BANGKOK STREET FOOD HENOMENON

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "BANGKOK STREET FOOD HENOMENON"

Transcription

1 BANGKOK STREET FOOD HENOMENON Monto ch Ma ton Institute of etropolitan Development, avamindradhira University, angkok, Thailand Abstract In 20, angkok was voted as the world s best destination for street food for 2 consecutive years according to C. It shows that street food is very popular among both local and international tourist, as it is delicious, easy access, and cheap. Its contributions to urban life go beyond their own informal employment, as it generates demand and supply for a wide range of services provided by other informal and formal workers ) as fast food providers, for low to middle-income workers, 2) as an economic activity, which generates income for urban poor, and ) as a social connector for the variety of its consumers.accordingly, This research aims to study on the phenomenon of angkok street food by examining the history and relationship between street fooddistribution, location, and other urban activities.din Daeng, ong haem, at urana, and amphanthawong are four cases that were chosen for analysis in terms of self-made public space and spatial identity. With this study, the well-planned and managed street food can be part of the city, which captures and responds to angkok s urban contexts.and it will help to find solutions for street food to be included in policy terms as economic assets to cities, while endure in the city within the contemporary urban context. Keywords: distribution, history, phenomenon, self-made public space, street food Corresponding Author: ontouch aglumtong;

2 Introd ction In the most regions of the orld, informal employment accounts for more than half of total employment 2. It is one of the drivers of urban livelihoods. ithin informal employment, street food vendors are visible in urban public spaces all over the globe, but its total number is clearly hard to find. As it as tended to be much less visible than formal employment in policy agendas, despite their positive contributions, street food vendors are infre uently valued in policy terms as economic assets to cities. In angkok, the capital and the largest city of Thailand, street food vending provided local ith cheap and convenient access to a variety of foods and a means of making a living. Even though, Thai foods are prepared daily in the most of every Thai households, yet, trading food is a common economic activity since the old days. The development of street food became more functioning and part of daily consumption ay of urban living, especially in the city here people spend most of the time outside their houses. In 201, angkok as voted as the orld s best destination for street food 0 for 2 consecutive years. It sho s that street food is very popular among both local and international tourist, as it is delicious, easy access, and cheap. ost street foods are cheaper on average than restaurant meals. From the study of Food and Agriculture Organi ation FAO, 2.5 billion people eat street food every day 1. Its contributions to urban life go beyond their o n informal employment, as it generates demand and supply for a ide range of services provided by other informal and formal orkers: 1 as a source of food for lo to middle-income orkers, 2 as an economic activity, hich generates income for urban poor, and as a social connector for the variety of its consumers 2. Fi :Street food in ao arat Road, angkok, Thailand Source: author Accordingly, the aim of this research is to study on the phenomenon of angkok street food by e amining the history and relationship bet een street food distribution, location, and other 2 Roever, S. and Skinner, C. 201 Street endors and Cities, in: Sage ournals: Environment Urbani ation, ol. 2, no. 2, pp C, 2017 est 2 cities for street food from anila to Tokyo, C, vie ed 21 August http: edition.cnn.com travel article best-cities-street-food inde.html 1 Etkin..L. 200 oods of Association iocultural erspectives on oods and everages that ediate ociability. USA: The University of Ari ona Press. 2 Tep ongsirirat, P The vendor and the street The use and management of public spaces in angkok, Doctoral Dissertation, Pensylvania: University of Pensylvania. 68

3 urban activities. ith this study, the ell-planned and managed street food can be part of the city, hich captures and responds to angkok s urban conte ts.and it ill help to find solutions for street food to be included in policy terms as economic assets to cities, hile endure in the city ithin the contemporary urban conte t. Research ethodo o y This is an empirical research that studies on angkok street food phenomenon, by using phenomenological approach to describe a lived e perience of a phenomenon, hich is a ualitative analysis of narrative data. Three methods ere introduced, hich are literature revie, secondary data analysis, and on-site observation. Four districts in angkok ere conducted for analysis, hich are Din Daeng high-density residential one, ongkhaem lo density residential one and open space one, Rat urana high-density residential one and industrial one, and Samphantha ong commercial one. These districts represented the different land-use planof angkok. Ho ever, there is a research limitation on the data of street food, due to the angkok etropolitan Administration A revoked temporarily permitted areas for street vending. Thus, the e act number of vendors and temporarily permitted areas are from Fi :Location of 4 case studies in angkok History o street oodin Ban o Street ood in the start o Ban o Fro ate s to ear y s Street food in angkok is the ay of life in both economical and cultural ays. Its e isting in angkok can be dated back for t o centuries since the start of early angkok establishment Rattanakosin period. At that time, female commoners orked as a food seller for additional income together ith farming. Their strategic location is rivers and canals, hich ere translated into floating market no adays. They used to sell food in ater market that contains a lot of boats, or delivering foods along the canal to aterfront houses. ost of sellers ere 69

4 female because male commoners ere recruited in the feudalism. Ho ever, the economy of this period as still a subsistence economy, not for profit or ider trade. After angkok as moderni ed during the reign of King Rama, estern development came to angkok, and many roads ere introduced to the citi en. This shifted the trade activity from ater to on-ground. As most of trading goods are foods, ith this shifting, the ne trade activity can be divided into t o types: 1 mobile street food that sellers can take it any here they ant to sell, and 2 food stall, hich appeared to be located outside the city all. During Rattanakosin period, street food vendors are mi ed bet een Thai and Chinese. ost of Thai vendors are female, hile most of Chinese vendors are male. Even though the feudalism ended in the reign of King Rama, most of Thais preferred to ork in farmlands because farmer generated a lot of income during this period until the end of orld ar I. Thus, Chinese vendors occupied the market of street trade in the city angkok instead. Fi :Chinese street food vendors in Rattanakosin period Source: ao arat historical center The main finding of this period is the differences bet een Thai and Chinese street food vendors. irathorn stated, Chinese street food vendors used street trade as a stepping-stone to be entrepreneurs. 4 Their career started from being labors, hich made them get their payment everyday and faster hen compares to agricultural sector. Then, they improved to be street food vendors, and increased their savings to be entrepreneurs later. For these Chinese, street food is a class connection bet een being farmers in China to labors in angkok, and then, becoming entrepreneurs. ean hile, Thai labors oined into street trade sector during the orld ar II because of three factors 5, hich are 1 the Chinese s promotion of economic status, 2 the government policy that limited obs for Chinese and supporting Thai people in doing street trade and industrial sector, and the orsen living conditions of Thai farmers due to the economics irathorn, The business of food street vendors in angkok: an analysis of economic performance and success, in: Canadian ournal of Development Studies Revue canadienned' tudes du d veloppement, ol. 2, no., pp irathorn, The business of food street vendors in angkok: an analysis of economic performance and success, in: Canadian ournal of Development Studies Revue canadienned' tudes du d veloppement, ol. 2, no., pp irathorn,. 2005, pp

5 depression since the orld ar I. ost of farmers in the suburb of angkok and farmers in the northeastern of Thailand sold their properties and moved to ork as labors in angkok s industrial sector. Street ood in rapid rbani ation Fro ate s to the end o s As a conse uence of the industrial development direction of the country, people in rural areas moved to angkok to search for ne obs in industrial sector. Then, Thai government announced its 1 st ational Development Plan in 1 1 to stimulate Thai economy. This resulted in the occurred of slums in angkok and labor mobility, hich caused the demand of cheap foods and goods. any studies about street vending in the 1 0s stated that: since 1 0, there as a rapid e panding of independent obs. This rapid e panding came from t o factors, hich are; 1 Thai government s policy that concentrated on industrial development but neglected to agricultural sector. Thus, it resulted in rapid urbani ation of angkok and migrant orkers from rural areas of Thailand. And 2 the e pansion of industrial, commercial, and services according to the e port policy, hich generated the demand for labor, and this labor is the main customer of street food vendors. In the study of Su attee in 1 0, there ere both street food vendors from angkok and other provinces in the 1:1 ratio. ut the ratio of migrant orkers from other provinces rose sharply after 1 0s due to Thai government s policy of industrial development, hich focused on e ports. The most significant character is oman from northeastern part of Thailand migrated to angkok to ork in street trade due to aggravation in agriculture and the problem of imbalance distribution bet een angkok and other provinces. In the meantime, the th ational Development Plan as promoted, and it supported small business in urban areas, hich focused on street food vendors. Thus, street food that as once a stepping-stone for Chinese to elevate their economics status during Rattanakosin period became a ob for migrant orkers to move over poverty from agricultural sector in rural areas. oreover, some cases could build up their career, e panded their business, and elevated their economics status. aneepong 7 e amined the continuum of street trade in Thailand from a spatial perspective in his study. He digested a post-1 7 character of street vendors by advanced business, technical and language skills, and claimed them as a ne generation of street food vendors. The ne generation of street food vendors is acutely a are of market conditions, operated utili ing sophisticated, but often informal, net orks. He later contrasted this group ith the old generation of street vendors, ho sold mostly street food to customer base of mainly lo income orkers in the neighborhoods in hich they lived. See fig. 4 ichienpradit, P. 200 A tudy on ffects of paces and Activities of ataimura tall illage), aster Degree Thesis, Department of Urban Engineering, raduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. 7 aneepong, C., alsh,. C A ne generation of angkok Street vendors: Economic crisis as opportunity and threat. Cities. aneepong, C., alsh,. C

6 Fi :Characteristics of street food vendors in angkok before and after the financial crisis in 1 From fig. 4, it sho s that the character of street food vendors changed from the old generation to a ne generation bet een 1 7 and 1. As of no, there is a variety of economics status of street food vendors. any researches asmeen 2001; irathorn 2005; irathorn 200 ; S 201 ; Sereerat 2014 assert that there ere a lot of lo -income street food vendors, but the current trend is sho ing that some of street food vendors are not lo -income anymore. Ho ever, this situation does not mean that the lo -income people can elevate their economics status into middle-income, but it means that middle-income people are oining the street food trade court. For e ample, r. Siri at ora et utthikun, hom faced the financial crisis in 1 7, he turned himself from real estate developer to a sand ich seller 40 on the street. This phenomenon is a part of employment paradigm shift, hich sho ed in the table that employee in the company uit their permanent ob to start their o n business. Street ood a ter Thai and inancia crisis Fro s onward A study by Sereerat 2014 concluded that from 2000s on ard, street food vendors in angkok faced many up-and-do n situations as follo s; 1 Street vendor clearance program as launched in 2000, resulted in a strict enforcement of la to street food vendors. This caused a decrease of vendors from 4,2 7 to 2,704. During 2001 to 2005, the Thai government loose control in street vendor policy and the number rose sharply to 7,52 street vendors. Ho ever, the number of vendors stuck in 200 because of 2 Thai Coup d tat and stabili es from 200 to 2010 until the Red shirt mob burned do n angkok in Thai flood crisis in 2011 caused the greatest losses and damages in Thai history and the number of vendors slightly decreased before rose to the peak in 2012 due to many urban crises as previously mentioned. irathorn, The business of food street vendors in angkok: an analysis of economic performance and success, in: Canadian ournal of Development Studies Revue canadienned' tudes du d veloppement, ol. 2, no., pp asmeen, Stockbrokers turned sand ich vendors: the economic crisis and small-scale food retailing in Southeast Asia. roforum, ol. 2, no. 1, pp

7 umber of Street endor Fi :The linear chart of the number of street vendor in angkok from Source of data: City La Enforcement Department of the A 201 After the A s street vendor s areas limitation in 201, there are a lot of lo -income economics reflections due to the limitation. So, the A considered this topic as urgent one and collaborated ith inistry of Commerce to improve uality of life of lo -income people. This action plan ill create ob opportunities, living standards, and support for microeconomics. As street food is targeted for this plan, it has to be upgraded to meet the sanitation standards for customers to have a variety of options at a cheap price. esides, the A ill provide potential places for the upgraded street food. 41 Re ationship o street ood distrib tion, ocation, and other rban acti ities Cross 42 e plained that: there are si different relationships bet een people and places, hich are 1 biographical as a person being born in and living in a place, 2 spiritual as a person feels a sense of belonging, ideological as a person lives according moral guidelines for human responsibility to place, 4 narrative as a person learns about a place through stories, 5 commodified as a person chooses a place based on desire and lifestyle, and dependent as a person constrains by lack of choice, depending on another person or economic opportunity. For street food vendors, it can be related to places from level of dependent relationships to commodified relationships. efore 1 0s, relationship of street food vendors and places as in the level of commodified relationships as they did their business in the desirable places. Ho ever, after the A announced the temporarily permitted areas, some of street food vendors forced to move to another place. Thus, it can be described as dependent relationships as the vendors are depended on another person. The revie ed literature on street food together ith previous surveys in angkok sho that angkok street food is associated ith other urban activities in location and distribution. y 41 Post Today 2017 Upgrading angkok street food, vie ed 21 August http: m.posttoday.com local bkk Cross,.E hat is Sense of Place, in: the 2 th Headwaters Conference, Western tate College, ovember 2-,

8 using a comparative study ith comprehensive plan, four districts in angkok ere conducted for analysis as follo s: Din Daen district Din Daeng is one of the main residential one of angkok as it is the location of Din Daeng flats; the early lo -income housing that as built by ational Housing Authority HA. From angkok comprehensive plan, Din Daeng district is ma or covered by bro n color, hich means highdensity residential one. In.4 s.km, there are 12, inhabitants ith the density of 14,757 persons per s.km. It is also a place for the 2 nd Office of angkok etropolitan Administration. Thus, there are t o ma or activities here, orking and living. In Din Daeng district, 2 locations of street food vending are all in high-density residential one. It has 07 street vendors along, 0 m. distances, hich 4 are street food vendor. The average vending area per lot is. 4 m. Street vending activity appears near community and public utilities. Their orking hour is starting from 5 a.m. in the morning until 2 a.m. in the morning of the ne t day. Fi :Street food distribution and location in Din Daeng district In fig., these hite dots represented the distribution of street vendor in Din Daeng district. T o main roads that contain huge numbers of street food vendor are Sutthisarn initchai road and Prachasongkhrao road. These t o, hich are the connection bet een ibhavadi road and RatchadaPisek Road, cut through residential areas of Din Daeng district. uildings along these t o roads are 1 school, 2 HA office, temple, 4 flat, 5 government office, and market. Din Daeng has a high percentage of ra ingredients ith 21 because it has highdensity residential one and a lot of fresh markets, in hich, these ra ingredient sellers are e tended from the fresh markets

9 Non Khae district ongkhaem district is on the estern side of angkok. ost of the areas are for lo -density residential one yello color in fig. 7 and green area ith part of an incinerator area blue color in fig. 7, and medium-density area in the est of the district orange color in fig. 7. This district has 5. s.km, hich contains 155,22 inhabitants ith the density of 4, 2 inhabitants s.km. Fi :Street food distribution and location in ongkhaem district ost of street vending activities in ongkhaem district happen around housing estate like Hansa illage, Phetkasem illa, Sin Petch illage, etc. This district has 7 of street food vendor from the total. Total distance for street vending in ongkhaem district is 1,77 m, hich contains 71 street vendors in an average vending area 2. 5 m lot. It has 11 temporarily permitted areas in both medium-density and lo -density residential one. Street vending activity happens near orking and living areas like 1 school, 2 government office, market, 4 shopping mall, 5 temple, and community, hich clustered along Phetkasem road as in fig.. Their orking hour is starting from 5 a.m. in the morning until 2 a.m. in the morning of the ne t day. ongkhaem is a location of incinerator in blue color in fig. 7. It has Phetkasem Road as the main skeleton of its residential one, ith housing estate spreads alongside small roads that e pand from Phetkasem Road. The hite dots in fig. sho s that street food vending actives alongside Phetkasem Road and continues on the north and south as most of buildings around here are housing estates, in hich they are the main consumers of street food

10 Rat B rana district Rat urana is also on the left side of Chao Phraya River. It has 4,157 inhabitants in 15. s.km, hich makes its density to 5, 2 inhabitants s.km. Rat urana district has four different landuses, hich are commercial one red color in fig., industrial one purple color in fig., highdensity residential one bro n color in fig., and riverside one pink color in fig.. Fi :Street food distribution and location in Rat urana district Rat urana district has 15 temporarily permitted areas, ith total distance of 1,4 5 m. along the street and 1 street vendors are orking from 5 a.m. in the morning until midnight. Thus, the average vending area per lot is 4.51 m. There are 2 2 street food vendors out of the total, hich is 7 of the total. School, shopping mall, and temple are main areas of street vending activity as 10 from 15 temporarily permitted areas are around these functions, hile the rests are in residential one and industrial one. From fig., three main roads that contain huge numbers of street food vendor are Rat urana road, Suk Sa at road and PrachaUthit road. These three connect ith Chalerm ahanakorn E press ay, hich is the connection bet een angkok C D and Thonburi side. uildings along these three roads are 1 Industry, 2 school, temple, 4 flat, 5 government office, and market. Due to its high-density residential one and industrial one, residents and labors form industries are the main consumers of street food in Rat urana. Sa phanthawon Samphantha ong is the smallest district in angkok. It has only 1.4 s.km, ith 2, 2 inhabitants. This makes Samphantha ong one of the highest-density districts of angkok ith 22, persons s.km. From angkok comprehensive plan, Samphantha ong district is the only 76 7

11 district that does not contain residential area in the district. Thus, buildings in this area are mostly commercial buildings that open directly to footpath. Fi :Street food distribution and location in Samphantha ong district Samphantha ong is the location of ao arat road, hich is called Chinato n of angkok. Foods that sell here are a bit different from other street in angkok, as it has more Chinese oriented than other places. Street food here is usually found along the lanes of five main roads; ao arat, Charoenkrung, Ratcha ong, ahachak, and Khaolam, hile other goods vendors oin in the street to make it busier, hich contains 04 street vendors. This district has the lo est percent of street food vendor compares to other cases as it has only 4 from the total. The total distance of street vending in this area is 4, 72 m., hich makes the density in this area is 5. 1 m. per lot. It has only commercial one due to its location in the center of angkok. From fig., those hite dots represented the density of street food vendor. Three main roads that contain huge numbers of street food vendor are ao arat road, Charoenkrung road, and Ratcha ong road, hile ahachak road and Khaolam road has fe er street food vendor. uildings along these t o roads are shop houses and Chinese restaurants that e pand its dining area into the footpath along ao arat Road and the small lanes

12 Din Daeng ong Khaem Rat urana Samphantha ong Supermarket Fresh arket Religious uilding Private Office Public Utility Community Shop House Fi :Percentage of street food vendor in each urban activity From fig. 10, 1 locations of street food activity are related to urban activities can be concluded as follo s: 1 shop house, fresh market, and supermarket are significant locations that street food vendors fragmented along or nearby these areas as in the bar chart above.these areas are in commercial area, high-density residential area, and medium residential area, in hich a lot of commercial activities take place. In terms of sense of place, it related to places from level of dependent relationships to commodified relationships. efore 1 0s, it as commodified relationships as they did their business in the desirable places. ut, after the use of temporarily permitted areas, some of street food vendors forced to move to another place. Thus, it can be described as dependent relationships as street food vendors are depended on another person or economic opportunity. The se ade p b ic space The study by Sereerat 4 revealed that the intervention of visible elements in public space in the Thai case e pressed a uni ue kind of place that could be called the self-made public space. Self-made spaces emerge ithin the overlapping areas of the public-private private area. It is the temporary transformation of private spaces along the boundaries line into public spaces. Self- made space is derived from the multi-layered layered interaction of urban elements, such as streets and buildings, and informal urban elements such as display devices, street vending devices, goods, and users. The creation of self-made public space comes from the comple ity of social and cultural e pressions informed by the spatial atmosphere and generates a sense of place, sense of belonging, and local identity. The self-made public space in angkok emerges naturally through the efforts of the users to make en oyable public spaces for community, even under the constrains of e isting modern urban forms and, these could emerge only hen the architectural elements and street elements allo ed the public-private ivate activities to flo into one another in Asian conte t. oreover, this empirical study reaffirmed the importance of urban elements in the outer layered field as proposed by Ohno, H. 1 2, in that urban life is retained through communication and e change bet een public and private spaces in the real orld. The form of the layer is fluid, dynamic, and sometime invisible, but it greatly influences the socio-cultural sense of place. It may thus be said that Asian streets can be improved by regenerating self- made urban spaces, hich ould re uire the co-operation operation of the public and private sectors. 4 Sereerat, S oles and patial-temporal Identities of treet ending in Contemporary rban Contexts Case tudies from angkok,doctoral Dissertation, Tokyo: The University of Tokyo, pp

13 Fi :The diagram of self-made public space Spatia identity In the past, street food vendors used rattan basket rack carried on poles, pushcarts, and umbrellas, hich are typical vending elements found in the Thai conte t, to operate their ob. ut this has changed overtime, and street food vendors in angkok stabili e their business in specific locations like around the unction or along the roads rather than ha king around. In contemporary social conte t, street vending and street food assumed an intermediate position and as controlled in a ay that called for compromises. 44 This condition allo ed street food vendors to survive throughout the pressures by adapting, evolving, and upgrading themselves. o adays, street food in angkok is an inclusive occupation for all of the populace, is attractive for tourists, and are a key element in making uni ue places that called self-made public spaces 45. Ho ever, the traditional form of street food vendors or the old generation has decreased in the process of urbani ation much as ith other moderni ed cities, and as replaced by the ne generation street food vendors, hich are more fit into contemporary urban conte t. This spatial identity is influenced by the follo ing four main factors: differences in location, spatial factors, temporal changes and market forces. Furthermore, there are factors that also effect to spatial identity of street food including the economy, urbani ation, urban policies and planning, local geography, climate and local people. Some urban planners in angkok consider street food as an inclusive urban element and a tourist attraction, even though some are still think that it is an image of a poor and illegal. Conc sions Street ood endors The evolution of street food vendors started from the establishment of angkok, hen Chinese vendors occupied the market of street trade in the city angkok instead, hile Thai vendors favored in floating market. During the orld ar II, Thai labors oined into street trade sector mainly because the Thai government policy that limits obs for Chinese and supporting Thai people in doing street trade and industrial sector, and the orsen living conditions of Thai farmers due to the economics depression and lo rice price since the orld ar I. 44 Sereerat, S oles and patial-temporal Identities of treet ending in Contemporary rban Contexts Case tudies from angkok,doctoral Dissertation, Tokyo: The University of Tokyo, pp Sereerat, S oles and patial-temporal Identities of treet ending in Contemporary rban Contexts Case tudies from angkok,doctoral Dissertation, Tokyo: The University of Tokyo, pp

14 As a result, angkok turned to be the orld most primate city due to rapid urbani ation from 1 0s to 1 0s. In the beginning, there ere both street food vendors from angkok and other provinces in the half-half ration. ut migrant orkers moved in during 1 0s 4 due to Thai government s policy of industrial development and raised the ratio rapidly. Ho ever, after the financial crisis in 1 7, there is a variety of economics status of street food vendors due to those middle-income orkers ere oining the street food trade court. In conclusion, street food that as once a stepping-stone for Chinese to elevate their economics status during Rattanakosin period became a ob for migrant orkers to move over poverty from agricultural sector in rural areas. oreover, some cases could build up their career, e panded their business, and elevated their economics status as their main factor for successful is sources of cheap ingredient 47, hile the other factors are 1 location, 2 self-confident, financial kno ledge, and 4 social net ork. Re ationship Fi :The development of street food vendor According to the various potentials of street food mentioned above, street food vendors maybe considered as a component in maintaining cities accessible to everyone. ut, most governments and policy-makers in planning used to turn a blind eye to these potentials of street food, due to many reasons. Ho ever, the A is starting to open their eyes for street food vendors after rethinking about the potential of street food, and they intends to change the poverty image, illegality of street food by read usting permitted areas for them in order to come over those traditional incurring by governments, policy makers, developers 4 and urban designers controlled by modern concepts ho try to diminish street food from cities 4. According to the intervie, rights and responsibilities of street food vendors are the most crucial point of their ans ers, as part of inclusive city. It means that street food vendors not only advocate for their rights but also are ready to participate and contribute as citi ens through adherence to e isting policies and procedures. It also supports the long-term co-e istence bet een street food vendors, local authorities, and pedestrians, as it is the replication and enforcement of progressive la s and regulations, in particular, those pertaining to the licensing and location of vendors, and sanitation measures. esides, it ill support street food vendors ho have the potential to e pand their business. This ill not only address the potential of 4 irathorn, The business of food street vendors in angkok: an analysis of economic performance and success, in: Canadian ournal of Development Studies Revue canadienned' tudes du d veloppement, ol. 2, no., pp irathorn,. 2005, pp ho mik, S treet vendors in the global urban economy. e Delhi: Routledge. 4 Poerbo, H Competing for the side alk: Street peddling as an un anted urban activity. Paper presented at the On Asian streets and public space: Selected essays from reat Asians Street Symposium ASS 1 2, Singapore. 80 0

15 some street food vendors, but also sho responsiveness to the changing employment paradigm and the strengthening of the grass-roots economy. In conclusion, street food stalls are one of the most visible urban elements that connected to other urban activities in angkok. Even though, Street food stalls are an informal-temporal urban element, it co-e ists ith other urban elements and activities in Thai public space through social and physical connection. This is hy the A and Thai government should take it into account in place making and integrate it to urban design theories and practice for the future inclusive planning and sustainable development of the city of angkok. Re erences Aloysius unadi,. 200 ulnerability of urban informal sector street vendors in ogyakarta, Indonesia. ho mik, S treet vendors in the global urban economy. e Delhi: Routledge. ho mik, S.K Street vendors in Asia: a revie, in: Economic and Political eekly, 2005, pp romley, R Street ending Public Policy: A lobal Revie, in: International ournal of Sociology Social Policy, ol. 20, pp C, 2017 est 2 cities for street food from anila to Tokyo, C, vie ed 21 August http: edition.cnn.com travel article best-cities-street-food inde.html Cross,.E hat is Sense of Place, in: the 2 th Headwaters Conference, Western tate College, ovember 2-, 200. Deguchi, A Re-evaluating street vendors in Asian cities and Asian urbanism. Paper presented at the th International conference of the Asian Planning Schools Association. Deguchi, A., Kensaku, T., Kaori,., Kitamura, H The lively space and Function of atai in Fukuoka City. ournal of Asian Urban Studies, ol., no. 2 Asian Street endor Research Symposium, pp Deguchi, A., atsuo, K., Takaki, K., 2004 Asian Street endors and Urban Liveliness on Public Streets. Paper presented at the 5 th International Smposium on Architectural Interchanges in Asia, atsye, apan. Dias, S Women in Informal mployment lobali ing and rgani ing. Dimas, H. 200 treet endors rban roblem and conomic otential. andung: Center for Economics and Development Studies, Department of Economics, Pad ad aran University. Etkin..L. 200 oods of Association iocultural erspectives on oods and everages that ediate ociability. USA: The University of Ari ona Press. Hays- itchell,. 1 4 Street vending in Peruvian Cities: The Spatio-Temporal ehavior of Ambulantes. The Professional eographer, ol. 4, no. 4, pp Higman, How ood ade History. USA: iley- lack ell. Kongtip, P., Thongsuk,., oosook,., Chantanakul, S., Singhaniyom, S Health effects of air pollutants on street vendors: A comparative study in angkok. Thai ournal of To icology, ol. 2, no. 1, pp Kusakabe, K. 200 olicy issues on street vending An overview of studies in Thailand, Cambodia and ongolia: International Labour Office. aneepong, C., alsh,. C. 2012) A new generation of angkok treet vendors conomic crisis as opportunity and threat.cities. irathorn, The business of food street vendors in angkok: an analysis of economic performance and success, in: Canadian ournal of Development Studies Revue canadienned' tudes du d veloppement, ol. 2, no., pp Poerbo, H Competing for the side alk: Street peddling as an un anted urban activity. Paper presented at the On Asian streets and public space: Selected essays from reat Asians Street Symposium ASS 1 2, Singapore. Post Today 2017 Upgrading angkok street food, vie ed 21 August http: m.posttoday.com local bkk

16 Roever, S. and Skinner, C. 201 Street endors and Cities, in: Sage ournals: Environment Urbani ation, ol. 2, no. 2, pp Sereerat, S oles and patial-temporal Identities of treet ending in Contemporary rban Contexts Case tudies from angkok,doctoral Dissertation, Tokyo: The University of Tokyo. Schneider, F Si e and measurement of the informal economy in 110 countries. Paper presented at the orkshop on Australian ational Ta Centre. Tep ongsirirat, P The vendor and the street The use and management of public spaces in angkok, Doctoral Dissertation, Pensylvania: University of Pensylvania. Thompson, D Thai treet ood Authentic ecipes, ibrant Traditions. USA: Ten Speed Press. Tinker, I. 1 Street food into the 21 st century. Agriculture and Human alues, ol. 1, no., pp Tinker, I. 200 Street foods: traditional microenterprise in a moderni ing orld. International ournal of Politics, Culture, and Society, ol. 1, no., pp ichienpradit, P. 200 A tudy on ffects of paces and Activities of ataimura tall illage), aster Degree Thesis, Department of Urban Engineering, raduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. ichienpradit, P. 200 Development of Stalls management and Lessons Learn from apan into anagement Suggestions for Thailand, in: roceeding City Innovation Innovation City ational Conference of rban lanning in angkok, 200. alsh, The street vendors of angkok: Alternatives to indoor retailers at a time of economic crisis. American ournal of Economics and usiness Administration, ol. 2, no, 2, pp ick, I Women Working in the hadows The Informal conomy and xport rogressing ones. asmeen,. 1 angkok s oodscape ublic atings, ender elations and rban Change, Doctoral Dissertation, ancouver: University of ritish Columbia. asmeen, Stockbrokers turned sand ich vendors: the economic crisis and small-scale food retailing in Southeast Asia. roforum, ol. 2, no. 1, pp ee, K. 1 Thai Hawker ood. angkok: ook Promotion Service. 82 2