremely hrd Slightly hrd Modertely soft 826 Modertely hrd Slightly soft Extremely soft Extremely hrd Slightly hrd Modertely soft 913 Modertely hrd Slightly soft Extremely soft Extremely hrd Slightly hrd Modertely soft 254 Modertely hrd Slightly soft Extremely soft Extremely hrd Slightly hrd Modertely soft

6 On the scle below, plese mrk on the line tht best describes the sweetness of ech cookie. 467 Modertely sweet Slightly bitter Extremely bitter Extremely sweet Slightly sweet Modertely bitter 826 Modertely sweet Slightly bitter Extremely bitter Extremely sweet Slightly sweet Modertely bitter 913 Modertely sweet Slightly bitter Extremely bitter Extremely sweet Slightly sweet Modertely bitter 254 Modertely sweet Slightly bitter Extremely bitter Extremely sweet Slightly sweet Modertely bitter

7 Plese mke mrk beside the sttement tht you gree with. 467 Like extremely Like very much Like modertely Like slightly Neither like nor dislike Dislike slightly Dislike modertely Dislike very much Dislike extremely 913 Like extremely Like very much Like modertely Like slightly Neither like nor dislike Dislike slightly Dislike modertely Dislike very much Dislike extremely 826 Like extremely Like very much Like modertely Like slightly Neither like nor dislike Dislike slightly Dislike modertely Dislike very much Dislike extremely 254 Like extremely Like very much Like modertely Like slightly Neither like nor dislike Dislike slightly Dislike modertely Dislike very much Dislike extremely

8 Discussion: The results show very little difference between the cookies from the sensory evlution. The hedonic scle dt in Tble 10 shows tht the most liked cookie vrition ws with 10% quino, s it received n verge rting of 7.28 from ll three trils. The second nd third most liked were the vrition with 30% of quino, which hd n verge rting of 7.23, nd then the vrition with 20% of quino, which hd n verge rting of The control ws liked the lest, t All of these re very close, being within one point from ech other, nd is why there is no significnt difference between how much the different vribles re liked. This is shown in Tble 11, with the p vlues being greter thn 0.05, nd the corresponding subscripts in Figure 6. The sensory dt for the sweetness nd toughness of the chocolte chip cookies lso show tht there is no significnt difference between ll trils, s the p vlues re greter thn 0.05 (Tbles 7 nd 9). Tble 6 shows tht the verge rting for sweetness for ech tril for is round 2 or 3, nd the verges for ll trils in Figure 4 show tht the vrible tht ws perceived s most sweet ws the control, with rting of 3.65 out of ten. The next most sweet ws 30% quino (3.55), 20% quino (3.01), nd 10% (2.59) ws lest sweet. Quino hs nturlly sweet nd slightly nutty flvor so this could be fctor in why the 30% hd the sweetest flvor following the control. Although the results for toughness were ll within point of ech other on the sensory scle, in theory the cookie with the highest protein content should hve produced the toughest texture but other fctors could lso hve ttributed to the results shown. The sensory results for the toughness nd softness of the cookies mtched up with the breking strength shown by the texture nlyzer, with the 10% hving the highest breking strength. The toughness of the cookies shown in Tble 8 show tht the 10% quino vrition produced the toughest cookies, with n verge rting of Next toughest ws the control (6.96) nd then 30% quino (6.80). The softest cookie vrition ws the 20% quino vrition. The texture nlyzer dt for the cookies in Tble 1 nd Figure 1 show tht the 10% quino ws the toughest ( g), then the control ( g), then the 30% quino (260.73) nd 20% quino ( g) vrition. This dt ws collected from the Texture Anlyzer, knife probe, tking the verge of two tests on cookie from ech vrition. This corresponds exctly to the sensory dt of toughness, with the sme order of toughness. Tble 2 shows tht there is no significnt difference between the toughness of the cookies becuse their p vlues re greter thn The wter ctivities of the cookies re ll very similr, with the verges of ech vrition differing by.1 or less. Tble 4 shows tht due to the little difference between wter ctivities, there is no significnt difference between ny of the vritions. With more quino, the wter ctivity decresed, this could be due to the protein content of the cookies. Quino flour hs more protein thn regulr llpurpose flour so this could explin why the wter ctivity is decresing with the incresing mount of quino being used. This could be due to surfce interctions in which wter intercts directly with chemicl groups on undissolved ingredients (e.g.

9 proteins) through dipole dipole forces, ionic bonds (H 3 O+ or OH ), vn der Wls forces (hydrophobic bonds), nd hydrogen bonds. Another fctor tht could hve ffected the wter ctivity ws the temperture of the cookie. Lstly, the colors of the cookies were determined by using the Hunter Colorimeter, in which there ws very little difference between the different mounts of quino (Tble 5 nd Figure 3). This could be becuse the quino flour ws of very similr color to the llpurpose flour used, nd tht the quino did not introduce ny dditionl enzymtic browning from free res to bond, lthough more essentil mino cids were in the quino itself. The color my hve plyed role in the hedonic sensory evlution, s the visul spect of food is importnt in determining wht one perceives s ppeling nd not ppeling. Some possible errors in our results could hve been due to improper hndling of the mchines, such s the texture nlyzer, hunter colorimeter, nd the Wter Activity System Meter. Another source of error could be the temperture of the cookies when testing the objective dt. Not ll of the cookies hd cooled for the sme mount of time so this could cuse error. Also, some of the cookies took longer to cook due to vrying tempertures in the ovens used to bke the cookies which could lso be source of error. Lstly, humn error could hve lso skewed our results. Results: Tble 1. Texture of cookies in grms for ll three trils Control 10% 20% 30% Tril Tril Tril Averge Tble 2. Significnce testing for texture

10 Breking Strength (g) Control 10% Quino 20% Quino 30% Quino Figure 1. Texture of cookies in grms (verges of three trils used) Tble 3. Wter ctivity of cookies for ll three trils Control 10% 20% 30% Tril Tril Tril Averge Tble 4. Significnce testing for wter ctivity w Control 10% Quino 20% Quino 30% Quino Figure 2. Wter ctivity of cookies (verges of three trils used) Tble 5. Colorimeter mesurements of cookies for ll three trils nd vribles

11 Tril 1 L b Tril 2 L b Tril 3 L b Control 10% Quino 20% Quino 30% Quino Figure 3. Hunter Colorimeter vlues of cookies (verges of three trils used) Avg. L Avg. Avg. b Tble 6. Sweetness sensory rting of cookies for ll three trils, where n=24 (n=8 per tril) Tril 1 Control 10% 20% 30% Averge

12 SD Tril 2 Control 10% 20% 30% Averge SD Tril 3 Control 10% 20% 30% Averge SD Tble 7. Significnce testing for sweetness rting

13 Figure 4. Sweetness rting of cookies (verges of three trils used) Tble 8. Toughness sensory rting of cookies for ll three trils, where n=24 (n=8 per tril) Tril 1 Control 10% 20% 30% Averge SD Tril 2 Control 10% 20% 30% Averge SD Tril 3 Control 10% 20% 30%

14 Averge SD Tble 9. Significnce testing for toughness rting Figure 5. Toughness rting of cookies (verges of three trils used) Tble 10. Hedonic rting (out of 9) of cookies for ll three trils, where n=24 (n=8 per tril) Tril 1 Control 10% 20% 30% Averge SD

15 Tril 2 Control 10% 20% 30% Averge SD Tril 3 Control 10% 20% 30% Averge SD Tble 11. Significnce testing for hedonic rting

16 Figure 6. Hedonic rting of cookies (verges of three trils used) References Abugoch Jmes, LE Quino (Chenopodium quino Willd.): Composition, Chemistry, Nutritionl nd Functionl Properties. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 58:1 31 Retrieved from Borsick, D. (n.d.). Awrd winning soft chocolte chip cookies. Retrieved from winning soft chocolte chipcookies/detil.spx Dibetes Sttistics. Dt from the 2011 Ntionl Dibetes Fct Sheet. Americn Dibetes Assocition. Obtined from sttistics/ Gonzlez, JA, Konishi, Y, Bruno, M, Vloy, M, Fernndo, PE Interreltionships

17 mong seed yield, totl protein nd mino cid composition of ten quino (Chenopodium quino) cultivrs from two different groecologicl regions. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92(6): Retrieved from wileyonlinelibrry.com Gross, LS, Li, L, Ford, ES, Liu, S Incresed consumption of refined crbohydrtes nd the epidemic of type 2 dibetes in the United Sttes: n ecologic ssessment. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79(5): Lorenz, K, Coulter, L Quino Flour in Bked Products. Plnt Foods for Hum. Nutr. 41: Retrieved from 6w41g0/fulltext.pdf USDA. Nutrient dt for 20035, quino, uncooked. Ntionl Nutrient Dtbse. Retrieved from =Abridged&count=&mx=25&offset=&sort=&qlookup=quino+ USDA. Nutrient dt for 20481, Whet flour, white, ll purpose, unenriched. Ntionl Nutrient Dtbse. Retrieved from =&count=&mx=25&offset=&sort=&qlookup=white+flour Veg Gálvez, A, Mirnd, M, Vergr, J, Uribe, E, Puente, L, A Mrtínez, E Nutrition fcts nd functionl potentil of quino (Chenopodium quino willd.), n ncient Anden grin: review. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90(15): Retrieved from wileyonlinelibrry.com

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