Spotted Wing Drosophila: SWD

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1 Spotted Wing Drosophila: SWD Stemilt Cherry Grower Meeting Wenatchee Convention Center 22 March, :25-2:50 pm Elizabeth H. Beers WSU Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center 1100 N. Western Ave. Wenatchee, Washington

2 Bioclimatic model prediction for SWD Okanogan Chelan Douglas Lincoln Kittitas Grant Adams Yakima Klickitat Benton Franklin Walla Walla

3 and then came June 28 June 2010, a fieldman brought in a sample from an apple cider vinegar trap 4 male SWD confirmed

4 Now distributed into Europe, the Middle East and North America Russia 2009 Turkey & Israel 2009 SWD found in: Italy 2009 Russia 2009 Spain 2009 France 2010

5 Where has SWD spread?

6 Pest/Host range observations Cherry (sweet, sour) Peach/nectarine Plum/pluot Apricot Berries: blackberry, raspberry, blueberry, strawberry Grapes (may depend on cultivar) Any fruit on the ground (damaged, rotting) apples, pears, oranges,??? Pest Reproductive Host

7 Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii Male Female Adults are 2-3 mm in size. Females and their larvae can be confused with other Drosophila but are larger

8 SWD life history Lifespan : adults, days (summer generations) Eggs laid: eggs/female Egg stage: days Larvae: 3-13 days (3 instars) Pupa: 4-14 days Hatch to emergence 15 C [59 F]: days Hatch to emergence 25 C [77 F]: 9-11 days

9 SWD 2010 Trap Catch (Beers, Walsh traps) % Positive Traps Avg SWD/trap/week 100/SWD/trap/week (n=12) 80 Avg. SWD/trap/week % Positive Traps Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0

10 SWD Seasonal Trap totals white no catch blue 1 to 10 green yellow orange red 500+

11 n samples total Strawberry 38 Raspberry/Blackberry Plum/Pluot Pear Peach/Nectarine Packinghouse Grape Cherry Blueberry Apricot Apple 1, ,554 3, Average SWD by Crop Average SWD/trap (seasonal)

12 North-South: OR, BC, WA, CA SWD/trap/week British Columbia Washington Mid-Columbia California *Contech traps corrected to Deli numbers 0 Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

13 Trap Types White sticky card Deli cup Nalgene Yogurt container Contech McPhail

14 SWD Field-Lab Bioassay (cherry fruit) P. Shearer, MCARED, Hood River, OR Organophosphate % Mortaltiy Pyretrhroid Spinosyn Neonicotinoid 20 Other 0 Malathion 5EC Malathion 8F Entrust 80WP Delegate 25WG Warrior II Sevin XLR Assail 70WP Provado 1.6F Check

15 SWD Field-lab bioassay (fruit, larval mortality) P. Shearer, MCAREC 25 Stages/replicate eggs adults 5 0 Warrior II Delegate 25WG Sevin XLR Entrust 80WP Assail 70WP Provado 1.6F Malathion 5EC Malathion 8F Check

16 Fruit Susceptibility Bing Jana Lee, USDA Corvallis

17 Postharvest test on cherries 2.0 a 1.5 SWD/fruit 1.0 ab 0.5 b 0.0 Dimethoate 4 pt Provado 8 fl oz Check

18 SWD vs CFF Western Cherry Fruit Fly Univoltine (single generation/year) Weak flier Moderate fecundity ( eggs/female) Preoviposition period gives warning (7-10 days) Restricted host range Spotted Wing Drosophila New generation every 9-15 days; up to 13/year in suitable climate??may be able to disperse up to 20 miles High fecundity ( eggs/female) Egg laying starts within a day Broad host range all stone fruits and berries, possibly native plants with fruits, all rotting fruit

19 Program Principles The crop is susceptible First pink color on earliest maturing cultivar in block The pest is present Traps have detected SWD in your region (don t wait for detection in your orchard or a particular block) Better to cover a shorter period (closer to harvest) than to stretch spray intervals over a longer period Based on increasing fruit susceptibility, building pest population, unknown/poor residual activity Minimize the use of the same pesticide in one season because of Resistance or MRL issues

20 Recommendations Begin CFF sprays at normal time (straw) Switch to SWD sprays when its detected in your region and fruit is susceptible (CFF will be covered) (depends on PHI) Organophosphates (diazinon, malathion ULV) Spinosyns (Success, Entrust, Delegate) Pyrethroids (Danitol, Mustang, Warrior) Consider adding imidacloprid (possibly other neonic) to some of the later sprays for reach back activity (eggs/larvae in fruit) Do NOT rely on GF-120 for SWD control! Don t cut rates; don t stretch intervals Re-cover during long harvest periods (e.g., if harvest extends to 10 days, recover at 5 days) If aerial application is not an option (proximity to dwellings,) consider Danitol by ground (working on Entrust SLN for 3 day PHI.)

21 What about Organic??? Entrust is effective, but residual is likely short (?3 days) Limited to 9 oz/acre/year Rate oz/acre/application No more than 2 consecutive applications (rotate in PyGanic?) Continue to use GF-120?? total oz n applications oz/application Week oz/acre total oz 9

22 WSU extension effort on SWD for eastern Washington 54 extension talks (grower meetings) 3 workshops (for ID; more planned) 4 websites/web bulletins *Statewide trapping planned for 2011 results posted on SWD main website + notification mailing list Elizabeth Beers, WSU-TFREC, Wenatchee Doug Walsh, WSU-IAREC, Prosser Tim Smith, Chelan-Douglas-Okanogan Area Educator Gwen Hoheisel, Benton-Franklin Area Educator Mike Bush, Yakima County

23 A huge Thank You!! to the Growers & Fieldmen of Eastern Washington including, but not limited to: Wilbur-Ellis Northwest Wholesale Quincy Farm Chemicals Cascade Ag Distributing Northwest IPM Cascade IPM

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