SPRENGER INSTITUUT Haagsteeg6,Postbus AA Wageningen Tel.: REPORTNO.556 (OFFICIALSECRET) H.A.M.BoerrigterandE.J.

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1 SPRENGER INSTITUUT Haagsteeg6,Pstbus7 67 AA Wageningen Tel.:83793 REPORTNO.556 (OFFICIALSECRET) H.A.M.BerrigterandE.J.Wltering ETHYLENEANDHORTICULTURALCROPS ACLASSIFICATIONIN TERMSOF PRODUCTIONANDSENSITIVITY Uitgebracht aan WavinPFPteHardenberg Order n.5 (Juni 988) a

2 -- INTRODUCTION Wavinplastic filmprducts intendstintrduce ineurpe afilmfr packagingpurpsesmadefrm "ethyleneabsrbing material" whichisprducedin Japan.Thisfilm (BFG) hasnlybrieflybeentestednsmehrticultural prductsastmatesand brccli;testresultshwever, havebeenpublished in Japanese whichmakes interpretatindifficult. Inrdertevaluate thepssibilitiesfrsuccesful intrductinfthis materialinthehrticulturalpackagingfield, WavinPFPrderedtheSprenger Institutetsummarizetheirknwledgeabutethyleneeffectsnhrticultural crps.thesprengerinstituteis aninstitutefrpst-harvest technlgyf hrticulturalprducts. Researchnethyleneeffectsisanimprtanttpic. Thisreprtis acmpilatinfallkindsfethylenedatabecausemstfthe available infrmatinisspreadvervariusarticlesand reprts. WHYCONTROLETHYLENE Ethylene (C.H.)isnef a numberfuralplanthrmnes.itdiscrimies itselffrmthetherhrmnesbecauseethyleneisgaseusandexchange with thesurrundingairhaslittlelimitatins. Otherhrmnesaremstlyrganicacidsdisslved in plantcells. Eve very lwcncentratinsethylenehaseffectsngrwth,develpmentandripeningf planttissues. Allplantmaterialprducesethylene, hwever,mstly in minute amunts.after harvest, hrticulturalcrpsmaybeexpsedtethylene unintentinallyasthegasisprduced bythecrpitself, bythercrps, by micr-rganismsanditis acmpnentfairpllutinfrmtrafficr industrialexhaust gases. Smetimesethyleneisusedt prmte:ripening (plums, tmates, bananas), flwering (iris bulbs, Brmeliaceae)rradialgrwth (bean spruts).hwever ethyleneeffectsare mstlydetrimental. Especiallyduringdistributinitis necessarytknw whatthesusceptibility isfcmmditiestethylenedamagetassessthesignificancefthe risks. Ethylenedamageis aresultfthreeinterrelatedfactrs (Wlteringand Harkema, 987): a.temperature b. Expsuretime c.cncentratin mredamageat higher temperatures mredamagewhenexpsedlnger mredamageat highercncentratins. Ad a. Anexamplefthisisshwninfigure.Shelflifefcucumbers decreasesat highertemperaturesandat highercncentratinsfethylene. Ad b. Anexampleftheeffectftheexpsuretimein cmbiinwith ethylenenshelflifefcucumbersisshwninfigure. Ad c. Figure 3shwstheeffectftheethylenecncentratinnthe vaselife fcarinsafter4 hexpsureat3c. Especiallyexpsuretime has aprnuncedeffectntherespnset ethylene. Whentheexpsuretimeis belw a certainthreshld,sensitivecmmdities (e.g.carins)shwnrespnse, ntevent veryhighcncentratinsf ethylene (- ppm).hwever, whentheexpsuretimeexceedsthisthreshld, theseflwersshw arespnse,eve,3ppm (fig. 3).

3 3- ETHYLENEPRODUCTION Theratefethyleneprductinin manycmmditiesis verylwandmay be negligible in nrmalpstharvesthandling. Cmmditieswhichshw alwandcnstantethyleneprductinafter harvest arecallednn-climacteric. Mechanicaldamagecancausetransient increasesin prductin butthedamageitselfislikelyt befmreimprtancethan indirecteffects via ethylene. Fungal infectinincreasesethyleneprductinas arespnse tdiseasestress butalssmemicr-rganismsprduceethylenee.g.fusariumxysprumtulipae ntulip bulbs. Maximumethyleneprductinfthisfungusmaybe mlag-bulbs.h. Table shwssmeethylene-prducingfungi (Hag andcurtis,968).of8 speciesffungiexamined5,6%prducedethylene.theyused, gdry weight in mlglass syringes. Table. Ethylene prductin f sme fungi (Hag, 968) species prductin rate* Aspergillusclavatus veryhigh Aspergillusflavus high Aspergillusustus lw Pénicilliumcrylphilum high Alternariaslani lw Cephalsprium gramineaeum high Hansenulasubpelticulsa high Thamnidiumelegans high Sclertinialaxa lw Schizphyllum cmmune high *veryhigh - > ppm; high - > ppm;lw =-,-ppm Ethyleneprductinisalsrelatedttemperature.At higher temperatures ethyleneprductinincreases (fig. 4). Mstprductswhichare btanicallyclassifiedasfruitsshw aclimacteric patternfrespiratinandmayshwgreatlydifferingratesfethyleneprductidifferentstagesintheirpst-harvest life. Whenthefruits develp frmunripetripe,ethyleneprductinincreasesbyatleast fld. Typicalratesfprductinfrimmature (preclimacteric)andmature (climacteric)fruitsareshwnintable.

4 4- Table. Ethylene prductin rates f sme climacteric fruits at C fruit* ratef prductin ( M l C H 4 Ag-h) immature ~ mature Apple Aprict Kiwifruit Meln Peach Pear Tmat Banana Avcad Orange Passinfruit Cherimya Plums Blue berry Grapes Pineapple,,3 :,,,,6,,5,3, 3,5,4,49, ,4,43,5 *Theseratesare differentfr eachvarietyand dependals n grwthcircumstances, seasn,climateand therfactrs Inthe clumn "mature" maximumratesare given which werefundin literature rfrm wn measurements. Table 3 shwssmeethyleneprductinratesfrmdifferentapple varieties. Table 3. Ethylene prductin rates frm sme apple (at C, climacteric stage) varieties applecultivar ethyleneprductin (/il C H 4 Ag-h) Schne van Bskp CxOrangePippin BramleysSeedling Elstar GldenDelicius Spartan Table 4shwswhathappensduring astrageseasnfr applecv. Schne van Bskp.Analysesare carriedut at C. Appleswerestredbefreanalyses at% ;,5 CO- at 4,5 C.

5 5- Table 4. Ethylene prductin frm "Schne van Bskp" in relatin t strage time date ethyleneprductin ( M l C H 4 Ag-h) <,,5 7, Itis the highprductinratef climacteric fruitsthat makesthem ptentiallydangerust ther (ethylene-sensitive) cmmdities, but suchripe fruititselfis usuallynt respnsivet additinal ethylene. Table 5 givesan ethyleneprductinclassificatinfr smefruitsand vegetables.

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7 Table 5. Ethylene prductin at ptimum strage temperatures (Kader and Kashmir e, 984) C H 4 jil/kg.h nnchill sensitive chillsensitive Verylw (lessthan,) Asparagus Cabbage Carrt Grape Lettuce Onin Radish Chicry Brussels spruts Ginger Citrus Ptat Sweet ptat Lw (,-,) Brccli Kiwi (unr Mushrm Beans Berries ipe) Cucumber Eggplant Pineapple Sweetpeppers Mderate (,) Kiwi (rip Figs Lychee e) Tmat Banana Meln Mang High () Apple Peach Pear Plum Avcad Papaya Veryhigh (> ) - Cherimya Passinfruit Mstrnamentalsarenn-climactericprducts. Hwever,duringflwer senescenceethyleneprductin mayshw aclimacteric-likepattern (fig. 5). Severalfactrsareknwntaffectethyleneprductin: a.psitinftheflwer (hrizntal vs. vertical) (fig. 6) b. c. d. Dark-stress;lackflightincreasesC~H,prductin ExternalC cncentratin (fig.7) PretreatmentwithinhibitrsfethyleneprductinractinsuchasSTS (Silverthisulphate)andAA (amin-xyaceticacid) (fig.8) Plliinftheflwers (fig. 9) e. f. Availability f water g.externalethylenecncentratin. Underuralcnditinsethyleneprductinis underthecntrlfthe flwer. Thishmestasismay becmeuncntrlledcausedbynefthefactrs mentined abveandthenautcatalysesmayccur.duetthisprcesscarinflwersmayprducetimesmreethyleneduring wilting thanis nrmal.

8 Table 6givessmeethyleneprductinratesfrflwersduringdrystrageat Cplacedinthedark. Table 6. Ethylene prductin frm sme cut flwers species-cultivars Carin 'Lena' Chrysanthemum Cymbidium Euphrbiafulgens Fresia Iris 'Ideal' Lilium 'Cnnecticut King' Rse 'Snia' Tulip 'Apeldrn' C-H,prductin fit/kg fresh weight.h,5,44,5,9,5,5,,39,9 Anthergrupfflwerscalled "summerflwers"shwalsthesamelw ethyleneprductin range. SmeflwersasTracheliumandNigelladamascenahave a "mderate"prductin level. Tabel 7. Ethylene prductin f cut "summer flwers" placed hrizntally in dark (Wltering, 985) in fil CJî,/kg fresh weight.h ^Tj, species prductin species prductin Achilleafilipendulina Acnitumnapellus Allium sphaercephaln Amaranthus Antirrhinummajr Asclepiastubersa Asternvi-belgii Astilbe Buvardia Campanulapyramidalis Centaureacyanus Chelne Chrysanthemum parthenicum Crcsmia xcrcsmiiflra Delphiniumajacis Eremurus Erigern Eryngium Gladilusclvillei,66,3,46,9,6,44,,,9,4,33,9,6,5,6,8,93,,5 Gypsphilapaniculata Helianthus Hypericum Kniphfia Liatris Limniumsinuatum Lysimachiaclethrides Matthilaincana Nigelladamascena Ornithgalumthyrsides Phlxpaniculata Physstegiavirginiana Rudbeckia Sapnaria Scabisacaucasica Slidag Trachelium Triteleiabrdiaea,64,3,66,64,63,3,55,6 4,6,8,44,3,58,76,3,8 3,75,5

9 8- Otherrnamentalssuchas pttedplants, nurserystcksandflwerbulbsall shw a verylwethyleneprductinrate (<,pic_h,/kg-h) exceptfusarium infectedtulipbulbswhich mayprduceupt pl/kg.h. ETHYLENEFROMOTHERSOURCES Ptentialsurcesfethylenetherthan plantmaterialarecmmnlywell knwnairpllutersas : a.exhaustgasesfrmcmbustinenginessuchasfrklifts,carsandtrucks. b. Industrialwaste gases. c.cigarette smke, d.cmbustinfcal, il, gasand wd. e.ethylenegeneratingchemicalsasethephnand ethrel. In manyftheabvementined situatins (e.g. Dutchauctins with trafficin the building)ethylenecncentratinshave beeninvestigatedandatpresent we have afairlygdindicatinabuttheactualethylenelevelsinpractice (fig.4). Precautinscan betakenagainsthighlevelsfethylene. Avidance isthe simplestapprachandculdentailusefelectricfrklifts, excludingsurcesf pllutinandprperventilatin.usefethylene-absrbingequipment as aprecautinisinur viewnlydesirable when ventilatinpssibilities arelimited. Thismay happen whenclingcapacityistlwr when prducts arestred undercar MAcnditins.Inthesecasesethylenemay accumulate. Stragefclimacteric fruits with a highethyleneprductinleveltgether withethylenesensitiveprductsshuld beavided. Such asituatin hwever,isexceptinal in nrmalpstharveststrage. Mstethyleneprblemsccur in mixedladsintransitr,attheendfthe distributinchai whlesalersrsupermarketsthat havetfewstrage rmstseparatesensitiveandnn-sensitive prducts. ETHYLENESENSITIVITYFRUITSANDVEGETABLES Asmentinedabve mst prductswhichshw a highethyleneprductinare nt sensitivethighexternalethylenelevelsncetheyareintheclimacteric stageftheirripening prcess.immatureprductssuchasapples, bananasand tmatesareverysensitive texternalethylenetillthetimetheyprduce muchethylenebythemselves. Table 8shwssmebeneficialeffectfethyleneremvalduringCArMAstragef variusclimactericfruits.

10 -9- Table 8. Lw ethylene strage effects at varius fruits (Knee, 985) fruit strageperid (days) C,H,-cnc. (ppm) prcess retarded Apple 'Mcintsh' Apple 'Bramleys' Avcad Banana Kiwifruit Lemn Mang Pear < < < < < < <,4,5?, sftening scaldandsftening sfteningandrtting sftening sftening rtting sftening fleshbrwning Inspitefthelngstrageperidstheeffectsfethyleneremvalaresmall (but significant). Nn-climacteric crpsshw agreat variability inrespnse texternal ethylene.insmecasesthisleadst veryclearvisualdamage,inthercasessuch ascarrtsthetastemaybeinfluenced (sweett bitter). Adescriptinfethyleneeffectsisgivenintable9. Table 9. Effects f ethylene n quality f vegetables (Knee, 985) Asparagus Beans Brccli Cabbage Carrts Cucumber Aubergine Lettuce Ptat Tmat Increasedtughness Yellwing Yellwing,abscissinfflrets Yellwing,leafabscissin Bitterflavur Yellwingandsftening Calyxabscissin, brwningpulpandseed Russetsptting Spruting Cluratin Therespnsesffruitsand vegetablestethylenehavent beenstudiedin sufficientdetailtmakereliablepredictinabuttheeffectfthegas undereachpssibleclimatecnditin.hweverbananas, aubergines, cucumbers, kiwifruit,cabbageandlettuceallgive a halfmaximumrespnseatabut, ppm whenexpsure timeislngenughatthatspecificstragetemperature (fig. 5). Tableshws asensitivityclassificatin frm fruitsandvegetablesand theirptimumstragetemperatures.

11 - Table. Respnse f vegetables and fruits t ethylene (in cmmercial picking stage) strage sensitivitytethylene temp. - (C) high mderate lw -5 Brccli Spinach Asparagus Artichkenin vege- Brusselsspruts Redcabbage Celery Olives Shalt tables Whitecabbage Celeryleaf MushrmsScrznera Savycabbage Pea Garlic Carrt Cauliflwer Iceberglettuce Leek Celeriac Sweetcrn Endive Chinesecabbage Beetrt Fennel Beanspruts Kale Bradbean Khlrabi Lettuce Witlfchicry Ptates Rhubarb Turnipgreen Purslane Radish Cress fruits Kiwifruit \ Apricts Nectarine Peach Unripepears Plums Mandarines Oranges Lychee Strawberry Raspberry i Ripeapples ^5 Blackberry Cherry Surcherry NutsandFigs 6- vegetables Zucchini SweetPepper - beans (green) Sweetpepper (red) fruits 3Avcad Passinfruit Olive Pineapple Meln Hney meln Watermeln -5 vegetables Eggplant Gherkin Cucumber Tmat (green) Tmat (breaker) fruits t\ Banana Mang Papaya Lemn Grapes Ginger ~ Insmeexperimentswhenthenlyethylenesurceistheprductitself ethyleneremvalgives aslightlypsitiveeffectnprductquality. Theseexperimentsare mstlycarrieduttachieve alngerstragetime withutaccmpanyinglssfquality.but whenprductsaregenetically suitable frlngtermstrage (mrethan 6 weeks)andtheneedtprlng distributintimeisfelt,thenmstlycastrageis applied. Benefits frmcastragetprductlngevityareevidentfrespecially apples butmanyvegetablesalsshw a verypsitivereactine.g.cabbageand Brusselsspruts. /

12 - When prducts arepacked inplasticfilmtheaircmpsitininthepackage willchange becausefrespiratinandethylene prductin. PrductsprduceCO,-, C-H,, H andcnsume.thefinalclimatedependings n manyfactrs as: a.time b.temperature c.filmprpertiesasthickness, area,diffusincefficientsetc. d.respiratinversusvlumerati. Thiswayf packagingiscalled mdifiedairpackaging (MA) andis ften effective frprductkeepability. Themstimprtantprblemin MApackagingistfind afilmwith a high diffusinratefrxygenenteringthepackage whenprduct has a highrespiratin level. Lackfxygenleadstanaerbicrespiratin whichcauses immediatesevere qualitylss. Asrespiratinlevelsarestrnglyrelatedttemperature,caremust betaken thatinthedistributinchaintemperaturesfthepackedprductareasclse aspssibletptimumstragetemperatures.

13 - ETHYLENESENSITIVITYOFORNAMENTALPRODUCTS Whilestudyingsenescence,it becamebviusthat manyflwersandrnamental pttedplantsare very sensitivet ethylene. Intableanethylenesensitivityclassificatinfrcutflwers is given. Table. Classificatin f cut flwers exgenus ethylene (Wltering accrding t and Harkema, their sensitivity 9898) t species cultivar ethylene sensitivity symptms Alstremeria Carmen Maria Orchid Rsari disclratinf petals (rchid)and rapidwilting Carin Scania WhiteSim WilliamSim Lereve Orangetriumph wiltingf petals Carin (spray) SilveryPink RedBarn Sunshine wiltingand budblasting Anthuriumandreanum AvAnneke AvClaudia AvTineke wilting Asparagus abscissinfleaves Cattleya wilting Chrysanthemum Hrim Spider Westland increasedfungal invasinfflwers Cymbidium severalcv. clratinflabellum Cymbidium (mini) severalcv. clratinandwilting Dendrbiumphalaenpsis LadyHamiltn epinastyfpeduncles and wilting Euphrbiafulgens Albatrs Orange Creme yellwingand abscissinfleaves Frsythia(x)intermedia Spectabilis advanced ratefflwer develpment

14 3- species cultivar ethylene sensitivity symptms Fresia Aurra Ballerina RyalBlue vaselifereductin budblasting flwermalfrmatin Gerberajamesnii Agnes Beatrix Vernica wiltinguter anthers Glrisarthschildiana - wilting Iris Ideal Prf. Blaauw Symphny Witte van Vliet budutgrwthinhibited Lilium Arai CnnecticutKing Enchantment Ladykiller flwer bud blasting andmalfrmatin Daffdil Carltn Dutch Master Glden Harvest wilting Nerinebwdenii blueing flwermalfrmatin Nerinesarniensis Crusca Majr Nerinemancelli Paphipedilum - wilting Phalaenpsis - wilting Prunustrilba Multiplex budblasting Rse Belinda Diana Ilna Mtrea Snia flwermalfrmatin shrtervaselife Syringavulgaris Mad.Flrent Stepman Lavalliensis wilting andflwermalfrmatin

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16 -4- species cultivar ethylene sensitivity symptms Tulip Apeldrn Gander LustigeWitwe flwermalfrmatin and blueing in GanderandL.W. ntsensitive lwsensitivity mderatesensitivity highsensitivity extremesensitivity Intable asensitivityclassificatinisgivenfr "summerflwers", Table. Ethylene sensitivity in cut "summer" flwers (Wltering, 98k) species C V.. r sensitivity species C H 4... sensitivity Acnitumnapellus Agapenthusafricanus Alliumazureum Antirrhinummajr Asclepiastubers Buvardia Campanulapyramidalis Centaureacyanus Chelne Clarkiaelegans Crcsmia x crcsmiiflra Dahlia Delphiniumajaces Triteleiabrdiaea Dianthusbarbatus Eremurus Gladilusclvillei Gmphrenaglbsa Gypsphilapaniculata Kniphfia Matthilaincana Phlxpaniculata Physstegiavirginiana Sapnaria Scabisacaucasica Silenearmeria Trachelium

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18 -5- Table 3. Cut "summer" flwers that are nt sensitive t ethylene (U hurs, 3 ppm CJi at C) (Wltering, 984) species Achilleafilipendulina Alchemillamllis Allium sphaercephaln Amaranthus Anethumgravelens Asternvi-belgii Astilbe Callistephus chinensis Celsiaargentea 'Christata' Chrysanthemummaximum Chrysanthemumparthenicum Chrysanthemumsegetum Erigern Eryngium Gdetia Heliantus Helipterummanglesii Helipterumrseum Hypericum Liatris Limniumsinuatum Limniumsuwrwii Lysimachiaclethrides Nigelladamascena Ornithgalum thyrsides Rudbeckia Slidag Zantedeschia ellittiana Zinniaelegans Dutchname duizendblad vruwenmantel sierui kattestaart dille herfstaster zaaiaster hanekam matricaria geleganzeblem fijnstraal kruisdistel zmerazalea znneblem Rhdante hertshi Statice staart-statice wederik juffertje in 't gren zuidenwindlelie znnehed guldenrede Gele Galla Thesensitivityfrnamentalptplantstexgenusethylene wasinvestigatedatthesprengerinstitutebyexpsingthemintherangefrm5ppm C-H,fr4r7 hindarknessinc.ingeneralflweringplantsappeared mresensitivetc H,treatmentthanfliage plants,exhibitingabscissinf flwers,flwerbudsrfttalinflrescencesafter4 h.fliageplants shwedabscissinandyellwingf leaves. Thesensitivityfpttedplantsisclassifiedaccrdingt 8classes.Species thatdidntrespndt4 htreatment butdidrespndt7 htreatment were classifiedas,, 3r 4.Speciesthatrespnded t4 htreatment were classifiedas5,6, 7r8.Seefigure 6. Table4and5giveanethylenesensitivityclassificatinfrrnamental ptted plants.

19 -6- Table 4. Fliage plants: C H, txicity symptms and sensitivity after treatment with 5 nl/ C H fr 4 r 7 h in darkness at C (Wltering, 987) plantspecies C H,txicitysymptms Abscissin leaf T yeifruits leaves lwing fruit ripening sensif- î-tr-î-f lr tlvl L.y epinasty classificatin Anthuriumscherzerianum Aralia (Fatsia japnica) Asparagusdensiflrus 'Sprengeri' Asplenium nidus Capsicumannuura Chamaedreaelegans Cdiaeum variegatum CrdylinefructicSA Dieffenbachia 'Marianne Dizygtheca elegantissima Dracaenamargia Dracaenasanderiana Eucharisgrandiflra Euphrbia keysii Euphrbiapseudcactus Ficusbenjamina Ficusdeltïdea Ficuspumila Hederacanariensis 'Variegata' Nephrlepisexaltata Phildendrnscandens xycardium Rhaphidphraaurea Scheffleracmpacta Scindapsuspictus Slanumpseudcapsicum Yuccaelephantipis t C D C CD D D C C C C C CD C C C C x x 4 7 Lettersrefertthepsitinftheabscissinznes: C,at basef petile;d,at baseftheleaf blade Seefigure6

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21 S i c H I +J -H-H 3 -H H 'H a > u <w S t^-f^vûccint^'i'ncmrhcticyir^r^vrir^fiir^r^ Ö CM r< O 4- ( ^J" K (N O! 3. m H i S <4H rh a rh ë a> rh >i H 5 «J <4H > rh I p I u u u u u u ti Ö u u i H H u u < < < < u < M m < < < Ö Î3 CM r-l, Is u <H <*H I m rh S PuT3 8 rh 4H

22 -8- Anumberfenvirnmentalfactrssuch as hightemperature,darkstrageand waterstressareknwntevkec H,-liketxicitysymptmsinsmespecies, lis culdbetheresultfstimulatinfendgenusc_h,prductinand/r C-H,-sensitivity.Ethylenesensitiveplantsarelesssuitablefr handlingand transprtatin.itisremarkablethat mstfthecurrentlyecnmically imprtantspeciesarerelatively insensitivet ethylene. DISCUSSION When a nn-climactericprductis placed in aclsed bag,dependingnthe ethyleneprductinandthediffusincharacteristics,theethylenecncentratininthe bag willincrease. Anincreasedethylenecncentratinduringstrage willndubt have detrimentaleffectsn quality. Hwever,diffusinfethyleneandcarbndixideisgenerallyfthesame rderfmagnitudethusalsaccumulatinfcarbndixidewillappear. The latter willinhibittheptentiallydetrimentaleffectsfethylener may evenincreasethequalityas wasshwnt bethecaseingerberaplantlets grwnin vitr (Wltering,988). Itistherefredubtful ifremvalfethylenefrmtheinternalatmsphere willgiveriset a prlngedkeepability. Inclimactericprductsthesituatin may bedifferent.themstimprtant galistdelaytheappearanceftheautcatalyticethyleneprductin.the latteris knwnt be hastenedbyexpsureftheprducttexgenus ethyleneandremvalfexgenusethylenemay therefredelaythe prcess. Hwever,duringagingthetissuegenerallybecmesmresensitivetethylene andthis willinitiatetheautcatalyticprcessirrespectivefthecncentratinfethyleneinthesurrunding air. Once initiatedtheprcesscannt bestppedbyremvalf ethylene. Generally spken,anincreasedcarbndixidecncentratin will bemuchmre effective thanjustremvalfethylenefrmthesurrunding air. Knee (985)saysthat mstfthe knwnsuccesfulapplicatinsfethylene remvalareas asupplementary techniquet MArCAstragefclimacteric fruits.hesuggeststhatthere might betherfruitsr vegetableswhich pstharvestlifeculd beextendedbyethyleneremval. Anumberfbservatinsdisagreewiththis view: a.strageexperimentswithnn-climactericprductsasbrusselsspruts, Chinesecabbageandcauliflwerdidntshwany benefitt prduct keepabilitywhenethylenewasremvedtanextremelylwlevelbymeansf "permangaenalumina"pallets (ethysrb) (Mertens, unpublished results). b. Insenescencestudieswithemasculatedcymbidiumflwerswhichwereplaced inextremelyfreshair (< ppb ethylene),itappearedthatthe nrmal autcatalyticprcesseswerentdelayed incmparisntstragein ambientair5-ppb (fig. 7). c.aharni (985) wassuccesfulin retardingdecayf brccliwhen packedin sealedpe-film. Althughethyleneplayedtheprimaryrleintheregulatin fsenescence,respiratry C_wastheimprtantfactrfrmaintaining keepability.

23 9- CONCLUSION Inspitefthefactthatethyleneremvalmight beuseful insmecasesne canexpectmre benefitwhenthetissuesensitivityrtheethyleneprductin isinhibited. Thiscan beachieved by: -Increasedcarbndixidecncentratin. -Decreasedxygencncentratin. - Usefsilversalts (especially silverthisulphate (STS)). - Usefaminxyaceticacid (AOA)raminetxyvinyl glycine (AVG). Increased carbndixideanddecreasedxygen cncentratinswillsuppress ethylene sensitivity (especiallyc_)andethyleneprductin (especially.) (Smith,966; Uta,969;Sisler,979; Aharni,.985;BurgandBurg, 967)7 Inthecutflwer industrystsiswidelyusedas apretreatmentfrethylenesensitive flwers (Veen,983) andals AOAisfinterest (Harkemaetal., 987). Inurpintf view,ethyleneremvalin a packagedes ntcntributemuch tthe handlingandstragepssibilitiesftheprductsandanethylene absrbingprpertyf aplasticfilmistherefre lessimprtantthenther prpertiessuchasthediffusincefficientandthepssible releaseftxic substances (Wltering, 988). Calculatinsabutthedesiredabsrptincapacityfthefilm,inrdert keeptheethylenecncentratinbeneath acertainthreshldaregivenin appendixi. MApackagingrCAstragefrrnamentalsis hardlyapplied in practice.cut flwersandpttedplantsshw verylittle beneficialrespnsetca atmsphere.highc levelscancauseinjury. Anextremeexceptinisdaffdils whichcan bestred inabut% N.atmsphere.Alsflwerbulbsandnursery stcksareas wellcmmnlyntpackedin "clsed"filmsrstredunderca cnditins.

24 - Appendix HOW TO CALCULATE ETHYLENE ABSORPTION RATES T calculate the amunt f ethylene that hast be remved ut f a package by means f the BFG-film itis necessary t knw the diffusin cefficient fr ethylene. Therefre we carried ut an experiment which shwed that in a8,5 cntainer clsed with,4 m BFG-film an utside ethylene cncentratinf 6,5 ppm ledt an inside cncentratin inthe cntainer frm,4 ppm upt 5 ppm in 4 hurs. This methd is chsen tavid interactins with absrptin. Tests were carried ut at: C; 5% R.H. By means f frmula itis pssible tfind the diffusin cefficient: D C H 4 V d C - C D% = -* *In-^ * () A At C_ - C A 4 E A D =diffusincëfficëntfr a particulargas [m /s] V 4= vlumef cntainer [m 3 ] A =areafdiffusin [m ] d -thicknessfthefilm[m] At -timeinterval[s] C =cncentratinfthegasinsideatstart [ppm] C =cncentratinf the ambientgas [ppm] C -cncentratininsideattime- At [ppm] 8,5. " 3,6. " 3,36-6,5 D C C - * *In -,3. m /s "4, , - 6,5 Example:5 g Brusselssprutsare packedin BFG-filmandstredduring daysat Candthensld. Prductdata f Brussels spruts: Bulkdensity =5 kg/m 3 C H prductin =, /il/kg.h ( C) CH,threshld -,ppm (>,ppm - yellwing) When,5 kg prductis packedin BFG-filmand distributintimetakes days n anaveragetemperatureat Cthentheamuntf prducedethylene is:,5 (kg) *, (MlAg.h) *4 (h) - fil C ^ In daysdiffusinremvesthe fllwingamunt: With asmallfreeair vlumethesteadystatewillbereachedsn:

25 - D % H fi D ^îiii * A * AC * () d D = diffusinrate [m 3 /s] -- D = diffusincefficient [m /s]-,3. _ d C H 4 _thicknessffilm[m] -,6. " A =area [m ] -,5. AC =cncentratinin-ut [m 3 C H,/m 3 air] -,96,3. S: D = r.,5.,96. " 6 -,7. " 4 m 3 /s,6. Indaysthis is:,7. * 4 *36 *4 * * 9 - /il C^ As: Ethyleneremval -C_H,absrptin +C H,diffusin r: C^H,-absrptin /il C.H,. 4 4 Whenthisamuntf ethyleneis nt absrbedit willleadt acncentratin insidethe packagethat will be higherthanthethreshld value. Asdiscussedbefrethethreshldvalueis determined bythe C -cncentratin inthe package butthe absrptinfthefilm hast be whenexpressedin standardterms minimal: (/il C H 4 )/. 4 (h) */4,. " 3 UAg) -.37 /il C^/kg. film. h tavidany ethylenedamagerisk. 4, gis usedfr ne packageandthicknessis,6 mm. Thisis acalculatinmethd thatcan beusedfrall prducts whenprduct dataas CH,-sensitivityand prductinare knwnand alsdiffusin and absrptinprpertiesf afilm.

26 - RECOMMENDEDLITERATURE. Abeles,F.B. (973).Ethylene in plant bilgy..berkhlst,c.e.m., Berrigter, H.A.M., Drn, W.G. vane.a. (986). Snijblemen.Kwaliteitsbehud indeafzetketen.sprengerinstituut, Wageningen. 3.Blankenship,S.M. (Edt.) (985).Cntrlledatmspheresfrstrageand transprtmfperishableagriculturalcmmdities. Departmentf hrticulturalscience, NrthCardinaStateUniversity, Raleigh, HR n Burg,S.P.andE.A.Burg (967).Mlecularrequirementsfrthe bilgical activityfethylene.plantphysil. 4: Damen,P.M.M, enberrigter, H.A.M. (98).Transprt vangemengde ladingen.grentenen Fruit, 37(3), Harkema,H.en Wltering,E.J. (98).Ethyleenschadebijsnijblemenen trekheesters. Vakbladvrde blemisterij36() Harkema, H.,Wltering,E.J.andBeekhuizen,J.G. (987).Therlef AOA, Tritn-andkinetinascmpnentsf apretreatmentslutinfr carins. ActaHrtic.6: Hag, C.andCurtis, R.W. (968).Science,59, like, Y.and Mrris, L.L. (98). Surveyfethyleneprductinand respnsesbyfruitsand vegetablesatvariustemperatures (unpublished) SealandServicesInc., New Jersey..Kamerbeek,G.A.en Munk, W.J.de (968).Kernrtintulpen.Jaarverslag LBO, Lisse, p. 6..Knee, M.,Prctr,F.J.andDver,C.J. (985).Thetechnlgyfethylene cntrl. Ann. appl.bil. (985),7, Maaker, J.de. Knelpunten bijgecmbineerdebewaringgrentenen fruit. AGF, 9ktber986,. 3.Marusky,F.J.and Harbaugh,B.K. (978).Deteriratinffliageplants duringtransit.natinaltrpicalfliageshrtcurse, p Flrida. 4.Nichls, R.Ethylene prductinduringsenescencefflwers. Jurnal Hrt.Science (966) 4, Rberts,J.A. andtucker,g.a. (985) (Eds.).Ethyleneandplant develpment. Butterwrths, Lndn. 6.Schaik, A.C.R. van, Berrigter, H.A.M.Ethyleenscrubben bijappelen: tepassingngnzeker.defruitteelt (77)3nvember987, Sctt, K.J.,McGlassn, W.B.and Rberts,E.A.Ptassiumpermangaeas anethyleneabsrbentinpe-bags tdelayripeningfbananasduring strage.australian Jurnalfexperimentalagricultureandanimal husbandryvl.,april Sherman, M.Cntrlfethylene inthepstharvestenvirnment. HrtScience, Vl. (), Febr Veen, H. (983).Silverthisulfate: Anexperimental tlin plant science. ScientiaHrticulturae : -4..Wltering,E.J.Effectsfethylenenrnamentalptplants. Aclassificatin.Scientia Hrticulturae, 3(987) Wltering,E.J.,Harren,F.andBerigter,H.A.M. (988).Usef alaser drivenphtacusticdetectinsystemfrmeasurementfethylene prductinin Cymbidiumflwers.Plantphysilgyin press..wltering,e.j. (988).Effectfthegaseuscmpsitinndevelpment f Gerberajamesnii plantletsgrwnin vitr.actahrticulturae (in press). Wageningen, HAMB/MJ

27

28 uitstalleven in dagen 8h A uur _L ethyleencncentratiein ppm Figure. Ethyleneeffectsncucumbers influencedbycncentratinand temperature (Sterling985) 4 uitstalleven in dagen ~ ^ ^ - - ^. uur C 4 8 \ 4 uur C 6 4 ^ ^ 4 8 uur e C n i. i i i._.. i i i.. ethyleencncentratie in ppm Figure. Ethyleneeffectsncucumbers influencedbyexpsure timeand cncentratin (Sterlinge.a.,985)

29 4- hudbaarhekj (dagen) 6 r - - O«- I. drempel - cncentratie.3 _J L_.. ethyleencncentratie (ppm) Figure 3. Keepability f carins (Wltering, 985) ethyleenprduktie (jjl/kg*h).5r Oi- L _L temperatuur ( C) Figure 4. Ethyleneprductinf rse 'Ilna' at differenttemperatures (Wltering. 98)

30 5- ethyleenprduktie (ni /g.h) 4r tijd (dagen) Figure 5. Ethylene prductin frm carin during the wilting prcess (Wltering, 98) ethyleenprduktie (nl/g-h) bij C.4 r." KNIPHOFIA...8 hrizntaal.6.4. Z_ vertikal j i i i i I i i tijd (uur) Figure 6. Ethylene prductin frn, kniphfia flwers as a result f psitin (Wltering, 985)

31 -6- ethyleenprduktie (nt/g-h) 8 r _L J C-cncentratie ( /) Figure7. Ethyleneprductin influencedby CO--cncentratinfrm rice-plants (Ka en Yang,98) ethyleenprduktie (yl/kg-h) ' 5r,, tijd (dagen) Figure8. Ethyleneprductin (at C) f carin 'Scania', n water (), pretreatedwithaoa () rsts (A). Thearrwistimefwilting (WlteringenSterling, 986)

32

33 7- ethyleenprduktie (ni/g-h) r tijd na bevruchting (uren) Figure9. Ethyleneprductinf petals ( ) and () f pllied ( ) and nn-pllied ( ) carins (Nichlse.a., 983) ethyleencncentratie (ppm).3 r tijdstip Figure. C H cncentratin in a Dutch flwer auctin (Berrigter, 98)

34 ethyleencncentratie (ppm).6r Q in kelcel/ / > - inaangrenzende /< ruimte (verkeer) J l tijdstip Figure. C H, cncentratin at a whlesalers' flwer market (Berrigter, 98) ethyleencncentratie (ppm) 5 r // L datum Figure. C-H,cncentratinin utside air (Wageningen) with smgcnditins (Wltering, 983)

35

36 -9- ethyleencncentratie (ppm). r _i i ' O tijd (uren) I stilstaand lh rijdend Figure 3.C-H,cncentratinin a canvasclsedtruckladedwith fruits, vegetablesandflwers (Damene.a.98) ethylene cncentratin rp.p.m. truck 64 hurs Figure 4. Timecursefethyleneaccumulatinduringlng-termtransprtf cmmdities frmhllandt Sweden. A.Clsedtruck;B. Ventilated trailer (Berrigter,98)

37 3-8 c a» E e m E Ethylene cncentratin (>ili"') Figure5. Cncentratindependencyfrespnsest ethylene in variusfruit ()Inductinf ripeningin DwarfCavendish banana (Liu, 976) ()Inductinf ethylene synthesisin Anjupear (Wang, Mellenthin andhansen, 97); inductinfthe climacteric in Cantelupemeln (McGlassnand Pratt, 964) is verysimilar (3)Inductinf climacteric in Grs Michel banana (Biale and Yung, 98) (4)Inductinf climacteric inavcadpear (Biale, 96b) (5)Stimulatinf respiratininimmaturehneydewmeln (Pratt andgeschl, 968) (6)Stimulatinf respiratinin NavelOrange (Biale, 96a) (7)Stimulatinf respiratinin lemns (Bialeand Yung, 98) respns ( / ) i klasse 4(8) r >.klasse 3(7) O 66.6 / - > klasse (6) J>klasse (6) klasse ethyleencncentratie (AJI/I) Figuur6. Ethylenesensitivityclassificatinfr pttedplants (Wltering, 984)

38

39 3-. ~.8 I = NOISE y / / / H c O) c O u CL H.4 4 _L _!_ JL J_ -v^ time (h) Figure 7. Calculated ethyleneprductin (rightrdie)anddifference betweenethylenecncentratin intheutletairfrman empty cuvetteandfrm acuvette with asinglecymbidiunflwer (cv. Mary Princhess 'Del Rey') (left rdie)as afunctin ftime. Arrw indicates timef emasculatin. Flwrate -.9L/h; temperature - C

40 Aan : ^O^JlJUYC^ Van : Hans van der Schild d.d. : 98 Gegevens prduktbewaring Ter kennisname hierbij een verzicht met bewaargegevens vr een aantal land- en tuinbuwprdukten, pgesteld dr Ad Scheer van het Infrmatie- en Kenniscentrum Akkeren Tuinbuw, Afd. Milieu, Kwaliteit en Techniek te Ede (tel.: ).

41 %s. Infrmatie en Kennis Centrum Akker- en Tuinbuw Afdeling Milieu, Kwaliteit en Techniek prduct aardap-chi aardap-cn aardap-fri aardap-p aardbei abriks ananas andijvie anne artisjk asperge aubergine augurk avcad banaan bes blauw bes-kruis bes-rd bes-veen bes-mart beurre ale beurre har bladselder bleekselde bnne lui bn-prnk bn-spek bn-sperc bn-tuin bskp braaa brccli cactusvijg chaipignn cherinya curgette cx's--pi cranberry dadel dpervtt dyenne druif el star fratbs geiberwrt gieser-hil glster glden-del granaatapp guave cde, 5 5, 5, j t 4 A n 3, 4, 3 4, 5 C J, J tesp RV vrkel - * /vac bewaar drg drg drg dr/ duurtik ett " duurtik ethyprd geurprd ethygev geur uitdr siet LT8 kleur ud I V A

42 prduct cde temp RV vrkel bewaar duur_wk ethyprd geurprd ethyqev geur uitdr smet LTB kleur ud jnagld kaki kapucijner kariijn-de kastanje kiwi knflk knlselder knlvenkel kakfiier kl-blea kl-bere kl-chine kl-geelkl-gren kl-rd kl-spits kl-sprui kl-uitte klraap klrabi krt kweepeer lise libarts el en»el en-wat «ierikswr fflrel nt-kker kra paprika-ge paprika-gr paprika-r pastinaak peen-bs peen-bs peen-was peen-was peper perzik peterseli peul pstelein 'prei pruil raapsteel rabarber radijs raaienas schrsener sjalt sla-ijs sla-krp si a-rde j 3 4 C J,,, C J c J C J 4,, 4,,,,,, ' ' i drg /vac drg /vac vac/ vac/ vac/ /dr O / - I I I

43 prduct cde te«p RV vrkel bewaar duur uk ethyprd geurprd ethygev geur uitdr s«et LTB kleur ud - sla-veld - spinazie suikeriais tauge tiaat tuinkers ui-parel ui-plant ui-zaai ui-zilver venkel witlfkrp witlfwrt Hrtel-win zete kers,, 5, vac/ drg & GLASGROENT VOLLEGROND HARDFRUIT ZACHTFRUIT TROPISCH 9 4 r J * _ U Jt vu' 3 OO - U xj?. QU-el (ALT t ^» bj*m<rp ) {<[jti.it M. s» VJ^/ fcrijeu^'u / K*3<keer 3.^i *(.