2011 ORGANIC SOYBEAN VARIETY TRIAL MATERIALS AND METHODS

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1 2011 ORGANIC SOYBEAN VARIETY TRIAL In 2011, the University of Vermont Extension conducted soyben vriety tril in Alburgh, VT. The purpose of this tril ws to provide yield comprisons of food- nd feed-grde soybens in Vermont s climte. Vrietl selection is one of the most importnt spects of crop production nd significntly influences yield potentil. It is importnt to remember, however, tht the dt presented re from replicted reserch trils from only one loction in Vermont nd represent only one seson. Crop performnce dt from dditionl tests in different loctions nd over severl yers should be compred before mking finl vrietl selections. MATERIALS AND METHODS In 2011, n orgnic soyben vriety performnce tril ws conducted t Borderview Frm in Alburgh, VT. Severl seed compnies submitted vrieties for evlution (Tle 1). The soyben vrieties were considered erly mturing, with mturity groupings between 0.6 nd 1.8. Soybens with mturities ove erly group 2 cnnot typiclly be grown in Vermont. Both drk hilum nd light or cler hilum vrieties were included in the study (Figure 1). Light hilum vrieties re typiclly grown for culinry uses, since the drk hilum cn stin food nd oil products nd render yields unmrketle. Both types cn be used for livestock feed, nd food-grde soybens tht do not meet stndrds often become feed. Figure 1. Drk-hilum soybens. Tle 1. Seed vrieties nd grouping followed by compny. Vriety Mturity group Seed compny 11A1 1.1 Blue River Orgnic 16C1 1.6 Blue River Orgnic 1F Blue River Orgnic Boyd 1.8 Lkeview Orgnic CL Syngent Dres 0.8 L Coop Fédérée MT Syngent PB5B080R2 0.8 Mycogen PB5B130R 1.3 Mycogen PB5N090R2 0.9 Mycogen

2 The tril ws plnted t Borderview Frm in Alburgh, VT on rocky silt lom (Tle 2). Tretments were ten soyben vrieties, including both conventionl nd orgnic vrieties, which were grown orgniclly nd evluted for yield nd oil content. The experimentl design ws rndomized complete block with four replictions. The reserch plots were 5 x 25. The previous crop ws rye followed by soybens, nd the seedbed ws plowed nd disked. The soybens were plnted in 30 rows on 1-June t rte of 200,000 seeds per cre. Mechnicl strtegies were implemented to control weeds in the plots. Plots were hrvested on 1-Nov with n Almco SP50 plot combine. Moisture ws mesured with Dickey-John M20P moisture meter; test weight ws mesured with Berckes test weight scle. Tle 2. Agronomic & tril informtion for the 2011 soyben vriety tril. Loction Soil type Previous crop Tillge opertions Plot size (ft) Seeding rte Replictes Plnting dte Weed control Hrvest dte Pressing dte Alburgh, VT Borderview Frm Silt lom Rye, soybens Spring plow nd disk 5 x ,000 seeds cre June June, tineweed; 27-June, row cultivtion 1-Nov Feb 2012 On 8-Feb 2012, subsmples from ech plot were pressed with Kern Krft KK40 oil press (Figure 2). The press ws fitted with hrd seed screws nd operted t constnt high temperture (175 F) nd pproximtely 45 RPM. Oil content ws clculted bsed on seed smple weight nd finl oil weight. Figure 2. Kern Krft KK40 press used for soybens. Vritions in yield nd qulity cn occur becuse of vritions in genetics, soil, wether, nd other growing conditions. Sttisticl nlysis mkes it possible to determine whether difference mong tretments is rel or whether it might hve occurred due to other vritions in the field. All dt ws nlyzed using mixed model nlysis where replictes were considered rndom effects. The LSD procedure ws used to seprte tretment mens when the F-test ws significnt. At the bottom of ech tle LSD vlue is presented for ech vrile (e.g. yield). Lest Significnt Differences (LSD s) t the 10% level (0.10) of probility re shown. Where the difference between two tretments within

3 column is equl to or greter thn the LSD vlue t the bottom of the column, you cn be sure in 9 out of 10 chnces tht there is rel difference between the two vlues. Tretments tht were not significntly lower in performnce thn the highest vlue in prticulr column re indicted with n sterisk. In the exmple t right, tretment A is significntly different from tretment C but not from tretment B. The difference between A nd B is equl to 400, which is less thn the LSD vlue of 500. This mens tht these tretments did not differ in yield. The difference between A nd C is equl to 650, which is greter thn the LSD vlue of 500. This mens tht the yields of these tretments were significntly different from one nother. Vriety Yield A 1600* B 1200* C 950 LSD (0.10) 500 RESULTS Wether dt ws summrized using dt from nerby wether sttion in South Hero, VT (Tle 3). The 2011 growing seson ws wetter thn norml, with ove-verge precipittion in the erly spring nd lte summer, nd severl severe storms during the growing seson. Overll, the seson ccumulted 2,530 GDDs t bse temperture of 50 F. There were 399 more GDDs thn the 30-yer verge (Tle 3). Tle 3. Temperture, precipittion, nd Growing Degree Dys (GDD) dt by month for Alburgh, VT. South Hero, VT (Alburgh) June July August September October Averge temperture ( F) ± Deprture from norml Precipittion (inches)* Deprture from norml Growing Degree Dys (bse 50 F) Deprture from norml ± Averge tempertures for August October re tken from Burlington, VT. * Averge precipittion levels for June nd July re tken from Burlington, VT. Bsed on Ntionl Wether Service dt from observtion sttions in South Hero, VT. Historicl verges re for 30 yers of dt ( ). Averge hrvest moisture ws 12.5%, with the highest moisture (13.1%) in 1F44 (Blue River Orgnic) nd the lowest moisture (12.0%) in Boyd (Lkeview Orgnic). The vriety 16C1 (Blue River) hd the highest yield t 2700 lbs or 45.0 bushels per cre. Interestingly, 16C1 yielded sttisticlly the sme s 11A1 (Blue River), 1F44, Boyd, Dres (L Coop Fédérée), MT (Syngent), nd PB5N090R2 (Mycogen). The vriety PB5B080R2 (Mycogen) hd the lowest yield t 1452 lbs or 24.2 bushels per cre (Tle 4; Figure 3).

4 Tle 4. Soyben hrvest nd oil content dt by vriety. Vriety Hrvest moisture 13% moisture Test weight Pressing moisture Oil content % lbs c -1 bu c -1 tons c -1 lbs bu -1 % % Oil yield 11A * 37.3* 1.1* * 58.1* 16C1 12.8* 2700* 45.0* 1.4* * 56.2* 1F * 2190* 36.5* 1.1* * 54.9* Boyd * 42.5* 1.3* * 60.4* CL * Dres * 44.3* 1.3* * 69.4* MT * 39.7* 1.2* PB5B080R PB5B130R * 42.4* 1.3* * 67.8* PB5N090R2 13.0* LSD (0.10) NS NS NS Tril men *Tretments tht did not perform significntly lower thn the top-performing tretment in prticulr column re indicted with n sterisk. NS- Tretments were not significntly different from one nother. Tretments shown in bold re top-performing. lbs c -1 gl c -1 Yield (lbs cre -1 ) c c bc Vriety Figure 3. Yields for ten soyben vrieties triled in Alburgh, VT. Vrieties with the sme letter did not differ sttisticlly in yield (p=0.10). There ws no significnt difference mong vrieties for test weight, which is mesure of the mount of debris nd plnt mteril in the hrvest, s well s n indictor of qulity. The verge test weight for the tril ws 57.4 lbs per bushel. The vriety 16C1 hd the highest test weight, though no sttisticlly significnt.

5 At the time of pressing, the verge moisture content of the stored soybens ws 12.2%, slightly lower thn the verge hrvest moisture. Pressing moisture of the bens did not differ significntly by vriety (Tle 4). The oil content ws not sttisticlly significnt by vriety. However, totl oil yield did differ sttisticlly by vriety, with the highest yield in the vriety Dres (69.4 gl per cre). Five other vrieties were sttisticlly similr to this highest yield, including PB5B130R (Mycogen), Boyd, 11A1, 16C1, nd 1F44 (Figure 4). The lowest oil yield ws in the vriety PB5B080R Oil yield (gl cre -1 ) d cd cd bc Vriety Figure 4. Oil yield by vriety. The triled soyben vrieties with the sme letter did not differ sttisticlly in yield (p=0.10). DISCUSSION The verge 2011 soyben yield ws 2,214 lbs or 36.9 bushels per cre. Yields in previous yers hve been lower thn this yer s due to pest dmge, including defolition by turkeys nd deer; this ws not problem in Yields differed significntly by vriety, though the top-yielding vriety, 16C1, did not yield significntly higher thn six of the ten other vrieties. 16C1 lso hd the highest test weight (58.3 lbs per bushel), though this ws not sttisticlly significnt. High-qulity soybens generl hve test weight of pproximtely 60 lbs per bushel. Oil content ws not significntly different by vriety. The verge oil content for this vriety tril ws 9.0%. Becuse of the significnt vriility mong vrieties in soyben yield, the oil yield did differ sttisticlly by vriety. The highest oil yield ws in Dres (69.4 gllons per cre). It is importnt to note

6 here tht higher soyben yield is not necessrily correlted with higher oil yield due to vrying oil contents. For exmple, the vriety 16C1 hd the highest soyben yield but ws outperformed in oil yield by four other vrieties becuse of its low oil content (7.9%). The tril verge for oil yield ws 52.8 gllons per cre. The vrieties Dres, PB5B130R, nd Boyd were ll mong the top five performers for both soyben nd oil yield. On dry mtter bsis, the verge yield of soyben mel, which is very vlule s high-protein, high-energy livestock feed, ws 3,546 lbs per cre for this tril. Vriety selection should involve both high-yielding vrieties nd those with high oil content. Vrieties must be selected bsed on the gols of the grower, nd it should be recognized tht these results re only from one loction nd one seson. Growers should consider vrietl performnces from multiple sesons nd loctions before mking decisions out which vrieties will work for them. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UVM Extension would like to thnk Borderview Frm for their generous help with this reserch tril, s well s the Vermont Sustinle Jobs Fund for funding the reserch. Thnk you to Ktie Blir, Chntel Cline, Svnn Kittell-Mitchell, Lur Mdden, nd Susn Monhn for their ssistnce with dt collection nd entry. This informtion is presented with the understnding tht no product discrimintion is intended nd neither endorsement of ny product mentioned, nor criticism of unnmed products, is implied.

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