REVIEW OF THE NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES

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1 MALAYSIAN PARASITES -- XVI AN INTERIM REVIEW OF THE NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES OF MALAYA By W. W. MACDONALD Institute [or Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION... HISTORICAL BACKGROUND... A TABULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL CULICINES NOTES ON THE LOCALITIES SAMPLED LIST OF SPECIES Toorhynchites Tripteroides Topomyia Harpagomyia Hodgesia Zeugnomyia Uranotaenia Orthopodomyia Ficalbia Mansonia Aedomyia Aedes Paraedes Heizmannia Armigeres Cule ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SUMMARY REFERENCES I o INTRODUCTION It is nearly 50 years since the monograph on the Culicidae of Malaya by G. F. Leicester (1908) was published, but this monograph, now outdated in its system of classification, is still the only volume which describes the Malayan culicine fauna. That this is so reflects the lack of attention subsequently given to culicines, and emphasizes the preoccupation with anopheline mosquitoes. In recent years, however, there has been a revival of interest, which, though directed primarily at those species which are vectors of virus diseases and filariasis, has reopened the whole field of culicine study. This seems an opportune time, therefore, to make an interim review of our knowledge of Malayan culicines and to summarize very briefly what we know of each species.

2 2 W.W. MACDONALD The data presented in the following pages are derived from a number of sources, and reference is made to these in the tet, but it is appropriate to record here the valuable assistance given by Mr A. Ganapathipillai who, for many years, has been responsible for the culicine collection in the Institute for Medical Research, and who has contributed much useful information about the habits of various species. HISTORICAL BACXGROUND At present more than 200 non-a. nopheline species are recorded from Malaya, including Singapore, and in addition there are about 20 others, some of which may be new, awaiting identification. It is a measure of Leicester's industry that he recorded and described nearly 130 species, of which no fewer than 71 were new. However, many changes in classification and nomenclature have taken place since the publication of Leicester's work so that many of his generic and a number of his specific names have since been altered. As a result, his monograph is quite unsuitable for the routine identification of mosquitoes, though it is still a valuable source of original descriptions. While Leicester was engaged with Malayan culicines, F. V. Theobald, at the British Museum (Natural History), was studying material from all parts of the world, and preparing the first major work to deal with the classification of mosquitoes. Entitled A Monograph o[ the Culicidae o[ the World, and published in several volumes, this work includes a number of original descriptions of species occurring in Malaya. It was, however, Theobald's successor, F. W. Edwards, who integrated the growing array of mosquito descriptions and devised the present system of classification. Edwards described many new species from Asia and in 1922 published the first key to Oriental mosquitoes. In 1928 he made a list of all the species then known from Malaya, and in it he included 173 non-anophelines. These were later (1932) incorporated into a volume of the Genera Insectorum which includes references to all the relevant descriptive literature dealing with Malayan culicines until Whereas little work was done on the culicines of Malaya after Leicester, this has not been the case in neighbouring countries. In India P. J. Barraud systematically studied the Indian species and published his results as a series of papers in the Indian Journal of Medical Research. Later (1934) he brought together all the known information into one valuable volume. Since some 105 species are common to India and Malaya, Barraud's work is of particular importance. Similarly, the publications of S. L. Brug and J. Bonne-Wepster on the mosquitoes of Indonesia are often of direct application in Malaya, and the same applies to E. Borel's work in Indo-China. Recent papers by Iyengar, Iyengar & Menon, and by Thurman & Thurman, include etensive lists of Thailand mosquitoes. A number of Malayan species etend eastwards to the Philippines, New Guinea and even further. Among recent publications containing useful information about these are the papers by Knight, Hull, Marks, Bohart, and Iyengar, to mention but a few, and Brug & Bonne-Wepster (1947) give records of species distribution throughout the Malay Archipelago. There is no doubt that the time is approaching when there can be a synthesis of all the recorded data so that a picture of the distribution and affinities of the various species can be built up. The most obvious gaps in our knowledge at present relate to the biology of the culicines. Many species are known from only a few specimens and virtually nothing is known of their habits. Work now in progress at the Institute for Medical Research is designed to help remedy this situation, and already many interesting facts have come to light. However, this work in progress will be the subject of later communications by various authors, and will not be discussed here. STUD. inst. MED. RES,

3 NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 3 A TABULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL CULICINES The tabulation* on the following pages lists the major species or groups of species known to attack man in Malaya, and it summarizes information available at present. An indication is given of those groups which are or might be important as disease vectors, but it should be borne in mind that this is a preliminary account which ignores all unpublished work, and the data on vector-status will require revision as further information becomes available. Ihe following notes are presented to amplify and eplain some of the headings: Breeding places. Where the preferred breeding water is sullage or brackish, this is mentioned, otherwise fresh water is implied, but in some instances, e.g. Aedes (A.) butleri, the breeding water may at times be slightly brackish, at other times fresh. This is indicated by designating the breeding places as coastal. Iher& are a number of other species, e.g. Armigeres rnalayi and Ar. raoultoni which are also common in coastal areas but whose presence is related to the abundance of certain breeding places, e.g. coconuts, rather than to salinity. It is difficulto distinguish in a few words the assortment of pools in which mosquito larvae may be found. Certain species, such as Cule gelidus and C. tritaeniorhynchus, are quite tolerant of a fair degree of pollution in their breeding places, whilst others, e.g. C. sinensis and C. bitaeniorhynchus, are always found in clean water, but each species is basically a pool-breeder. There has been a similar difficulty in defining the various niches of container-breeders. Such detailed information as there is has been included in the notes on the individual species, but the table should serve to give a general picture of the principal groups. Distribution. 'Mosaic vegetation' is used to designate those areas of scrub, agriculturaland, and so on, which together form a patchwork over a large part of the countryside. Ihis corresponds broadly to all alienated land, including plantations. In the column dealing with 'forest' the records are sparse, because this is the one type of habitat in which no regular collecting has been done, though it promises to be the most interesting for the future. NOTES ON THE LOCALITIES SAMPLED Some localities are mentioned very frequently in the records. Usually such localities are ones in which regular collecting has been carried out. Some localities on the other hand have been visited only sporadically, so that the number of species collected has been small. The following brief notes summarize the main features of the localities mentioned in the records, and regular collecting areas of both Leicester and the Institute are shown in italics. Several of the localities, for eample, Ulu Gombak, have also been rather thoroughly worked by the United States Army Medical Research Unit (U S A M R U) based at the Institute, and in a number of instances new distribution records have been provided by this Unit: these have been included in the data given for each species. A map showing the situation of the collecting areas is reproduced on page 7. The following repeatedly occur in Malayan place-names, and deserve definition: hill; gunong, mountain; kampong, Malay village; pulau, island; sunget, river; and the upper reaches of a river. Ampang (Selangor). Primary and secondary hilly forest, a few miles from Kuala Lumpur. Batang Padang (Perak). A district in South Perak, largely rubber plantations and forest land. Originally prepared by invitation for a report to the World Health Organization, Western Pacific Regional Office, for a proposed Study Group in arthropod-borne virus diseases, and included in WHO/Arth. Virus Dis./1-5 of October, MALAYA, No. 28, 1957

4 4 W.W. MACDONALD THE PRINCIPAL CULICINES OF MALAYA' VECTOR STATUS & DISTRIBUTION. The number of known Malayan species is given in parenthesis after each subgenus. The page references are to this paper. VECTOa STATUS: YF = Yellow Fever; D = Dengue; JE = Japanese B Encephalitis; F = Filariasis. Numbers 1 = possible vector on epidemiological grounds; 2 = probable natural vector, from which virus has been recovered. DISTRIBUTION: X = present; = common; XX = abundant. D 1 S T RIBUTI ON MOSQUITOES VECTOR STATUS sg. ('16 +), p. 30 I [atigans, p. 31 FI? XX 2 gelidus, p tritaeniorhynchus, p 'vishnui', p sinensis, p sitlens, p. 31 sg. LoruocEsAOMYIA (15), p. 28 JE2 JE2 JE1 X X 'X X XX XX sg. CULICIOltiYIA (5), p. 29 sg. FINLAYA (18 q-), p 'chrysolineatus', p 'niveus', p. 19 sg. STEGOMYIA (9), p aegypti, p albopictus, p. 20 FI? YF1 YF1 YFI D1 DI D1 I sg. AEDIMORPHUS (6), p. 21 sg. BANKSINELLA (2), p. 21 sg. SKUSEA (2), p amesii, p. 22 sg. AEDES (15), p butleri, p. 23 YFI D1 JEI YFI DI JE1 sg. (13), p obturbans, p durhami, p other spp. p. 25 sg. LEICESTERIA. (12), p. 26 Heizmannla (9), p. 24? Mansonla sg. (6), p uni[ormis, p. 1? 17 dives/bonneae, p. 17 sg. (5) p. 16 ' XX XX

5 NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES THE PRINCIPAL CULICINES OF MAI.AYA: BREEDING & BEHAVIOUR. True of BITING: D = Day; N = Night; hours of 0600 = sunrise, 1800 = sunset. The numbers against species are only for ease of cross-reference to the table on the opposite page. BITING HABITS BREEDING Time and MOS9mToES PLACES Peaks of Activity Place Host Cule CULEX 1 fatigans 2 gelidus 3 tritaen. 4 'vishnui' 5 sinensis 6 sittens LOPHOCER. CULICIOMYIA sullage; domestic containers open pools open pools, ricefields open pools, ricefields ricefields brackish pools shaded pools, tree-holes pools, domestic contat ners N N N N N N prob. Aedes FINLAYA 7 'chryso.' 8 'niveus' tree-holes, rock-pools tree-holes, bamboos D(N) D(N) X _ prob. 0 aegypti 10 albopic. AEDIMORPHUS BANKSINELLA domestic containers domestic and plant containers open pools open pools, marshes D 0930, 1500 D(N) 0630, 1730 N N XX X? X prob. coastal' pools D & N , XX ' XX prob. 12 butieri coastal' pools D & N , prob. MIGERE S 13 obturbans 14 durhami 15 spp. LEICE STERIA Heizmannia septic tanks, domestic D & N 06- containers 30, 1730 domestic containers D coconuts, ginger plants hilly areas, bamboos hilly areas, tree-holes, bamboos D D D [ prob. prob. M' 16 uni[ormis roots of aquatic plants 17 dip. [ bonn. and swamp trees COQUILLETT. N(D) 1830 N(D) N I XX! XX } XX prob.

6 6 W.W. MACDONALD Batu Kurau (Perak). Inland village about 12 miles north-east of Taiping. Collection from nearby rubber estate. Bentong (Pahang). Inland town. Bukit Cheeding Estate (Selangor). Tea estate surrounded by swampy jungle. Bukit Kutu (Se!angor). A forest-clad hill about 10 miles south of Fraser's Hill. Cameron Highlands (Pahang). A hill station, devoted to agriculture, on an undulating plateau below 5,000 ft. surrounded by forest-clad mountains rising to it. Cheras (Selangor). Hilly land with ravines, and nearby old tin-mine, a few miles south of Kuala Lumpur. Fraser's Hill (Selangor). 4,280 ft. A small hill-top leave station set amidst forest. Gunong Tahan (Pahang). 7,186 it. high. Highest mountain in Malaya. ]cram (Selangor). Coastal village. ]ugra Hill (Selangor). Described by Leicester (in Daniels, 1908a:11). A hill about 1,000 it. high partly covered by forest. On the seaward side the hill runs down to a mangrove belt. Kampong Bukit Kechik (Kedah). Coastal village with low hill nearby, about miles from Kuala Muda. Kampong Lubok Pusing (Selangor). A small village on the Bernam River. Kampong Pulau Mertajam (Province Wellesley). A small coastal village a few miles south 'of Kuala Muda. Kampong Sementa (Selangor). A small Malay coastal village between Kapar and Rantau Panjang. Kampong Sijangkang (Selangor). A coastal area with scattered Malay houses where the soil is very peaty and acid. Adjoining it is a swamp forest. Kampong Sireh (Selangor). Coastal and tidal area merging into mangrove zone. About two miles from Port Swettenham. Kanching (Selangor). A pass (500 it.) over a forest-covered granite ridge 11 miles north of Kuala Lumpur. Kapar (Selangor). Coastal village. Kepong (Selangor). Includes two distinct types of habitat. (a) Forest reserve. (b) A village and its environs which include a number Pistia and Eichhornia ponds. Klang (Selangor). A town situated miles inland from Port Swettenham, on a tidal river. Kota (Negri Sembilan). Inland village, a few miles south of Rembau. Kuala Lureput (Selangor). The capital of the Federation of Malaya, pop. 300,000. Around the town there are many tin-mining pools, and vegetable gardens with ponds in which Pistia and Eichhorni are grown for pig food. There are also a few patches of secondary forest within the town. Kuala Muda (Kedah). Coastal village. Kuang (Selangor). Inland village, 5 miles from Kepong. Kuantan (Pahang). Town on the east coast. Nearby is a large area of inland swamp forest; this is a major filariasis area. Lubok Tamang (Pahang). 3, 500 it. high. Not located. Padang Serai (Kedah). Inland village 12 miles north-east of Bukit Mertajam. Pangkor Laut--see Pulau Pangkor Laut. Pekan (Pahang). Small town on east coast, situated close to a main filariasis area. Penang Island. A major seaport. The land rises to more than 2,000 ft. in the centre. Port Dickson (Negri Sembilan). Coastal town and small port. STUD. INST. MED. RES.

7 NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 7 Pulou Pongkor Telok Anson Botong I Podong Kernpang ' Roub Sungel Lubok Puslng Frosers Hill Lembing SEL ANG Gap Bentong Gombak Jetare -.. Kapas Rantou PonJong Port Swetfenham Jugro/' Kompong Sijengkong Puchong IALA LUMP.UR.iN EG R I S E M B I L A N,I Rembou /' ANTAN Pekon 4 i Bukit Cheeding Port Dickson MAL JOHO ioo MALAYA, No. 28, 1957 Map of Malaya 102 J the location of mosquito-collecting sites. SINGAPORE

8 8 W.W. MACDONALD Puchong (Selangor). Partially drained swamp forest with nearby rubber plantations and tin-mining land. Pulau Mertajam---see Kampong Pulau Mertajam. Pulau Pangkor Laut (Perak). A small island off the coast of Perak. Pulau Perak (Malacca Straits). 5 42' N, 98 56' E. A bare rock rising sheer from the sea about 100 miles west of Penang and inhabited by sea-birds. (Not shown on map). Rantau Panjang (Selangor). Coastal and tidal; the soil is heavy grey clay. Collecting is done among shady Nipa palms and coconutrees. Raub (Pahang). Inland town. Rembau (Negri Sembilan). Inland village. Repah Estate (Negri Sembilan). An inland rubber estate, about 15 miles south-east of Rembau., Sabai (Pahang). Forest area near Bentong. Seaport Estate (Selangor). An inland rubber estate between Kuala Lumpur and Port Swettenham. Segambut (Selangor). A small area of vegetable gardens and pools on the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur. Sungei Besi (Selangor). An area of old and new tin-mining pools, and vegetable gardens, near Kuala Lumpur. Sungel Buloh (Selangor). Primary and secondary forest, about 15 miles from Kuala Lumpur, and very close to Kepong. Sungei Lembing (Pahang). Small tin-mining town. Taiping (Perak). Tin-mining town with hills rising to more than 4,000 ft. on its inland side. As a result of its.situation the rainfall is high, usually more than 150 in. p.a. Tapah (Perak). Small inland town. Telok Anson (Perak). A town on the banks o.f a tidal river. The Gap (Selangor). A.mile south of Fraser's Hill, but about 1,000 ft. lower. Primary and secondary forest. Ulu Gombak (Selangor). About 15 miles north of Kuala Lumpur, at 500-1,000 ft. An area of primary and secondary forest, with patches of bamboo. Since Leicester collected here much of the forest has been felled. Ulu Klang (Selangor). Fairly similar to Ulu Gombak, and near Kuala Lumpur. Ulu Langat (Selangor). Rather simi. lar to Ulu Gombak. Ulu Nuri Valley (Negri Sembilan). A rice-growing valley some 15 miles east of Rembau. LIST OF SPECIES In the following list of Malayan species a short summary has usually been included under the generic and subgeneric headings. Descriptions of diagnostic features have been omitted, since these are adequately covered, at leasto the generic level, by Edwards (1932) and Barraud (1934), but references to more recent revisions of genera and species have been included. The list is not presented as a formal checklist, and certain data such as the location of types, and references to original descriptions, have not yet been compiled. The order in which the genera are listed follows that of Edwards. If specimens are in the collection at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR), this is indicated under the species headings, and if Leicester (1908) described or discussed a species, this is also indicated by his page reference. The distribution records for outside Malaya are drawn from the literature available to me at the time, and no doubt additions STUD. INST. MED. RES.

9 NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 9 will be made in the future. No reference has been made to the occurrence of species on Singapore Island ecept in the case of species which are recorded from there but not yet [rom Malaya. Most of the Malayan species do in fact occur in Singapore, but Dr D. H. Coiless proposes to deal with the Singapore specie separately in a future publication. The notes on habits are based on the eperience of past and present staff of the Institute, but reference has also been made to the findings of workers elsewhere when it seemed likely that these might apply in Malaya. Genus Toorhynchites Theobald, Megarhinus Robineau~Desvoidy, 1827 Unfortunately, the familiar name Megarhinus R-D. has been found to be preoccupied and therefore has to be rejected (Stone, 1948). Most of the Toorhynchitespecies in Malaya breed in bamboos, pitcher plants, tree-holes, and other containers. The larvae are predacious on those of other mosquitoes. (Lophoceraomyia). As is well known, the adults do not suck blood. Ten species in Genera frequently attacked are Tripteroides, Armigeres (Leicesteria), Aedes and Cule Malaya. Toorhynchites acaudatus (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p. 49. Distribution: Borneo; Malaya Selangor. Habits: Breeds in pitcher plants. Toorhynchites ater (Danieh, 1908) Distribution: Malaya Pahang. Habits: Breeds in pitcher plants. Toorhynchites funestus (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p. 58. Distribution: Malaya Habits: Breeds in bamboos. near Kuala Lumpur (Selangor). Toorhynchites klossi (Edwards, 1021) Distribution.' South Indi. a; Malaya- Gunong Jerai (Kedah), Cameron Highlands, Gunong Tahan (Pahang), Fraser's Hill (Selangor), Penang. Habits: Breeds in pitcher plants. Toorhynchltes leicesteri Theobald, 1904 Leicester, p. 59. Distribution: Malaya -- Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in bamboos (Leicester). Toorhynchites magnificus (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p. 54. Distribution: Thailand; Borneo; Malaya- (Selangor). Habits.' Breeds in bamboos. Toorhynch,ites metallicus Leicester, 1904 Leicester, p. 61. Distribution: India; Indonesia; Malaya- Bukit t{utu, Ulu Gombak, Ulu Langat Fraser's Hill, Ulu Gombak, Ulu Langat Cameron Highlands (Pahang), Batang Padang (Perak). Habits: Breeds in bamboos, tree-holes, and in pitcher plants. One larva remained alive for more than three months without food, and after being fed pupated another month later. quasifero (Leicester, 1008) Leicester, p. 51. Distribution: Sikkim; Sumam; Java; Borneo; Malaya- Jugra Hill (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in ginger plants (Zingiber sp.), and fallen leaves in forest. raris (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p. 56. Distribution: Malaya Ulu Klang (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in bamboos. MALAYA, No. 28, 1957

10 10 W. W. MACDONALD Toorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann, 1819) Distribution Ceylon; India; Thailand; Indochina; Yunnan; Indonesia; Philippines; New Guinea; Eiji (introduced); Hawaii (introduced); Malaya Batu Kurau (Perak), Selangor coast. Habits: Breeds in coconuts, sometimes in artificial containers, and in the water at the base of Nips palm fronds. The adults rest on the trunks of coconut palms, several feet above ground and away from the direction the sun. Genus Tripteroides Giles, 1904 Most of the known species are pitcher plant or bamboo,breeders. Little is known of the habits of the adults, but they are caught only occasionally in biting catches, and the. y are never troublesome. Nine species in Malaya. Tripteroides aenea (Edwards, 1921) Distribution Malaya -- Arepang forest (Selangor). Habits: Unknown. Trlpteroides (Theobald, 1901) Leicester, p Distribution: Ceylon; India; Thailand; Indochina; Taiwan; Sumatra; Java; Bali; Borneo; Malaya Fraser's Hill, Ulu Gombak,. Ulu Langat, Kanching, Wardieburn Estate (Selangor), Cameron Highlands, Gunong Tahan (Pahang), Penang. Habits: Very common in pitcher plants, but breeds also in bamboos and, occasionally, in tree-holes and split coconuts. A small batch of eggs was laid in a bamboo pot at Fraser's Hill: the eggs were slowly dried and then stored for 10 days; on immersion in water the eggs hatched sporadically from 4 to 10 days afterwards. Trlpteroldes coeruleocephala (Leicester, 1908) Distribution: Java; Malaya -- Bukit Kutu, Ulu I{lang, Jugra Hill, Ulu Langat, Iiuala Lumpur, Fraser's Hill (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in bamboos, discarded tins in forest, tree-holes. A female attacked man in tree-tops at 30 ft. (Kuala Lumpur). Trlpteroides hybrida (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p Distribution: Malaya -- Bukit Iiutu (Selangor). Habits: Unknown. (Daniels, 1908) Distribution: Malaya East coast. Habits: Breeds in pitcher plants (Daniels, 1908b: 266). nepenthls (Edwards, 1915) Distribution: Borneo; Malaya no locali W records. Habits: Breeds in pitcher plants. Trlpteroides pro,ima (Edwards, 1915) Distribution: Indochina; Borneo; Sumatra; Java; Malaya (Selango 0, (Edwards, 1915). Habits: Unknown. Ulu Klang, Ulu Gombak Trlpteroides slmills (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p Distribution: India; Sumatra; Java; Malaya Tamang (Pahang). Habits: Breeds in bamboos (Barraud, I034). Tripteroides viclna (Edwards, 1914) Distribution: Hong Kong; Borneo; Sumatra; Malaya Cameron Highlands (Pahang). Habits: Breeds in pitcher plants. The Gap, Bukit Kutu (Selangor), Lubok Fraser's Hill (Selangor). STUD. INST. MED. RES.

11 NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 11 Genus Topomyia Leicester, 1908 This genus is especially well represented in Malaya, most of the known species occurring here, but only four or five species are represented in the IMR collection at present. There is no evidence that the adults suck blood and they are not found in human or animal bait catches; however, the U.S. Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU) has collected a number in forest by the use of sweep-nets. Until they can be compared with a type series, most of the IMR specimens are only provisionally named. Twelve species in Malaya. Topomyia argenteoyentralis Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p. 240 Distribution: Borneo; Sumatra; Malaya- The Gap (Selangor). Habits: Forest dweller; breeds in Colocasia leaf-ails (Bonne-Wepster, 1954:19). Topomyla argyropalpis Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Philippines; Java; Malaya -- Ulu Gombak, The Gap (Selangor). Habits: Forest dweller. Topomyla aureoyenter (Theobald, 1910) Distribution: South India; Malaya -- Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Forest dweller. Topomyla decorabilis Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Borneo; Malaya -- The Gap (Selangor). Habits: Probably forest dweller. Topomyia dubltans Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution:?Kabaena;?Boeton; Malaya -- The Gap (Selangor). Habits: Probably forest dweller. Brug (1939) records?dubitans breeding in Colocasia leaf ails in Kabaena and Boeton. Topomyia gracilis Leicester, 1908? Leicester, p Distribution: Indochina; Sumatra; Bali; Malaya -- The Gap,?Jugra Hill (Selangor). Habits: Forest dweller. Larvae of?gracilis from ginger (Zingiber sp.) plants. minor Leicester, 1908 p Distribution: Malaya near Kuala Lumpur (Selangor). Habits: Forest dweller. Topomyia nlgra Leicester, 1908? Leicester, p Distribution: Bali; Malaya Ampang,?Jugra Hill,?Ulu Langat (Selangor). Habits: Forest dweller. Larvae of?,.igra from ginger (Zingiber sp.) plants. Topomyla rubithoracis Leicester, 1908? Leicester, p Distribution: Simaloer (locality not traced); Malaya -- The Gap (Selangor). Habits: Forest dweller. Topomyia spathulirostrls Edwards, 1923 Distribution: Malaya -- Cameron Highlands (Pahang); Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in bamboos. Topomyla Edwards, 1922 Distribution: Malaya The Gap (Selangor). Habits: Forest dweller. Topomyia tlpullformis Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Sumatra; Java: Malaya -- Habits: Forest dweller. MALAYA, No. 28, 1957 The Gap (Selangor), Raub (Pahang).

12 12 W. W. MACDONALD Genus Harpagomyia de Meijere, 1909 Only one species of this genus is known from Malaya, but it is probably quite widely distributed. Since the female does not suck blood, the species is best found by searching for larvae. The habits of the adults are of great interest: they obtain their food from ants of the genus Crematogaster. Edwards (1932) has described the unusual association in detail. Harpagomyia genurostris (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p Distribution: Maldive Is.; Ceylon; India; Yunnan; Taiwan; Thailand; Indonesia; Philippines; New Guinea; Malaya---Kampong Sijangkang, Wardieburn Estate, around Kuala Lumpur (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in leaf ails of keladi (Colocasia and Alocasia) and pineapples. (See also Iyengar & Menon, 1948). Genus Hodgesia Theobald, 1904 Both species that occur in Malaya have been collected in Ulu Gombak forest. They are present only in small numbers, but they readily attack man. So far as is known they breed in jungle pools or swampy ground. Hodgesia malayi, Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Ceylon; Philippines; Amboina; Malaya -- Habits: Breeds in jungle pools. Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Hodgesia quasisanguinea Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Philippines; Celebes; Ceram; New Guinea;?New Britain; North Australia; Malaya -- Ulu Gombak, Sungel Buloh (Selangor). Habits: The adults have usually been taken attacking man during the day. Genus Zeugnomyia Leicester, 1908 There is only a single Malayan species in this genus, and it is rather uncommon. In a long series of adult catches in Ulu Gombak forest it has never been taken. It might also be observed that the female adults of the three Philippine species are indistinguishable. Zeugnomyia gracilis Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution.' Philippines; Borneo; Malaya- around Kuala Lureput, Jugra Hill (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in fallen leaves in jungle; the larvae are predacious (Edwards& Given, 1928). According to Leicester the adults are vicious biters. Genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribalzaga, 1891 In addition to the 24 species listed in the following pages, 17 of which are in the IMR, there are five others in the collection which have not yet been identified: some of these are probably new species. Little is known about the biting habits of the adults, but they are never troublesome. Uranotaenia argyrotarsis Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Ceram; Philippines; New Guinea; New Ireland; New Britain; Solomon Is.; Malaya -- Ulu Gombak Habits: Breeds in jungle pools. Uranotaenia Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p. 225 & 227. Distribution: South India; Malaya Segarebut; Cheras (Selangor); Sungei Letohint (Palhang). Habits: Breeds in ground pools, and marshy edges of a jungle stream (Leicester). STUD. INST. MED. RES.

13 NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 13 Uranotaenla Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: India; China; Taiwan; Philippines; Ryukyus; Japan; Okinawa; Malaya The Gap, [Flu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in tree-holes and bamboos. Uranotaenia bimaculiala Leicester, I908 [n IMR. Leicester, p Distribution: Thailand; Java; Borneo; Malaya Serai (Kedah). Habits: Forest dweller. Uranotaenia brevirostris Edwards, 1915 Distribution: Sumatra; Borneo; Malaya- Habits: Breeds in pitcher plants. Selangor. Forest near Raub (Pahang), Padang campestris Leicester, I908 [n IMR. Leicester, p Distribution: Ceylon; India; Thailand; Sumatra; Java; Borneo; Malaya Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in swampy open ground (Leicester), and in disused aquaduct with muddy bottom and very slow moving water in Ulu Gombak forest. Uranotaenia lateralis Ludlow, 1905 (= U. atra auct.) [n IMR. Leicester, p Distribution: Ceylon; India; Thailand; Indonesia; Philippines; New Guinea; New Ireland; Solomon Is.; Queensland; Malaya -- Selangor coast. Habits: Breeds in ground pools in Nipa palm plantations, crab-holes, coconut shells, broken earthernware jars. Adults have been taken on human bait during the day. See Stone (1957) re the change in nomenclature. Uranotaenia Iongirostris Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: India; Thailand; Java; Malaya Rantau Panjang (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in ponds, ditches. Uranotaenia [utescens Leicester, 1908 [n IMR. Leicester, p Distribution: Andaman Is.; Indochina; Borneo; Malaya -- (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in bamboos. Ulu Gombak, Ulu Langat Uranotaenia macfarlanei Edwards, 1914 [n IMR. Distribution: India; Hong Kong; China; Taiwan; Sumatra; Java; Okinawa; Malaya Cheras (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in seepage water in ravines. Found associated Anopheles rnaculatus. Uranotaenia maculipleura Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: India; Taiwan; Malaya -- near Kuala Lumpur, Fraser's Hill (Selangor). Habits: Forest dweller. Caught attacking man in day-time. Uranotaenia maima Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Assam; Malaya The Gap (Selangor), Cameron Highlands (Pahang). Habits: Breeds in rock pools at edge of a stream. Uranotaenia metatarsata Edwards, 1914 Distribution: Thailand; Borneo; Java; Malaya -- Kuala Lumpur (Selangor). Habits: Adults collected on marshy ground (Edwards, 1014b). Uranotaenla micans Leicester, 1008 Leicester, p Distribution: Thailand; Java; Borneo; Malaya locality uncertain. Habits: Adults found near water in open marsh land (Leicester). Uranotaenla modesta Leicester, 1008 [n IMR. Leicester, p Distribution: Borneo; Malaya -- Ampang forest, Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Larvae from tree-hole (Leicester), bamboos. No. 28, 1957

14 14 W. W. MACDONALD nivipes var. nivea Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Philippines; Malaya -- Habits: Unknown. Kual.a Lumpur (Solarigor). Uranotaenia nivipleura Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Ceylon.; India; Java; Okinawa; Malaya -- The Gap, near Kuala Lumpur, Klang, K.apar Kota, Rembau (Negri Habits: Breeds in old motor tyres, drums, jars, ant-traps; pitcher plants (Singapore, Dr. Finlayson; Leicester, 1908: 220). Uranotaenia obscura Edwards, 1915 Distribution: Sumatra; Borneo; Ceram; Malaya Rantau Panjang, Kampong Si]angkang (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in jungle pools; and in fallen leaves in jungle (Edwards & Given, 1928), and bamboo stumps (Chow, 1949). Uranotaenia stfickfandi Barraud, 1926? Distribution: India;? Malaya -- locality uncertain. Habits: Unknown. Uranotaenia subnofmalis Martini, 1920 Distribution: Java; Borneo; Malaya- Habits: Unknown. Kampong Sijangkang (Selangor). Ufanotaenia testacea Theobald, 1905 Leicester, p Distribution: India; Burma; Philippines; Malaya Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Caught attacking man in forest. Breeds in forest streams (Baisas, 1935). Uranotaeni,a tfilneata Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Thailand; Malaya --- locality uncertain. Habits: Brceds in jungle pools. Ufanotaenia unimaculiala Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Malaya -- locality uncertain. Habits: Adults found in neighbourhood of jungle pools (Leicester). Uranotaenia anthomelaena Edwards, 1925 Distribution.' Malaya -- Kuala Lumpur (Selangpr). Habits: Breeds in pitcher plants (Edwards, 1925). Genus Orthopodomyia Theobald, 1904 The larvae are found principally in tree-holes and bamboos. Little is known of the habits of the adults, but both Edwards (1932) and Barraud (1934) record that they are not known to attack man. O. albipes has, however, been quite often taken in human-bait catches, though it is not certain whether they were coming to bite. Four species in Malaya. Orthopodomyia alblpes Leicester, 1904 Leicester, p Distribution: India; Indochina; Borneo; Philippines; Malaya. Utu Klang, Ulu Langat, Ulu Gombak (Selangor), Batang Padang, Tapah (Perak). Habits: Bamboo and tree-hole breeder. Adults attracted to man in forest. Orthopodomyia and,amanensis Barraud, 1934 Distr. ibution: India; Andamans; Philippines; Indonesia; New Guinea; Malaya Pangkor Laut (Perak). Habits: Bamboo and tree-hole breeder (Knight & Mattingly, 1950). anopheloides (Giles, 1903) Leicester, p Distribution: Ceylon; India; China; Taiwan; Japan; Philippines; Malaya Pangkor Laut (Perak). Habits: Bamboo and tree-hole breeder (Knight & Mattingly, 1950). Pulau Pulau STUD. INST. MED. RES.

15 NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 15 Orthopodomyia Theobald, 1910 Distribution: Andamans; Thailand; Sumatra; Java; Borneo; Philippines; Singapore.. Habits: Bamboo and tree-hole breeder (Knight & Mattingly, 1950). Genus Ficalbia 1903 Mattingly (1957) has recently revised the Indo-Malayan members of this genus. Most of the Malayan species breed weedy ponds and swampy ground, with the notable eception of F. [usca. It is not certain how many _of the species attack man. In a biting catch at Fraser's Hill a large number of [usca, many males, were attracted to man, but no record was kept of whether any of the females did actually bite (Lt. Col. R. Traub). Eight species in Malaya.._ Subgenus Doucet, 1950 Fiealbia (Ravehalites) fusea (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p Distribution: Java; Brunei;?Sarawak; Malaya- Bukit Kutu, Fraser's Hill, Ulu Gombak (Selangor), Cameron Highlands (Pahang). Habits: 'free-hole breeder. In description it appears as if two species were being confused. There is therefore a possir>ility of another species of this subgenus in Malaya. Subgenus Fica}bia Theobald, 1903 Ficalbia (Ficalbia) minlma (Theobald, 1901) Distribution: Ceylon; India; lndochina; Thailand; Borneo; Java; Celebes; Hong Kong; Bali; Malaya- Kepong, Sungei Besi (Selangor). Habits: Larvae collected from pond with Pistia plants. Subgenus Etorleptiomyia 1904 Ficalbia elegans (Taylor, 1914) In I IVLR. Distribution: Thailand; Sumatra; Philippines; Queensland; New Guinea; New Britain; Solomon Is.; Malaya -- Rantau Panjang (Selangor coast). Habits: Unknovn. Ficalbia (Etorleptiomyia) luzonensis (Ludlow, I905) Leicester, p Distribution: Ceylon; India; Thailand; lndochina; Philippines; Hong Kong; Okinawa; Java; Borneo; Taiwan; Malaya Sembilan). Habits: Pool breeder. Blood-fed adults collected from human-bait trap. Kampong Sireh, Rantau Panjang (Selangor), Ulu Nuri Valley (Negri Subgenus Theobald, 1903 Ficalbia (Mimomyia) aurea (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p Distribution: Assam; Thailand; Borneo; Malaya----Repah Kuala Lumpur (Selangor), Raub (Pahang), Taiping (Perak). Habits: Unknovn. Estate {Negri Sembilan), Ficalbia (Mimomyla) chamberlaini (Ludlow, 1904) Distribution: Ceylon; India; Thailand; Philippines; Java; Celebes; Iiabaena; Malaya Kepong, Sungel Besi (Selangor). Habits: Larvae collected from ponds with Pistia plants. Ficalbia (Mimomyia) hybrida (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, pp. 115 & 260. Distribution: Ceylon; India; Thailand; Philippines; Sumatra; Java; Borneo;?New Guinea; Celebes; Malaya- Puchong, Rantau Panjang, Kepong (Selangor), Repah Estate (Negri Sembilan), Kuala Muda (Kedah). Habits: Breeds in weedy pools. MALAYA, No. 28, 1957

16 16 W. W. MACDONALD FicaIbis (Mimomyia) metsilica (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p Distribution: Thailand; Indochina; Philippines; Sumatra; J;[va; Taiwan; New Guinea; Queensland; Malaya m Sungei Besi, Cheras, Segambut (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in weedy pools; marshy ground (Leicester). Genus Blanchard, 1901 The larvae live attached to the roots of aquatic plants in ponds, and to the roots of swamp trees and grasses, but, although this biological feature is well-known, it is often difficult to collect the larvae in numbers. The adults are vicious biters, both of man and animals, and in some parts of the country they are eceedingly common. In general they are night-biters with a peak of activity just after sunset, but in forest they may attack during the day. Several species are vectors of filarial infections in man and possibly animals. Most of the species are widely distributed with local concentrations in localities where there are plentiful breeding sites. There are two additional species not listed; these were judged by F. W. Edwards in 1940 to be new, but they have not yet been described. Subgenus Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905 Mansonia crassipes (van der Wulp, 1892) Leicester, p Distribution: Oriental region; Papua; Solomon Is.;? New Caledonia;? Marianas Islands; Fiji; Malaya widely distributed. Haoits: Breeds in marshy ground overgrown with reeds and eposed to sun. Mansonia (Coquillettidia) near giblini (Taylor, 1914) Distribution: Thailand; Malay Archipelago; Philippines; New Guinea; New Britain; New Ireland; Australia; Malaya widely distributed. Habits: No larvae have been collected, but the adults are sometimes common in swampy jungle. In 1040 F. W. Edwards eamined specimens from Malaya and decided they were different from the Australian species giblini. His conclusions, however, were never published, and apparently no one has pursued the subject. The literature records of giblini have been included in the distribution list, but the probability of two species being involved should be borne in mind. Mansonia (Coqu,illettidia) ochracea (Theobald, 1903) Leicester, p Distribution: India; Thailand; Indochina; China; Philippines; Sumatra; Java; Borneo; New Guinea; Malaya -- not a very common species, but there are probably local concentrations throughout the country. Habits: No larvae have been collected. Subgenus Mansonioides Theobald, 1907 Mansonia annulataleices'ter, 1908 Leicester, p Distribution: Sumatra; Borneo; Celebes; Philippines; Malaya m-- widely distributed with local concentrations. Habits: Adults sometimes bite man in swampy jungle during the day. Larvae collected from marshy pools near the forest edge. Mansonia (Mansonioides) annulifera (Theobald, 1901) Leicester, p Distribution: Ceylon; India; Thailand; Indochina; Philippines; Indonesia; New Guinea; Malaya -- widely distributed in open country. Habits: Breeds mainly in ponds with water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes). The eggs are laid on the underside of the leaves above the water level; when the are immersed. droop, as they grow older, the eggs Mansonia (M,ansonioides) bonneae Edwards, Distribution: Thailand; Borneo; Malaya widely distributed, often occurring in enormous numbers in swampy jungle. Habits: Larvae in association with tree roots in swamp forest. STUD. INST. MED. RES.

17 NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 17 Mansonia (Mansonioides) dives (Schiner, 1808) (= M. Iongipalpis auct.) Leicester, p Distribution: India; Thailand; Philippines; Indonesia; New' Guinea; New Ireland; Queensland; Malaya -- widely distributed, often occurring in enormous numbers in swampy jungle. Habits: Similar to bonneae, which it also resembles closely in appearance. See Stone (1956) re the change in nomenclature. Mansonia (Mansonioides) indiana Edwards, 1930 Distribution: Ceylon; India; Burma; Thailand;? Philippines; Indochina; Indonesia; New Guinea; Malaya -- widely distributed in open country. Habits: Larvae are usually in association with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), but are also found with other floating plants. uniformis (Theobald, 1901) Leicester, p. 171,? p Distribution: Africa; Oriental region; Japan; New Guinea; Admiralty Islands; New Ireland; Solomon Is.; Australia; Malaya- widely distributed in open country with local concentrations. Habits: Larvae are usually associated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), but are also found with other floating plants. Genus Aedomyia Theobald, 1001 There is only one Malayan species of this genus. Aedomyia catasticta Knab, 1909 Leicester, p Distribution: Throughout Oriental region; New Guinea; Fiji;? Solomon Is.; Australia; Malaya widely distributed. Habits: Breeds in weedy swamps and ponds. The adults are very attracted to light, but there is no evidence that they suck blood. Genus Aedes Meigen, 1818 This genus is the largest occurring in Malaya, and it includes many species about which little is known. Short summaries are given under most of the subgeneric headings. Nearly all the species bite man. At least fity-nine species in Malaya. Subgenus Mucidus Theobald, 1901 (Mucidus) aurantius (Theobald, 1907) Leicester, p. 71. Distribution: Sumatra; Celebes; Borneo; New Guinea; Malaya Rantau Panjang (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in ground pools among Nipa palms at Rantau Panjang; marshy ground (Leicester); pot-holes in mangrove (Edwards & Given). The larvae are predacious. The adults readily bite domestic animals, but also attack man. Knight & Hull (1951) suggest that there are four subspecies. That now dealt with is aurantius,' the others are quadripunctis (Philippines), chrysogaster (Queensland), and (Solomon Is.). Aedes (Mucidus} laniger (Wiedemann, 1821) Leicester, p. 69. Distribution: Ceylon; India; Indochina; PhilippinGs; Sumatra; Java; Celebes; Malayaaround Kuala Lumpur. Habits: Breeds in ditches and marsh pools. Subgenus Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, 1891 Aedes (Ochlerotatus) vigila (Skuse, 1889) Distribution: Seychelles; Thailand; Indochina; Indonesia; Taiwan; Australia; New Guinea; Hebrides; New Caledonia; Malaya- locality uncertain. Habits: Brackish water breeder (Knight & Hull, 1951). There are tvo subspecies recorded. That now discussed is vigila vigila, whilst the other, vigila ludlowi, is known only from the Philippines & Hull, 1951). MALAYA. No

18 18 W. W. MACDONALD Subgenus Finlaya Theobald, 1903 Most of the members of this subgenus have been taken biting man in inland forest, and some of them might be involved in the transmission, of viruses among animals. It is a point of interest that the South American genus Haernagogus, which includes yellow fever vectors, is probably related to Finlaya, and that the South American species A. (Finlaya) leucocelaenus, also a yellow fever vector, belongs to the same group as the Malayan,'1. (Finlaya) niveus subgroup. The IMR specimens require a more thorough revision to confirm the identifications, since it is quite possible that there are some new species in the collection. For the time being it has seemed best to identify and name them as correctly as possible with the eisting keys, whilst bearing in mind the necessity for a revision. (Finlaya) albolateralls (.Theobald, 1908) Distribution: Ceylon; India; Yunnan;? Philippines; Sumatra; Malaya Ulu Gombak, Fraser's Hill (Selangor). Habits: Adults caught biting man in the forest canopy (75 high), and, less commonly, at ground level by U.S.A.M.R.U. Larvae in tree-holes and bamboo stumps (Barraud, 1934). albotaenlatus (Leicester, 1904) Leicester, p Distribution: Ceylon; India; Sumatra; Malaya -- Ulu Gombak, Fraser's Hill (Selangor). Habits: Bamboo-breeder. Day biter in forest, taken on human bait (see also Knight, 1948). (Finlaya) near (Theobald, 1908) Distribution.' India; Indochina; Yunnan; Java (assarnensis s. str.); Malaya Ulu (;ombak, Ulu Langat, Sunget Buloh, Kepong, Seaport Estate (Selangor). Habits: Larvae collected from bamboo stumps. A series of this species is in the IMR collection, but until the specimens are compared with known assamcrisis the identification is in doubt. Acdes (Finlaya) aureostriatus var. greeni (Theobald, 1903) Distribution: Ceylon; India; Sumatra; Java; Malaya Jugra, Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Larvae found in tree-holes; and in bamboo (Barraud, 1934). Aedes (Finlaya) avistylusbrug, 1939 Distribution: Celebes; Boeton; Kabaena; Morotat; Malay Archipelago (Knight Marks, 1952). Habits.' Larvae from Colocasia ails and bamboo (Knight & Marks, 1952). Aedes (Finlaya) chrysollneatus (Theobald, 1907) Leicester, p Distribution: Ceylon; India; Thailand; Indochina; Sumatra; Java; Malaya Gombak, Bukit Kutu (Selangor). Habits: Bamboo-breeder (Leicester). The adults readily bite man in forest. The group has been reviewed by Knight (1947). Ulu (Finlaya) dissimilis (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p. 91. Distribution: India; Yunnan;' Malaya Sij angkang (Selangor). Habits: Tree-hole and bamboo breeder. Ampang, Ulu Gombak, near Kampong Aedes (Finlaya) near Yamada, 1921 Distribution: India; Yunnan; Taiwan; Sumatra;? Java; Bali; Taiwan In IMR, Malaya -- Ulu Langat, Ulu Gombak, Kepong (Selangor). Habits: Larvae found in bamboo stumps. s. str.); Aedes (Finlaya)near harveyi (Barraud, 1923) Distribution: Ceylon; India; Yunnan; Sumatra;? Java;? Bali (harveyi s. str.); Malaya -- Ulu Langat, Fraser's Hill (Selangor). Habits.' Larvae found in fallen split bamboo; Colocasia ails and tree-holes (Brug, 1931). STUD. 1NST. MED. RES.

19 NON-ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 19 Aedes (Finlaya) jugraensis (Leicester, 1908) Leicester, p Distribution:? Philippines; Malaya -- Ulu Gombak, Ulu Langat, Jugra (Selangor). Habits: Larvae in split bamboos; and in fallen leaves (Leicester). The adults were collected from human bait. Aedes (Finlaya) near khazani Edwards, 1922 Distribution: India; Indochina (khazani s. str.); Malaya -- Kuala Muda (Kedah), near Kampong Sijangkang (Selangor). Habits: Tree-hole breeder (Barraud, 1934). Adults caught attacking man in sw.ampy jungle. Aedes (Finlaya) near macfarlanei (Edwards, 1914) Distribution: Indochina; Sumatra; Hong Kong (rnac[arlanei s. str.); Malaya- Langag, Ampang (Selangor).. Habits: Larvae round in concrete pit net to Ampang reservoir, open to sunlight. Ulu Aedes (Finlaya) (Ludlow, 1903) Leicester, p. 87. Distribution: Ceylon; India; Thailand; Andamans; Indonesia; Philippines; Malaya Bating P. adang (Perak), Cameron Highlands (Pahang). Two or more species are included under this name in the collection. Further work is required to identify these more precisely. There are several species which can only be separated on male hypopygial characters (see Barraud, 1934 and Knight, 1946). Aedes (Fintaya) Barraud, 1934 Distribution: India; Sumatra; Malaya -- Ulu Gombak (Selangor). This species is distinguisnaole from n{vcus only in hypopygial characters. It is quite likely to be preseng among the niveus group of specimens, and may have been confused with Aedes (Finlaya) poicilius (Theobald, 1903) Distribution: India; Burma; Thailand; Philippines; Indonesia; New Guinea.; Malaya Telok Artson (Perak), Kampong Lubok Pusing, Cheeding (Selangor), Penang. Habits: Plant ail breeder (Knight & Marks, 1952). Adults occasionally taken attacking man in swampy jungle and in human-bait tr. ap. Aedes (Finlaya) near prominens (Barraud, 1923) India; Indochina.; Celebes (prominens s. str.); Malaya Lureput (Selangor). Habits: Tree-hole breeder; also in bamboo-stumps (Barraud, 1934). Kuala Aedes (Finlaya) (Theobald, 1905) Distribution: Borneo; Sumatra; Malaya -- Ulu Gombak (Selangor), Batang Padang (Perak). Habits: Adults caught on man in forest. Taken at night as well as day. Aedes (Fintaya) saicola Edwards, 1922 Leicester, p Distribution: India.; Thailand; Sumatra; Java; Philippines; Malaya- Kepong, Ulu Langat, Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Larvae found in rock pools. Subgenus Chrlstopherslomyla Barraud, 1923 This subgenus has not been recorded from Malaya before. Three species are known from India and Ceylon, and one from the Philippines. Aedes (Christopherslomyia) sp. Habits: Larvae have been collected from a tree-hole in Ulu Gombak forest, and females have been occasionally taken in biting catches by U.S.A.M.R.U. MALAYA, No. 28, 1957

20 20 W. W. MACDONALD Subgenus Stegomyia Theobald, 1901 Most of the species are tree-hole breeders, but aegypti and albopictus are very common in artificial containers. Malayan A. aegypt.i can transmit yellow fever (Gilleft & Ross, 1955), and probably this is true for albopictus also: both Species are probably dengue vectors in Malaya. Aedes aegypfi (Linnaeus, 1762) Leicester, p. 85. Distribution: Throughout the tropical and sub-tropical zoncs; Malaya distributed in gowns and villages (Macdonald, 1956a). widely Habits: Breeds in domestic containers; principally a day-biter (see also Macdonald, 1956b). Th,;s is the main vector of urban yellow fever in Africa and America. -Indo-Malayan aegypti are mainly of the type form, but the pale form, 'var. may also be lotrod, though it is much less common. Aedes (Stegomyia) albolineatus (Theobald, 1904) Leicester, p Distribution: Assam; Indochina; Taiwan; Borneo; Philippines; Indonesia; New Guinea; Solomon Is.; Admiralty Is.; New Britain; New Ireland; Malaya Kuantan-Pekan Road (Pahang), ljltl Gombak, Kepong (Selangor). Habits: Breeds in tree-holes (Barraud). Adults taken biting man. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) Leicester, p. 86. Distribution: Madagascar; Oriental region; Papua; Marianas Islands; Hawaii; North Australia; Malaya -- widely distributed in urban, rural and forest regions. Habits: Breeds in both domestic and plant containers of various kinds; principally a day biter with peaks of activity after sunrise and before sunset. The little evidence available suggests that may be absent from inside the forest and is confined to the forest fringe. It is most common where man has interfered by felling trees and bamboos. In a number of features of its biology albopictus is similar to A. (Stegomyia) simpsoni, a yellow fever vector in East Africa. Aedes (Stegomyia)desmotes (Giles, 1904) Leicester, p. 81. Distribution: India; Indochina; Philippines; Borneo; Boeton; Soemba; Malaya Sabai (Pahang), Ulu Langat, Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Bamboo breeder. Adults taken attacking man in inland forest. Aedes (Stegomyia) mediopunctatus vaz. perpleus Leicester, 1908 Leicester, p. 83. Distribution: Philippines; Malaya Ulu Langat, Ulu Gombak, The Gap (Selangor). Habits: Bamboo breeder (Barraud). Adults taken biting man. Aedes (Stegomyia) pseudalbopictus Borel, 1928 Distribution: India; Indochina; Sumatra; Iqew Caledonia; Malaya----Ulu Gombak, Jugra Hill (Selangor). Habits: Bamboo breeder (Borel, 1928). Adults readily attack man. Like aegypti and albopictus this species is easily colonized. (Stegomyia) scutellaris (Walker, 1859) IMR specimens sent to Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). Distribution: Malaya -- Pulau Perak. Habits: Larvae found in rock-pools on Pulau Perak (Gibson-Hill, 1950). It is uncertain whether the Pulau Perak specimens are scutellaris scutellaris or another member of the subgroup.. For a detailed discussion of the distribution of the subgroup see Marks (1954). Aedes (Stegomyia) vittatus (Bigot, 1861) Distribution: Africa; Mediterranean region; Ceylon; India; Indochina; Malaya uncertain. Habits: Breeds in domesticontainers, rock pools, tree-holes (Barraud, 1934). locality Aedes (Stegomyia) w-alb'us (Theobald, 1905) Leicester, p. 89. Distribution: Ceylon; India; Thailand; Yunnan; Taiwan; I-Iong Kong; Malaya Kuala I.umpur, Seaport Estate, Rantau Panjang, Ulu Gombak (Selangor). Habits: Tree-hole breeder. Adults taken biting man. Larva and pupa recently described by Rajgopalan (1956). STUD. INST. MED. RES.

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