Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) UK 2014 season report

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1 Spotted Wing Drosophil (SWD) UK 214 seson report Michelle Fountin, Jerry Cross, Dvid Buss, Bethn Shw, Adrin Hrris Andre Dobrovin Pennington, Rlph Noble Ktie Hopson, Mri Diez, Rebec Conde Ruiz, Jmie Stozk, Mddie Cnnon nd Edurdo Jimenez EMR Alison Doln, Gynor Mlloch, JHI Dvid Hll, Dudley Frmn, NRI 1 Topics 1. Ntionl monitoring progrmme 2. Hbitt study: On frm popultion development 3. Wild hosts t SWD hotspot 4. Detecting lrve 5. Egg lying 6. Time of ctivity 7. Preference for egg lying sites 8. Wste hndling nd disposl 9. Insecticide efficcy tril 1. Trp nd bit comprison tril 11. On going 12. Recommendtions 2

2 1. Ntionl monitoring Totl 133 trps 2 trps per crop/wild, (1 t edge, one inside) 3 Averge ctch per trp Ntionl monitoring Comprison of 213 nd First found in 212 Mild winter Week 4 ADRIAN HARRIS nd BETHAN SHAW (214) First record of Drosophil suzukii (Mtsumur) (Dipter, Drosophilide) in Gret Britin. Dipterists Digest, 21

3 Men No. SWD per trp Ntionl monitoring Comprison of regions 214 South Est Est Crops South Est Woodlnd Est Crops Angli Crops Est Woodlnd Angli Woodlnd West Midlnds Crops Crops Cherry West Midlnds Woodlnd Woodlnd Scotlnd Totl Totl Rspberry Strwberry 6 Jn 6 Feb 6 Mr 6 Apr 6 My 6 Jun 6 Jul 6 Aug 6 Sep 6 Oct 5 6 Nov 2. Hbitt study 2 UK fruit frms Mpping of hbitts ~5 pirs of trps (1 m prt) Focus crops; cherry, rspberry nd strwberry Crop nd wild fruit smples for emergence testing 6

4 2. Hbitt study Numbers of D. suzukii in 5 trps Fm 1 Fm Apr 23 My 23 Jun 23 Jul 23 Aug 23 Sep 23 Oct 23 Nov 23 Dec 23 Jn 23 Feb 23 Mr 23 Apr 23 My 23 Jun 23 Jul 23 Aug 23 Sep 23 Oct 7 Hbitt surveys Frm 1 8

5 Hbitt surveys focus on cherry orchrd Men No. D. suzukii per hbitt Apple orchrd Cherry orchrd Woodlnd First eggs lid in cherry 4 Mle, 6 Femle Brix 4 8.5, pink/white End of cherry hrvest Mny eggs lid in remining tree fruits >2, Brix 12 2, red/deep red First dults trpped cherry orchrd All covers removed No cherries on ground or trees Most wild blckberries gone 2 Activity detected Mrch Lmbd cyhlothrin 17 Apr 24 Apr 1 My 8 My 15 My 22 My 29 My 5 Jun 12 Jun 19 Jun 26 Jun 3 Jul 1 Jul 17 Jul 24 Jul 31 Jul 7 Aug 14 Aug 21 Aug 28 Aug 4 Sep 11 Sep 18 Sep 25 Sep 2 Oct 9 Oct 16 Oct 23 Oct 9 Hbitt surveys Frm 2 Men No. D. suzukii per hbitt Hedgerow Rspberry Woodlnd First eggs detected in wild First eggs detected in rsp SWD in wild blckberry nd some elderberry spinosd pyrethrum chlorpyrifos Most wild blckberries gone 4 Jul 11 Jul 18 Jul 25 Jul 1 Aug 8 Aug 15 Aug 22 Aug 29 Aug 5 Sep 12 Sep 19 Sep 26 Sep 3 Oct 1 Oct 17 Oct 24 Oct 1

6 3. Potentil hosts: dult SWD inoculted Totl SWD Chokeberry (Aroni melnocrp) 54 Cotonester 41 Snowberry (Symphoricrpos) 38 Honeysuckle (Lonicer) 37 Red Bryony (Bryoni dioic) 35 Rose hip (Ros rugos) 35 Rown (Sorbus) 25 Guelder rose (Viburnum opulus) 23 Spindle (Euonymus europe) 8 Pink Pgod (Sorbus hupehensis) 5 Yew (Txus) 5 Hwthorn (Crtegus) Pyrcnth Skimmi jponic Mhoni Rose Ivy (Heder helix) Holly (Ilex quifolium) Hosts: nturl emergence, wild/crop Rspberry Cherry Strwberry Blckcurrnt Blck Bryony (Tmus communis) Yew (Txus) Blckberry Elder 12

7 3. Wild hosts: First detected egg lying Fruit Dte fruit picked Cherry 3 My Blckberry 24 Jul Strwberry 4 Aug Elderberry 5 Aug Rspberry 7 Aug Blckcurrnt 22 Aug Detecting lrve Slt Crush fruit in plstic bg with slt solution (75g /l wter) with drop of spry tnk defomer. Wit 2 minutes nd count emerged lrve Sugr As bove, but with sugr (18g /l wter) Freeze Fruit in plstic bg, freeze overnight count lrve on fruit surfce Nturl Emergence Ventilted box t room temperture keep for 2 3 weeks count dults Procedure 3rd instr stge compre to dissection of fruit 14

8 4. Detecting lrve Sugr nd slt immersion most successful nd fster But consider emergence long term/ monitor controls 18 c % of detection by dissection b b Sugr Slt Freezing Emergence b b b b b Blueberry Cherry Rspberry Strwberry Egg lying 1 No distinguishble ovries when opened 2 Ovries re distinguishble when bdomen opened but no eggs within 3 Ovries distinguishble full of eggs without filments when opened 4 Mtures eggs with filments 5 Ovries with few mture eggs, mny wrinkled, my look slightly yellow 16

9 5. Egg lying Frm Egg lying Frm 2 Mture eggs November: polytunnels? 18

10 Numbers of D. suzukii emerge Time of dy ctivity egg lying Cherry Men SWD C Humidity % :: 11:: 11:: 13:: 13:: 15:: 15:: 17:: 17:: 2:: 2:: 9:: 9:: 11:: 11:: 13:: 13:: 15:: 15:: 17:: 17:: 2:: 15/9/214 16/9/214 Pek periods of oviposition? Sentinel fruit: every two hours Peks: lte morning nd evening lb ctivity studies by Ezio Rosto Time of dy ctivity egg lying Rspberry Polytunnel Totl number of D. suzukii :3 1: 1: 11:3 11:3 13: 13: 14:3 14:3 16: 16: 17:3 17:3 8:3 8:3 1: 1: 11:3 11:3 13: 13: 14:3 14:3 16: 16: 17:3 8/1/214 9/1/214 Sentinel fruit: 1 ½ hours Peks: lte morning nd evening? More reserch: studies of ctivity nd egg lying behviour Trget spry timings in crop? 2

11 7. Preference for egg lying sites (lb studies) Replicted test Tretments Ripe fruit on cne Over ripe fruit on the ground Stndrd diet Adult D. suzukii: choice of egg lying sites Counts of dult emergence Preference for egg lying sites (lb studies) 25 Men D. suzukii emergence Mle Femle b b Quick mix Ripe Over ripe Tretment Prefer ripe fruit eggs drop to ground egg lying nd feeding Cn ly eggs in overripe/dropped fruit E.g. 2 eggs/fruit = 1 femle = 2 3 eggs Crop hygiene remove the source Competition with other species? 22

12 8. Wste hndling nd disposl 5% 1% stone wste 15 2% soft fruit wste Attrctive to Drosophil spp. Oxygen concentrtion in hedspce of seled bins of wste Rpid depletion of oxygen t mbient o C

13 Drosophil emergence; different durtions in seled bins Smll numbers my survive t lower tempertures 8. Wste hndling nd disposl Disposl of wste fruit Dolv bins seled sheet of blck pllet wrp killed within 48 hours t o C

14 8. Wste hndling nd disposl INCORPORATION 9% liquid Treted wste free of Drosophil Remins ttrctive Wste dded to the soil Incorported, not left on surfce 11 dys fter disposl COIR 9% soil or wste coir SWD unble to breed Incorported to 1 cm Left on surfce 9. Insecticide efficcy trils Fruit picked t intervls post sprying Adult SWD dded: 24 hours on ech pick dte Number of SWD dults emerging ssessed 213 Strwberry Trcer (spinosd) nd chlorpyrifos up to 2 weeks protection Pyrethrin nd Hllmrk (Lmbd cyhlothrin) = short term protection Deltmethrin nd Corgen (Chlorntrniliprole) NSD

15 9. Insecticide efficcy trils 214 Rspberry Active ingredient Product nme Active ingredient per litre Product rte/h (spry volume 1, l/h) Spinosd Trcer 48 g/l SC 2 ml Chlorpyrifos Equity 48 g/l EC 1.5 l Lmbd cyhlothrin Hllmrk 1 g/l CS 75 ml Chlorntrniliprole Corgen 2 g/l SC 175 ml Coded Coded 1 g/l OD 75 ml Deltmethrin Bndu.2 ml / l 2 ml Pyrethrin Spruzit 4.59 g/l EC 2 l Thicloprid Clypso 48g/l 75 ml Abmectin Dynmec 18g/l.5 l Acetmiprid Gzelle 2%w/w 375 ml Untreted 9. Insecticide efficcy trils 12 Significntly different to the untreted fruit SWD emergence per 1g Time of hrvest post sprying (dys) untreted Dynmec Trcer Gzelle Clypso coded Equity Points significntly different to controls (p<.5) mrked in red

16 9. Insecticide efficcy trils Adult mortlity of D. suzukii 1 dy fter exposure to insecticides

17 1. Trp nd bit comprison tril 12 1 C drown ttrct Men SWD per trp Men >5mm B B B A A EMR EMR ACV Drosttrct Drosttrct ACV Chr lndolt Trece Trece Drosttrct Drosttrct Trece Modified Biobest Red Biobest New Biobest biobest Pherocon SWD trp Recommendtion for growers use New biobest trp selectivity Bi ctch of new Biobest trp

18 NRI synthetic lure under development Compound Dispenser Relese rte (mg/d; 22 C) Ethnol (E) Schet (74mm x 5mm x 5µ; 2ml) Longevity (d) 39 > 3 Acetic cid (AA) Schet (5mm x mm x 12µ; 1ml) Methionol (M) PET vil 3mm hole.4 25 Acetoin (Ac) PET vil 3mm hole 8 > 3 Bit component: clen, synthetic bit Men D. suzukii per trp ctch B E + AA + M + Ac Liquid only ttrctive for couple dys NSD stndrd nd dry Fewer components ttrctive Attrct nd Kill Bits! A AB E + M + Ac AA + M + Ac M + Ac stndrd lure A B Unbited

19 Summry of findings from 214 reserch 1. Ntionl monitoring progrmme SWD is now widespred geogrphiclly 2. Hbitt surveys SWD is widespred on frms Limited crop dmge occurred Current trps did not detect dults in crop before eggs lid in fruit 3. Egg lying Femle SWD were ble to ly eggs from Mr Oct Nov? 4. Culturl control Crop hygiene essentil Wste fruit treted in 48 hours: ir tight continers 5. Detecting lrve Sugr flottion convenient, rpid Emergence testing more ccurte mesure of crop dmge 6. Chemicl control Trcer (spinosd) nd chlorpyrifos directly effect dult SWD Rottion with other products (e.g. Clypso (thicloprid), pyrethrins) 37 Check pprovls 11. Ongoing reserch Attrct nd kill formultions Addition of sugr ttrctnts Competition on ground with other Drosophil New project to work on winter ttrction - Defr Virus PhD identify viruses Edinburgh Prsitoid in glsshouses Clre Weydert Netting blueberry.78 mm 38

20 12. Recommendtions ADULT TRAPPING Begin monitoring in Februry: refresh bit: woodlnd, hedgerows nd djcent vulnerble crops Use recommended trp nd bit Continue to monitor until November or when utumn fruiting crops finish picking Identify hot-spots ble to trget controls LARVAE more effort Emergence testing: ccurte picture over time cn pick up erly egg lying Use flottion method to routinely check for lrve in fruits 39 CONTROL HYGIENE Essentil Over-ripe fruit removed regulrly t ech pick Not left to drop to the ground Air tight 48 hours Perimeter trpping: erly to dely SWD in crop Protect ripening cherry fruits NB: do not spry ll vrieties t sme time Soft fruits tight picking, trp ctches nd lrvl counts predict spry times Consider pesticide effects: biocontrols, ntive predtors nd detritivore rthropods, resistnce 4 Pesticide pprovls: Look out for HDC emils

21 Co-ordinted effort. Cross-industry group working together since Mrch 212 Thnks to Growers hosting trils Funded by Defr, RESAS, HDC, Worshipful Compny of Fruiterers, British Summer Fruits, Est Mlling Trust Industry steering group: Chired by Mrion Regn 42