recipe for 371 Dye marker, antibiotics-treated milk 58 Dye-reduction (milk hygiene) tests 76

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "recipe for 371 Dye marker, antibiotics-treated milk 58 Dye-reduction (milk hygiene) tests 76"

Transcription

1 Index Accelerated cheese ripening 286 Achromobacter spp. 70 Acid precipitated curds 146 Acid production, scalding temperature effects on 174 Acidification, direct process 101, 161 Acidity colour standards for 88 comparison of measurement methods 84 development by starters 113 measurement methods 81 process control 88 processing 86 scald temperature effect 90 versus ph 81 washed curd cheese 176 Acidulants!OI Acinetobacter spp. in milk 70 Actinomyces spp. in milk 70 Additives 90 legal use of 293 Aeromonas spp. in milk 70 Aflatoxins 17, 62 Africa, Agitation, milk storage tanks 122 Alcoholic beverages, addition to cheese 284 Alfa-Laval, see Tetra Tebel Alfa-matic block maker 248, 255, 260 Alfomatic cheesemaker 251,255 Alpma coagulator system 240 Aluminium foil 188 Amino acids 13 ripening flavour 276 Animals whose milk is used for cheesemaking 38 Annatto colour 102 Antibiotics 57,281 heat treatment effects 141 testing 60 Appenzeller, recipe for 329 Applewood 25 APV CheddarMaster 251 homogenizer 238 membranes 312 OPD pre-press 251 Paracurd machine 257 tunnel presses,curdmaker 242 Aragackij Syr, recipe for 330 Argentina, Aroma 281 Arthrobacter spp. in milk 87 Ash content of milk 15,38 Asiago, recipe for 331 Aspergillus spp., toxins from 17 Ass's milk 38 Australia, Austria, grading system 302 Awshari recipe for 332 Bacillus spp. coagulants from 155 milk, in 70 Bacteria cell composition 67 growth phases 67 thermal destruction temperatures 139 Bacteriological aspects 70, 123 Bacteriological testing of milk 74 Bacteriology of cold-stored milk 68 Bacteriophage 118 Bactofugation 79, 132,232 Baker's curd 26, 333 Barrier bags, block cheese 269 Beaufort, recipe for 334 Bel Paese, see Italico Belgium, Beli Sir u Kriskama 335 Bell Siro Cheesemaker 251 Bell Siro Colby cheesemaker system 255 Belo Salamureno Sirene 336 Berge (curd separation) process 224 Berridge (cold rennetting) principle 247 Bjalo, recipe for 336 Bleaching 103 Block cheese pressures applied to 181 wrapping of 269 Block formers/makers 259, 260 Blown curds 297 Blue Cheshire 216 Blue Stilton 24 recipe for 85 Blue veined cheese 215 faults in 290 piercing equipment for 269 salting of 215 water content 23

2 440 Blue Vinney recipe for 337 see also Dorset Blue Blue Wensleydale 34,97 BOD, cheese plant effiuents 325 Brazil, Bresse Bleu, recipe for 338 Brevibacterium spp. 70,210 Brick cheese 26 Brie manufacture of 237 recipe for 339 Brine pickled cheese 3, 32 Brining 210,266 Brinza, recipe for 218,219, 340 British Standards, wrapping materials, 186 Bromo-cresol purple 60, 82 Brucella spp., thermal destruction temperature for 138, 139 Buffalo milk 38 cheese 219 Buffer capacity, milk 81 Bukovina, recipe for 341 Bulk (milk) tanks, hygiene of 72 Burduf, recipe for 341 Butterkiise, recipe for 342 Butyric acid 44, 46 Caciocavallo 20, 23, 218 Caerphilly 24 acidities quoted 87 grading schemes for 297 manufacture of 207 recipe for 343 water content of 126 Calcium balance 98 Calcium chloride 98 enzymic coagulation 156 Caledonian Blue 344 Cambridge, recipe for 345 Camel's milk 38 Camembert 20 factory manufacturing method for 221 farmhouse recipes for 345 inoculant used in 160 mechanized manufacture of 234 surface mould on 107, 117 UF milk method 315 Canada, Cantal 27 recipe for 349 Carotene 103 Carotenoids 65, 114 Carre de l'est 221 Carrick, recipe for 350 Cascaval Dobrogen, recipe for 351 Casein analytical methods for 91 INDEX coagulation of 49 heat treatment effects 142 proteins 48 Casein/fat ratio 39,40 standardization of 128, 131 Casio mould filling system 247 Catalase 133 Cellulose films 188 Centrifugal clarification 132 Charnwood 25 Cheddar acidity/ph values quoted for 195 classification of 23 fat/dry matter in 23 grading schemes for 298 manufacture of 197 mechanized manufacture of 251 name fust noted 6 nutritional content of 11 pressing of 26, 181 rate of change of acidity/ph in 86 recipe for 352 UF milk process for 314 weight and description of 23 whey composition of 322 Cheddaring 197 CheddarMaster systems 251,253 Cheese definitions of cheese 19 history of 1 log 34 origin of name 19 varieties (France) 27 varieties (Greece) 28 varieties (Italian) 27 varieties (UK) 24 Cheesemaking early spread of I operations involved procedures summarized 31 Chemical analysis 91, 292, 294 Chemicals, added 103 Cheshire 204 acidities quoted 195 grading schemes for 297 manufacture of 204 pressures applied to 181 recipes for 355 water content 123 see also Blue Cheshjre Cheviot 25 China, Chlorophyll as colourant 104 Chymosin 149 recombinant 157 Citric acid 101 Classification (of cheese) 20 by composition 23 Coagulants 147

3 INDEX 441 historic references 3 Coagulation factors influencing 151, 159 process 169 Coagulum cutting of 171 Codex Alimentarius Commission 105 Colour, descriptive terms for 304 Colours 102 herb cheese 104, 283 Colwich factory recipe for 358 farmhouse recipe for 357 Compositional classification II Contaminants 57 Continuous curd-making systems 240 Conveyors, mechanized plant 246 Corblin (soft cheese manufacturing) system 240 Cotswold cheese 26 recipe for 358 Cottage cheese II acid type recipe for 359 cream dressing for 360 defects/faults in 361 manufacture of 224 marketing of 387 nutritional content of II quick set method for 360 recipes for 359 rennet assisted recipe for 360 salt content of II Coulommiers factory manufacturing method for 221 recipes for 361 UF milk method 364 Cow's milk 37,38 Coxiella burnetii, thermal destruction temperatures 139 Cracked rinds 288 Cream cheese 294 dressing, recipe for 360 recipes for 364 Creamed quark 302 Cryovac film 185, 269 Curd 271 bacterial population of 272 breakers 243 knives 243 moisture in 277 protein breakdown in 274 Curd-making tanks/vats heating of 244 square-ended 227 textured cheese 241 untextured cheese 246 Cutting (of coagulum) 32, 193, 243 Cyanocobalamin II, 56 Danablu, 216 recipe for 365 Danish Sugar Corporation (DDS) ultrafiltration membranes 233 Danrow curd matting conveyor/milling equipment 241,251,255 DDS (De Danske Sukkerfabrikker NS) membranes 233 ultrafiltration plant 311 DEFT (bacteriological) method 76 Demi-Sel 381 Demineralization processes 313,320 Denmark grading scheme in 296 Derby(shire) 206 acidities quoted 87 grading schemes for 297, 304 manufacture of 206 recipe for 367 water content 126 see also Sage Derbyshire Diacetyl 108 Diafiltration process 312 Direct acidification 101, 161 Disc assay (milk testing) methods 59 Diseases cheese transmitted 294 milk-transmitted 60 Domiati, recipe for 368 Dornic (acidity) method 84 Dorset Blue 24 acidities quoted 87 recipe for 337 see also Blue Vinney Double cream cheese, recipe for 369 Double Gloucester 24 acidities quoted for 87 manufacture of 207 recipe for 370 water content of 126 Draining equipment 246 Dried milk powders, cheese from 63 Dry salting 177, 194 Dunlop 24, 206 acidities quoted for 87 manufacture of 206 recipe for 371 Dye marker, antibiotics-treated milk 58 Dye-reduction (milk hygiene) tests 76 Edam country-specific names for 5 fat/dry matter of 212 manufacture of 211 mechanized manufacture of 246 nutritional value II ph values quoted for 86 recipe for 372

4 442 INDEX Edam (Contd.) scalding/washing of 212 Edelpilzkase, recipe for 374 Effiuent disposal 325 Elbo 25 Electrodialysis 233 Emmental20 block cheese recipe for 375 eyeholes, growth in 209 manufacture of 209 recipe for 375 ripening temperatures for 209 Endothea parasitica, as source of coagulants 155 Enterobacter spp. in milk 70 Enterococcus spp. in milk,70 Enzyme activity in milk 52 Enzyme coagulants 148 animal rennets 149 calcium ion effects 156 disadvantages of 156 factors influencing coagulation by 150, 159 microbial rennets 154 pepsin rennets 154 vegetable rennets 157 Enzymes curd ripening 274 heat treatment, effect on 141 milk 141 ripening-acceleration 285 Escherichia spp. flavour contribution of 282 temperature effect on growth of 278 Essential amino acids 13 Essential fatty acids 12, 46 Estepe, recipe for 378 EU, Ewe's milk, see Sheep's milk Eyehole cheese 209 faults in 289 manufacture of 209,246 see also Emmental; Gruyere; Tilsiter FAOIWHO Code ofprinciples 20 additives permitted by 103 Farmhouse cheese UK grading scheme for 301 varieties listed 297 Fat content (of cheese) II dietary component, as 12 Fat globule size 42 Fats, milk 38 analytical methods for 93 Fatly acids 42 flavour contribution of 46 Faults blue veined cheese 290 cottage cheese 361 hard cheese 288 smear ripened cheese 292 surface mould ripened cheese 291 whey cheese 323 see also individual cheese recipes Feta 28,222 manufacture of 223 nutritional value II recipe for 378 UF milk method 380 Film wrapping grading affected by 306 materials 185, 186 permeabilities of 185 Firmness of coagulum 170 factors influencing 153 Flash heating 137 Flavour addition of Flies, infestation by 288, 291 Fontina 20 Formaggini di Montpellier 284 France grading system in 202 protected varieties 20 Freeze-dried starter cultures 109 Fromage Frais 380 Frozen starter culture 109 Gadan cheese processing tanks 241 Gammelost, recipe for 382 Gas-tight packaging 183 Geographical basis for names 20 Geotricum candidum, as mould inoculant 107 Germany grading system in 302 Gibna 229 Gjetost 322 Gloucester 6 manufacture of 207 recipes for 370 see also Double Gloucester; Single Gloucester Glucono-8-lactone 101 Goat's milk 38 production data 4 Good Manufacturing Practice 35 Gorgonzola 6,216 recipe for 383 Gouda date of name first noted 6 manufacture of 213 mechanized manufacture of 211 ph values quoted 384 recipe for 384 salt content of 178

5 INDEX 443 Grading 296 cheese, descriptive terms 305, 307 economist's definition of 300 practice 305 schemes 301 Grana 6 manufacture of 196 Grating cheese, manufacture of 196 see also Grana; Parmesan Greece, Greek cheese 2, 28 Gruyere 20 FDM in 211 manufacture of 209 recipe for 386 HACCP 77 Halloumi 224 recipe for 387 Havarti 176 Heat treatment, milk 135 bacteriology of 137, 139 equipment for 144 Herbs and spices,103, 282 Herregaardsost, recipe for 388 Herve, recipe for 389 History of cheese I Holding times, milk heat treatment 137 Homogenization 131, 166 curd characteristics affected by 215 fat globule size after 238 optimum temperature for 331 pressures for 132 Homogenizers 237 Hoop presses 258 Hooping equipment 258 Hot iron test 83 Hrudkovy Syr, recipe for 399 HTST (high temperature short time) heat treatment 137 Huntsman 26 Hutin-Stenne process 247 Hydrogen peroxide/catalase process 133 Hyperfiltration 309 IDF (International Dairy Federation), cheese lists 20 IlchesterlIlminster 26 Indicator dyes 82 ph measurement 85 Infra-red spectrometric methods of analysis 95 Inhibitory salts 100 Inhibitory substances 57, 100 Insecticides 61 International Agreements 20 Ion-exchange resin system, whey demineralization 320 Irish Republic, Italian cheese 27, 221 Italico 222 recipe for 390 Italy protected varieties 27 Kashkaval (Kaschkawal) 217 kneading machine for 219 recipe for 390 Kefalotyri, recipe for 392 Kesong Puti, recipe for 393 Keto acids 44 ripening flavour 277 Kingston, recipe for 393 Klebsiella spp. 70 Kneaded cheese 218 manufacture of 256 Kneading machines 237,370 Lacquered films 188 Lactic cheese 224 analysis of 225 manufacture of 226 recipe for 394 Lactobacillus spp. flavour contribution 273 generation time 278 milk, in 70 starters, in 107 thermal destruction temperatures for 139 Lactococcus spp. 70 flavour contribution 282 ripening reactions of 281 starters in 107, 109 thermal destruction temperatures for 139 Lacto-matic cheesemaking plant 251 Lactoperoxidase 37,53, 134, 136 Lactose 14 analysis for 93 content, control of 211 Laminates, cheese wrapping 188 Lancashire 18,24 acidities quoted 87 grading schemes for 297, 304 manufacture of 207 recipe for 394 water content 126 see also Sage Lancashire Laude (plastic) cheese moulds 182,201,258 Lauric acid 46 Leicestershire 23, 24 acidities quoted for 87 grading schemes for 297, 304 manufacture of 206 pressures applied to 181

6 444 INDEX Leicestershire (Contd.) recipe for 396 water content of 126 Leuconostoc spp. in starters 107, 108, 109, 167 Limburg Romadur see Romadur Limburger (Limburg) 23 recipe for 397 salt content of 178 smear coat on 117, 292 Linoleic acid 12,44,46 Linolenic acid 12, 44 Lipases 45, 46, 53, 141 Lipids in milk 41,47,277 Liplovska bryndza, recipes for 398 Lipoic acid 57 Lipolysis 45, 46, 140, 277 Liqueurs 284 Livarot 221 recipe for 400 Lloyd acidimeter test 31, 82 Lloyd report on factors affecting cheesemaking 7 Log, cheesemaking 34 Low fat cheese 23,25, 127, 165 Low temperature storage 123 LTLH (low temperature long hold) heat treatment 30, 137 Lymeswold 25 Magnesium salts 51 acidity titrations affected by 81 Manchego, recipe for 400 Maribo 20 scalding/washing of 176 Marmora 20 Marolles 6 Marshall (rennet) test cup 169 Mascarpone, recipe for 402 Mastitic milk 40, 51, 71, 77 Matting, curd 52, 175 Maturation of cheese 271 Mechanization 232 batchwise nature of 237 grading affected by 288, 299 schematic diagram for 236 staff training for 234 Melbury 24, 25 Membrane filtration 233, 309 Menadione 57 Metal salts 62 Micrococcus spp. 70,72,73, catalase production 135 Micro-organisms in milk 68 Milk 'ash' content of 38, 51 bacteriological testing of 74 buffering capacity of 81,86,279,280 bulking of 41, 58, 71 collection methods for 71, 72 compositional variation in 38 enzymes in 52 fat adjustmenustandardization methods for 124 fat contents of 38, 42 heat treatment of 30, 135 hydrogen peroxide/catalase treatment of 54, 133 mineral salts in 37, 51 minor lipids in 37,47 proteins in 37,48 reception plant for 72 ripening tanks for 239 storage of 72, 122 taints in 61, 141,290 testing for inhibitory substances in 59 see also Ass's milk; Buffalo milk; Camel's milk; Cow's milk; Goat's milk; Reindeer's milk; Sheep's milk Milling 33, 198,201 Mineral content of cheese 15 Mites, infestation by 185,291 MMV (Maubois, Mocquot, Vassal) process 166, 315 Moisture, see Water... Monasteries, as source of cheesemaking art 4,5 Monoamino oxidase deficiency 14 Mont d'or 283 Monterey, recipe for 402 Moravian cheese 4 Mould filling equipment 258 Moulds, cheese pressing 33, 180,262 Mozzarella 23,101,147,217 manufacture of 218 recipe for 403 scalding/washing of 217 UF milk process 317 Mucor spp. 1[7, 155 Munster 23, 127 Mycelia 216 Mycobacterium tuberculosis 71, 134 Mycotoxins 17,62 Myristic acid 42, 43, 46 NACEPE (National Association of Creamery Proprietors) grading scheme 303 Names, dates first noted 6 Netherlands protected varieties 20 Neufchiitel 23 recipe for 381

7 INDEX 445 New varieties 25 New Zealand Cheddar 7 grading scheme for 303 Niacin 55 NICOMA (continuous curd-making) machine 248 Nisin (antibiotic) 100, 104, 107 NIZO (continuous curd-making) system 348 No-grade cheese, defects in 303 Nomadic tribes, cheese manufactured by 228 Norvegia 20 Norway, protected varieties 20 Nutritional aspects 10 Nutwood 26 Nylon film 185, 187 Obsolete varieties 6 Oidum spp., contamination by 291 Oleic acid 42, 44, 46 Olomouc 102 Origin of name (cheese) 19 OST curd-making vats 241,243 Ostiepok 218,405 Oxidation-reduction potential 281 Packaging 191, 269 equipment 189, 190 Palatability 300 Palmitic acid 42, 45, 46 Panir Kusei 229 Pantothenic acid 56 Paracurd machine 247 Parenica, recipe for 404 Parmesan 22 date name first noted,6 fat/dry matter 23 manufacture of 196 recipe for 405 water content 23 Parmigiano Reggiano 20 manufacture of 296 Pasilac proportioning units 259 Pasta Filata cheese 175,217 hot water treatment of 177, 195 kneading equipment for 268 manufacture of 217 see also Caciocavallo; Kashkaval; Mozzarella; Provolone Pasteurization 30, 135 Pathogens, in milk 71, 137, 139 PCI ultrafiltration plant 310 Peakland, recipe for, 406 Pearson's Square method 128 Pecorino Romano 20 manufacture of 208 recipe for 407 salt content of 177 Pediococcus spp., thermal destruction temperatures 139 Pelardon, recipe for 409 Penicillin, effect of 58 Penicillium spp. mould inoculants, as 107, 117,215 ripening reactions of 279,290 Pepsin 156 rennets 149, 154 Peptides, ripening flavour 276 Peptone, effect on starters of 113 Perforated steel moulds 182 Peroxidase, see Lactoperoxidase Petit Suisse, recipe for 409 ph measurement by electrode instruments 85 by indicator dyes 81 ph values 86 temperature effects on 81 washed curd cheese 177 Phase stability 52 Phenolphthalein 81,82 Phosphate salt balance 98 Phosphomonoesterase 53 Phosphoric acid, as acidulant 101, 104 Pigments, milk 37, 55 see also Colours Pimaricin (antimycotic) 104 Pinzgauer Bergkase 20 Pitching of curd 33, 175 pitching point 200 Pizza cheese 162 manufacture of 219 Plants, as sources of coagulants 3, 157 Plate heat exchangers 144, 232 Polyethylene (polythene) film 185 Pont l'eveque 221 recipe for 410 Port du Salut 5, 23 see also Saint Paulin Potassium iodide/starch papers 134 Pottery jars for packing 183 Precipitants, see Acid-precipitated curds Pressato 208 Pressing operations 33, 180 mechanization of 258 pressures applied in 181 Procedures, summary 31 Production data for cheese 9 goat's/sheep's milk 4 Propionibacterium freundreichii subsp. shermani 107, 135,210 eyeholes formed by 104 starters, in 107, 108 Propionic acid 104 Proteases 54, 140, 149

8 446 INDEX Protein content 11, 13, 37 Proteins, dietary components as 13 milk 48 Proteolysis 140, 143 Proteus spp. 73, 139 Provolone 20, 23 manufacture of 218 recipe for 411 scalding/washing of 177 smoking of 411 Pseudomonas spp. in milk 70,71,73,75 PVDC (polyvinylidene chloride copolymer) film 185, 188 Quality standards, see Grading Quarg, see Quark Quark 224 analytical composition of 413 manufacture of 225 mechanical concentration method for 225 names of 225 recipes for 413 UF milk recipe for 415 Queso Blanco 147,214 Qurut 228 RackBrine system 266 Rancidity 44, 53, 185 RCT (rennet coagulation time) 160 Reading Yellow, recipe for 415 Recipes 31, 193,327 heat treatment effects 142 various cheese see under individual cheese names Recombined milks, cheese from 63 Reconstituted milk powders 63 Red Windsor, see Windsor Red Reductases 54 Reindeer's milk 38 Remoudou, recipe for 389 Rennet coagulation calcium salt effects 98 fatty acid effects 159, 170 heat treatment effects 142 tests 160, 171,200 Rennets addition of 169 animal origin 149 disadvantages of 158 dry formulation 152 ingredients, as 148 microbial 154 pepsin 154 ph effects 153 preservation of 152 proteolytic activity ranking for 159 temperature effects 151 thermal inactivation of 158 vegetable 157 Rennin see Chymosin Resazurin rennet test 77 Resin coatings 185, 288 Respiration processes 281 Reverse osmosis 309 Riboflavin 11,55,102,104 Ricotta 23, 101, 147 recipe for 416 UF milk process 317 Ricottone, recipe for 417 Rind washing equipment 269 Rindless cheese 185 grading difficulties with 306 Rinds 183 cracks in 288 Ripening operations, see also Maturation of cheese accelerated 286 bacteriology of 272 enzymic activity in 274,277 temperature 272 Ripening salts 101 Ripening tanks, milk storage 329 Romadur 117,127,292 Romano 20, 27 manufacture of 208 recipe for 407 Roquefort 5,20,23,216 recipe for 418 Royal Stewart 5 Russian Federation, Russula discolorus (mushroom), as source of coagulants 155 Rutland 26 Saffron 102 Sage Derby(shire) 24,206 acidities for 87, 195 recipe for 421 Sage Lancashire 207 Saint Marcellin 221 Saint-Maure de Touraine, recipe for 419 Saint Paulin 6, 20 manufacture of 211 recipe for 420 scalding/washing of 176 Salmonella spp., thermal destruction temperature for 139 Salt, see Sodium chloride Salt-precipitated curds 146 Salting operations 33, 177, 194 blue veined cheese 215 soft cheese 179 textured cheese 179 Samsoe 20, 209

9 INDEX 447 recipe for 421 scalding/washing of 198 SaniPress tunnel press 263 Sapsago 103 Sbrinz 20, 23 manufacture of 211 recipe for 422 Scalding operations 33, 173 effect on acid development 90 pepsin activity affected by 154 Scalding temperatures 194 acid development affected by 100-1, 196 Scandinavia grading system in 301 see also Denmark; Norway; Sweden Schabzieger 6 Schwangenkiise 6 Scientific study of eheesemaking historical introduction 7, 30 Scottish cheese 24 see also Caledonian Blue; Carrick; Dunlop; Sea salt, 178 Seasonal variation 31, 38 in Cheshire cheese recipes 355 milk composition 88 Semi-hard cheese 22, 23 manufacture of 211 ph value quoted for 86 water content of 127 Serbian white cheese recipe 335 Serratia spp. 73 thermal destruction temperatures 139 Sheep's milk 4, 38, 46 cheese 7,46 Sherwood 26 Shrink wrapping, block cheese 187, 189 Silage milk 74,218 Silo tanks 71, 129 Single Gloucester 24 recipe for 423 Skim milk 129, 165 Quark 413 Slurries, cheese 285 enzymes added to 285 Smear coats 229, 230, 240 Smear ripened cheese faults in 292 see also Herve; Limburger; Romadur Smoking processes 284 liquid smokes 284 Povolone cheese 411 SNF (solids not fat) 40 analytical method for 93 Sodium chloride amounts in various cheese 178 analytical determination of 94 ingredient, as 104 lipolysis control by 53 Sodium hypochlorite 116,239 Sodium nitrate 100 Sodium sulphate 146 Soft cheese 22 curd ladling operations for 173 fat contents of 173 manufacture of 127 mechanized equipment for 240 nutritional content of 11 ph value quoted for 86 salting of 179 UF milk process 237,315 water content of 127 Sorbic acid and salts 104 South Africa, cheese production 9 Soxhlet Henkel (acidity) method 84 Spalen 422 Spectrophotometric methods, protein determination 92 Spices, added 26,214,283 Standardization cheese milks 124, 165 formulae 124 methods 129 Staphylococcus spp. 70, 135 Starter preparation equipment 239 Starters activities of bacteria in 106 addition of 167 bacteria in 107 bacteriophage attack on 118 coded cultures 109 control of 115 first developed 31 ingredients, as 32 inoculation timing 168 kneaded curd 218 non-lactic 116 propagation of 112 types of 109 Stearic acid 42, 45, 46 Steinecker mould filler 246 Steppenkiise, recipe for 424 Steppenoste 212 Stilton 21,23 acidity/ph values quoted for 86, 87 date name first recorded 6 factory recipe for 427 farmhouse recipe for 425 geographical basis for name 21 grading scheme for 297 piercing equipment for 269 recipes for 425 ripening methods for 427 water content of 23 see also Blue Stilton; White Stilton

10 448 INDEX Stirring operations 33, 173 Storage conditions cheese 35, 271 faults caused by 299 mechanization of 234 milk 122 tanks, see Silo tanks Streptococcus spp. 70, 73 temperature effect in ripening 272 thermal destruction temperatures 138 Streptococcus thermophilus, 107, 175, 218 Streptomyces spp. in milk 70 Stresa Convention 19,292 Surati cheese, see Surti Surface mould ripened cheese, faults in 291 Surti, recipe for 428 Svecia 20 recipe for 428 Sweden, protected varieties 20 Switzerland, protected varieties 20 Table drainers 198,205 Taints in milk 61 heat treatment effects 141 Taleggio 6 Taste characteristics 307 Tebel Crockatt (texturing) system 251 Telemea, recipe for 429 Temperatures accelerated ripening 286 cheese recipe 33 enzyme coagulants 152 homogenization 238 maturation 278 milk heat treatment 136 milk storage 123 thermal destruction of bacteria 139 Tendale 25 Tetra Tebel Camatic plant 234 Camembert cheese plants 240 Casomatic mould fillers 247, 249 'D' vat system 240 OST curd-making vats 241,243 Pre press 250 starter preparation system 239, 235 Tebel-matic curd-making vats 246 Tetrazolium (triphenyltetrazolium chloride) test 60 Texture, descriptive terms for 307 Textured cheese curd making tanks/vats for 241 faults in 288 manufacture of 197 mechanized equipment for 241 salting of 20 I scalding of 200 Texturing equipment 251 Texturing operations 33 Thermal destruction temperatures milk bacteria 139 Thermization 74, 136 Thiamin 55 Thorner (acidity) method 83, 84 Tilsiter 20, 23, 211 recipe for 430 smear coat on 210 Titratable acidities 82 starter cultures 115 Toasting cheese 207 Tocopherols 56 Tomme au Marc 283 'Ton' presses 263 grading affected by 299 Toxins 63, 136 Trademarks 5 Transport systems, cell membrane 67 Trappist 211 recipe for 432 TrayBrine system 267 Treatments, summarized 32 Trier (cheese grading tool) 306 Triglycerides 42 Triple Cream Suisse recipe 380 Truckle cheese, pressures applied to 181 Turkey, Turning devices 232 Turning equipment 368 Two-phase rennetting systems 247 Tybo 20 UF (ultrafiltration) 233, 309 Camembert 315,348 Cheddar 317 concentrated milk 166 Coulommiers 364 Feta-type 380 mechanized plants for 233 process chart for 314 process variables 316 Quark 415 UK cheese varieties 24 food standards 23, 126 grading schemes 301 manufacturing procedures for 197 Unibox system 301,304 Untextured cheese curd making tanks/vats for 246 manufacture of 208 USA, USSR see Russian Federation Vacherin 183

11 INDEX 449 recipe for 433 Vacuum packaging 188 Vacuum pressing 182,201,264 Variability of early cheeses 2 Varietal differences, cheesemaking 193 Vegetable rennets 3, 157 Vitamins in milk and cheese 55 Waldner Roiner system 249 Walker formol casein test 91 Walton 26 Wartime rationing, UK cheese affected by 298 Washed curd cheese 176 manufacture of 21 Waste disposal 325 Water activity microbial growth affected by 193 Water content 125 analytical determination of 94 UK standards 126 Wax coated films 187 Wax coating equipment 184 Wax coatings 184 Weights, UK cheese 24 Wensleydale 24 acidities quoted 87 grading scheme for 297 recipe for 434 water content of 126 see also Blue Wensleydale WFFS (Water in Fat-Free Substance) values 126 Whey cheese 322 cheese definition 19 cheese faults 323 cheese recipes 417,436 composition of 172, 322 curd cheese recipe 436 disposal of 325 heat treatment effects 142 products from 320 proteins 37,50, 104 quality of 321 removal 33, 176 treatment of 320 ultrafiltration plant for 309 aee also Ricotta, Ricottone Whey/curd separation equipment 249 Wheying off 33, 173 White brined cheese 27, 176 manufacture of 378 recipe for 433 White Stilton 24, 425 Whiteknights recipe 436 Wincanton cheese tower 261 cheese vats 242 Stoelting cottage cheese vats 227 Windsor Red 26, 285 Wines, added 284 World Wrapping materials, properties required for 185 Xanthine oxidase 53, 141 Yield formulae 124 York (Cambridge cheese) recipe 345 Yorkshire cheese curds recipe 437