Unit of breeding and variety testing Unit of orchard management

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1 Unit of breeding and variety testing Unit of orchard management Dr.biol. Laila Ikase Dr.biol. Sarmīte Strautiņa head of the unit of breeding and variety testing Dr.agr. Edgars Rubauskis head of the orchard management research

2 Breeding and Orchard management units A basic part of fruit research is breeding of fruit crops and testing of growing technologies Most closely connected with development of Latvian commercial horticulture Staff (both units): 6 leading researchers 4 researchers (including 2 PhD students) 1 scientific assistant (PhD student) 5 technicians

3 Breeding and Orchard management units After regaining independence of Latvia, in 1990ties interest in fruit growing rapidly increased, for this reason applied research was especially important. Intensive growing technologies were introduced, investigating the suitability of cultivars for commercial orchards. Most of cultivars grown so far, both of Latvian breeding and introduced ones, were not suitable for modern orchards. Cultivar introduction from West European and other countries rapidly increased. Therefore the task was: to select and breed cultivars best suited to intensive orchards and adapted to our climate; To adapt for our cultivars and conditions growing and storage technologies used in other countries.

4 Breeding and Orchard management units Currently the main tasks are: To promote the development and modernization of Latvian fruit growing industry the necessity for further innovative applied and essential research To provide farmers with innovative fruit and berry cultivars, rootstocks, as well as growing technologies.

5 Breeding and Orchard management units Main activities of the Unit of breeding and variety testing : 1. Breeding of fruit plant cultivars: - well adapted to climatic conditions of Latvia and with high ecological plasticity; - highly productive and resistant to most important diseases and pests; - suitable to innovative growing technologies; - for fresh consumption and processing. 2. Research and maintenance of fruit plant genetic resources and their use for breeding 3. Evaluation of introduced varieties for breeding and practical purposes.

6 Breeding and variety testing Why there is need for breeding in Latvia? Fruit growing in Latvia develops, it is profitable, the climate is suitable for it. Latvian climate is not well-suited for the best foreign commercial cultivars Mara Eglite Dace

7 Breeding and variety testing Donors in breeding Commercial cvs. grown in Latvia - adapted, productive, good quality Commercial cvs. of other countries high quality, good storage Local varieties adapted, sources of genetic variability Donors of specific genes and traits: - Disease and pest resistance (general) - Components of winter-hardiness (general) - Apples: scab resistance (Vf, Vm), columnar tree (Co) - Plums: self-fertility, compact tree - Sweet cherries: self-fertility (Sf) - Blackcurrants: resistance to gall mite Cecidophyopsis sp., biochemical compounds, components of productivity (interspecific hybrids ) - Raspberries: chemical compounds, components of productivity

8 Breeding and variety testing Methods of breeding Currently two breeding programms are supported by Latvian Ministry of Agriculture for apple and raspberries 1.Careful choice of parent cultivars 2. Amount of crosses: For apple every year 3000 flowers > seeds. For raspberries every year crosses > seeds 3. Evaluation of seedlings Speeding up of evaluation process: For planting in field 20-25% seedlings selected. for apple about seedlings has been planted in orchard in every two years For raspberry about seedlings has been planted in orchard every year 4. Evaluation of selected hybrids in orchard: Selected apple seedlings propagated on rootstock B9 in 3 replications one plant in each replication. Selected raspberry seedlings propagated in 3 replications 5 plants in each replication

9 Breeding and variety testing Edite Apple breeding New cultivars registered in Latvia ( ) Resistances Notes Roberts Gita Scab (Vf), Nectria Scab (Vf), mildew (polygenic) Dace Scab (Vf) Good trial results in Estonia and Finland Edite Scab (Vf), mildew (polygenic), fruit rot, Nectria Registered also in in Belgium Ligita Scab (Vf), fruit rot, Nectria Registered also in in Belgium Baiba Co Uldis Co Zane Co Scab (polygenic), mildew (polygenic), fruit rot Scab (polygenic), mildew (polygenic), Nectria Fruit rot, Nectria Monta (long storage) Scab (Vf), mildew (polygenic), fruit rot DUS test since 2012 (Poland)

10 Breeding and variety testing Breeding of Japanese quince Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.)Lindl.ex Spach Rasa Registered in Latvia, 2011 First cultivar of Chaenomeles japonica registered in the world for fruit production: Thornless, winter-hardy bush; Very productive (total 21.9kg/bush in 5 years); Average fruit weight g; Fruits mature at the beginning of September; Fruits contain 70 mg/% vitamin C, 350 mg% phenolic compounds in average.

11 Breeding and variety testing Sweet cherry breeding Paula Registered in Latvia, 2011 good fruit size: mean weight 8 g, and very good sweet-sour balanced taste. Trees are winter-hardy, vigor is moderate, easy to train. The flowering time and ripening time are early; fruits ripen at the end of June. Tree productivity is high. Since the fruit color is yellow, the cultivar is better suitable for home gardening.

12 Breeding and variety testing Plum breeding New cultivars DUS test since 2012 (Poland) Ance Tree height is ~3,3m, with spreading, very healthy frame. Flowering is medium early. Self-infertile. Fruit maturing is early (1 st decade of August). Fruits are yellow with a slight blush. Stone separation of mature fruits is good. Flesh is medium firm, with good flavour. Average fruit mass is 30-45g. Average yield in 5th to 10th growth year is 30 kg per tree, stable (in 2010 even ~ 70 kg). Adelyn Tree height is ~3,3m, upright. Flowering is medium early. Self-infertile. Fruit maturing is medium (3 rd decade of August). Stone separation of mature fruits is good. Fruits are yellow with blush. Fruit flesh is firm, with very good flavour. Average fruit weight is g (in 2010 even 65 g). Average yield in 5th to 10th growth year is 18 kg per tree, stable. Fruits can keep in cool storage up to 2 weeks.

13 Breeding and variety testing Plum breeding New cultivars DUS test since 2012 (Poland): Sonora Tree height is ~3,3m, with spreading frame, easy to train. Flowering is medium early. Self-fertile (average fruit set 33 %). Fruit maturing in Latvia is medium late (3 rd decade of August to 1 st decade of September). Fruits are purple with bluish bloom. Stone separation of mature fruits is medium. Fruit flesh is medium firm, with good flavour. Average fruit weight is 45-60g. Average yield in 5th to 10th growth year is 23 kg per tree. Fruits can keep in cool storage up to 2 weeks. Suitable for canning. Lotte Tree height is ~ 3 m, with open tree crown. Flowering is late. Self-infertile. Fruit maturing in Latvia is late (1 st or 2 nd decade of September). Average fruit weight is g. Average yield in 5th to 10th growth year is 13 kg per tree.

14 Breeding and variety testing Blackcurrant breeding Karina ('Lentiai' x 'Intercontinental') Registered in Latvia 2012, Lithuania 2013, planned - in Sweden. Winterhardiness good. Time of ripening mid-season. Bush tall, with a medium number of basal shoots and a bushy habit. Fruit very large, with good taste. Clusters long and berries separate well from the cluster. Productivity very high. Chemical content of berries: 114 mg100g -1 ascorbic acid, 152 mg 100 g -1 anthocyanins, 17.3% soluble solids. Resistance to diseases and pests: Very good resistance to powdery mildew, septoria leaf spot, rust and reversion Good resistance to leaf spot and blackcurrant gall mite.

15 Breeding and variety testing Raspberry breeding Viktorija Registered in Latvia 2011 Submitted for registration in Sweden 2013 Winter-hardiness medium. Time of ripening medium, some days later than Ina. Canes are medium high and upright, slightly drooping. The spines are located all over the cane. Sucker production is medium. Fruits large, of trapezoid shape, red. Druplets are tightly fastened. Taste sweet sour, without typical aroma, better than Glen Ample. Productivity good. Resistance to Didymella applanata (spur blight) and cane blight is satisfactory. Drawbacks: drought sensitive. Lack of moisture significantly decreases the fruit weight. 15

16 Breeding and variety testing Liene Registered in Latvia 2011 Winter-hardiness good. Time of ripening medium early. Canes vigorous, high and upright, slightly drooping. The spines are located in the upper part of cane. Sucker production medium. Fruits dark red, large, of conical shape, sweet sour, tasty. Druplets small, tightly fastened. Productivity good. The harvest period is compact, it is possible to pick all yield in 4 times. Resistance to Didymella applanata (spur blight) and cane blight is satisfactory. 16

17 Breeding and variety testing To test the possibilities of growing new cultivars outside Latvia, cultivars and elite hybrids are/were tested at research institutions in other countries: Estonian University of Life Sciences, Polli Horticultural Research Centre; Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture; Poland, Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Skierniewice; Swedish Pomological Science Centre; Norwegian Industrial Biotech Network GRAMINOR AS; Finland, MTT; Germany, Technical University of Munich, Weihenstephan Science Center; Dienstleistungszentrum Ländlicher Raum Rheinpfalz; France, I.F.O. Research; Belgium, Better3fruit Ltd. (breeding agreement) and J.Paquot Nurseries; The Netherlands, Applied Plant Research, Randwijk; Slovakia, PLANTEX s.r.o., Piestany; Romania, Fruit Growing Research Extension Station Valcea; Belarus, Institute of Fruit Growing of the National Academy of Sciences

18 Orchard management Main activities of unit of orchard management: Testing of cultivar-rootstock combinations for perspective cultivars of local breeding and introduced cvs. Orchard irrigation and fertilization. Development and adaptation of training and growing systems : - for traditional fruit crops; - for rare crops (Chaenomeles japonica, etc.); - for fruit quality management; - systems to decrease growing risks (for sweet cherries, raspberries and strawberries). Consulting and training of farmers in orchard management.

19 Orchard management Testing of rootstocks At the moment research provided in: - about 10 trials of apple, using rootstocks bred in Russia (Budagovsky series), Poland, Finland, Western Europe (M9 clones etc.) and the USA (CG series), including co-trials with colleagues in USA ( Iowa State University) and Lithuania - 10 trials of pears on rootstocks: Kazraušu seedling rootstocks, Pyrodwarf and BA 29, BP 30, OHxF 87, OHxF trials of cherries, using rootstocks P.mahaleb, Gisela 5, Gisela 4, Weiroot trials of plums, using rootstocks: Myrobalan seedlings and Wangenheim Auksis on B 396 and MM 106

20 Orchard management Observations on the rootstock suitability for different growing conditions, including plant density per area unit, are carried out at farms in different regions of the country. This allowed to select cultivars and their combinations with rootstocks of different vigour, suitable for variable growing conditions. Apple rootstocks B.9, B.396, M.26, Pure 1, P 22, MM 106, M.26EMLA, B.118 have been recommended for production in Latvia. Cultivar Iedzenu on B 490 and MM 106 Cultivar Zarya Alatau on P 22 and B 118

21 Orchard management The cultivars Antej, Beloruskoje Malinovoje, Kovalenkovskoje, Auksis, Rubin (Kazakhstan), Saltanat, Sinap Orlovskij, Zarja Alatau, Konfetnoje as well as Krapes Cukuriņš were selected as most perspective for commercial growing in Latvia. The cultivars of apples, plums, pears, sweet cherries, raspberries, black currants selected after trials at LSIFG, including new cultivars bred in LSIFG, have been tested for the management and productivity at more than 10 farms in different regions of Latvia. Belorusskoje Malinovoje Trial of Japanese quince

22 Orchard management Soil moisture and fertilization Apple trials for the providing optimal moisture regime in soil, including irrigation (drip), mulching, fertigation showed that even in moist summers apple-trees on dwarf rootstocks need fertigation or mulching. Sour cherry trials for the providing optimal moisture regime in soil with irrigation and mulching demonstrated that irrigation facilitated fruit tree canopy development so increasing productivity.

23 Orchard management Development of training and growing systems Apple trials for the research of the impact of different planting density and and methods of training on tree development, productivity and fruit quality. Plum trials on two rootstocks for research of different tree training systems. Trial of Chaenomeles japonica cultivar mulching system by using of agrotextil, for minimising the using of pesticides and hand labour. Trials to increase yielding capacity of strawberries by using high plastic tunnels.

24 Orchard management Fruit quality management Advanced information technologies (including programming) are used in research to study data acquisition and transmission systems for evaluation of abiotic conditions. - Apple trials for reseach of impact of optimal fruit thinning for new cultivars, harvest time etc., on fruit consumption quality - Sweet cherry trials for research of the impact of two different rain covers (shelters) on minimising of fruit cracking

25 Orchard management Development of fruit quality management Raspberry trial for research of the impact of two types of high plastic tunnels (Haygrove and FVG) on yield and fruit quality of floricane raspberry autumn raspberry trial for research of the impact of high plastic tunnels (Haygrove) on yield and fruit quality Two strawberry trials for research of the impact of high plastic tunnels (FVG ) and additional covers on yield and fruit quality and terms of fruit ripening as well as the selection of more suitable cultivars for growing under tunels.

26 Breeding and Orchard management units Recent achievements: - 54 scientific publications (incl. 2 PhD Thesis) since presentations at international scientific conferences - Participation in 21 national and international projects - Average popular science publications per year in journals and, 18 different booklets and leaflets - «Handbook of orchard management» for growers Book: «Fruit tree and shrub pruning and training» for growers Book Latvian apples for growers, Books of Latvian pomology (Stone fruits) : Plums; Cherries, apricots and peaches

27 Breeding and Orchard management units Cooperation: Soil and Plant Science Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, LUA, Latvia Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, LUA, Latvia Faculty of Computing, University of Latvia Pure Horticultural Research Centre, Latvia Latvian Plant Protection Research Centre, Latvia Iowa State University of Science and Technology, USA Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Lithuania Swedish Pomological Science Centre, Sweden All-Russian Fruit-crop Breeding Institute, Orel, Russia The National Academy of sciences of Belarus, the Institute of Fruit Growing, Belarus Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Skierniewice, Poland Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (MTT), Finland