Fuelled4life School Canteen Catering Guide

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1 Fuelled4life School Canteen Catering Guide

2 Contents SECTION 1 : Introduction What is Fuelled4life?... 2 Why healthy eating in schools?... 2 Why we need a system to classify foods and drinks... 2 The four food groups... 3 Serving and package size... 4 Classifying foods and drinks for school... 4 Occasional foods... 4 SECTION 2 : Catering Information Catering guidelines... 5 Ingredient checklist... 5 Nutrition information... 7 Preparation and cooking methods Meal ideas Seasonal vegetable and fruit planner SECTION 3 : Menu Planning Principles of menu planning Menu planning template full service Menu planning template lunch only Modify recipes to make them healthier Reducing waste in the kitchen Food safety Equipment needs in the kitchen What to include in a catering contract Heart Foundation, PO Box 17160, Greenlane, Auckland 1546 T E W 1

3 SECTION 1 : Introduction What is Fuelled4life? Fuelled4life is about children getting a good start to life with healthier foods and drinks. It aims to: 1. Inspire schools to provide tasty, nutritious foods and drinks 2. Encourage the food industry to make healthier foods that young people will want to eat Why healthy eating in schools? Many schools are already aware of the important links between food, health and learning and are taking steps to improve their food and nutrition. Making healthy foods and drinks readily available at school will encourage students to make healthy choices and significantly improve nutrition in children and young people. Healthy foods and drinks not only benefit students overall health, but can also improve their learning and behaviour. The school canteen plays an important role. It enables children and young people to act on the messages about healthy eating that they learned in the classroom, by choosing food and drinks that are healthy. Providing foods and drinks that look and taste good, and are affordable, is a great way to encourage healthy eating habits. The canteen is one of the best places to model healthy eating habits and it is important the canteen menu is informed by the school s food and drink policy. This guide provides information for canteen managers, caterers and those involved in preparing healthier food in schools. It summarises how to identify and prepare healthier foods and drinks commonly consumed by children at school. Why we need a system to classify foods and drinks The 2002 National Children s Survey (which looked at school children 5-17 years old) highlighted the importance of the school environment. The survey found 32 per cent of children s daily energy intake was consumed during school hours. Around half of the children bought some of their food from the school canteen or tuck shop. However, canteen use was associated with poor dietary patterns. Only 60 per cent of the children surveyed ate the recommended three or more servings of vegetables per day, and 40 per cent ate the recommended two or more servings of fruit per day. Fuelled4life is based on the Ministry of Health s background paper, Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Healthy Children and Young People Aged 2-12 years (2012). 2

4 The four food groups The Ministry of Health s food and nutrition guidelines sort foods into four groups and recommend how much of each food group to eat. Children and young people need a variety of foods and drinks from the four food groups every day: Why we need the four food groups: Each of the four food groups provides important nutrients, as shown below. Vegetables and fruit Hua whenua me hua rākau Breads and cereals Ngā kai paraoa Milk and milk products He miraka me ngā momokai miraka Lean meat, fish, poultry, seafood, eggs, legumes, nuts and seeds He m ti whēroki, heihei, kai moana, p ni maroke, nati hēki rānei Carbohydrate, fibre, vitamins and some minerals Carbohydrate, fibre, vitamins and some minerals Protein, calcium, fats and some vitamins Protein, fats, iron and zinc. Carbohydrate in nuts and legumes. Serving sizes of the four food groups: FOOD GROUP SERVINGS per Day* EXAMPLES Vegetables and fruit Hua whenua me hua rākau Breads and cereals Ngā kai paraoa Milk and milk products He miraka me ngā momokai miraka Lean meat, fish, poultry, seafood, eggs, legumes, nuts and seeds He m ti whēroki, heihei, kai moana, p ni maroke, nati hēki rānei Eat at least 5 servings per day: At least 3 servings of vegetables At least 2 servings of fruit Eat at least 5-6 servings per day : Try to choose wholegrain Eat at least 2-3 servings per day: Choose low- or reduced-fat options Eat at least 1-2 servings per day : Choose lean unprocessed meats 1 medium vegetable (eg. potato, or similar sized root vegetable, carrot, tomato) 1 cup lettuce ½ cup cooked vegetables ½ cup of salad vegetables 1 medium piece of fruit (eg. apple, banana, orange, pear) 2 small apricots or plums ½ cup fresh fruit salad ½ cup stewed or canned fruit in juice** 1 slice of wholemeal or wholegrain bread 1 slice of rēwena bread 1 medium wholemeal or wholegrain bread roll 1 cup of cooked rice, pasta or noodles ½ cup cooked breakfast cereal 1 cup of breakfast cereal flakes ½ cup muesli 250ml plain milk 2 slices (40g) cheese 1 pottle (150ml) yoghurt ¾ cup of mince or casserole 2 slices cooked lean meat 1 egg 2 chicken drumsticks (110g) ¾ cup baked beans ¾ cup cooked lentils, chickpeas, split peas 1/3 cup nuts and seeds*** 1 medium fillet of fish (100g) ¾ cup of kina ½ can tuna or salmon (90g) * Approximately one-third of this amount is consumed during the school day. ** The Ministry of Health recommends choosing vegetables and fruit that are fresh, frozen or tinned. If dried fruit is eaten, it should be a maximum of only one serving of the total recommended number of servings for this group. *** to reduce the risk of choking do not give small, hard foods such as whole nuts and large seeds to children under 5 years old. The greater amount is for older children. 3

5 Serving and package size Over the years there has been a trend towards serving food in larger portions. For example, when soft drinks were first introduced, the standard package was 200ml. Today, the usual pack size is 600ml. Check the portion size of foods and drinks sold in the canteen or tuck shop; it may be appropriate to reduce the size of some items. For recommended serving sizes see the table on page 3. Classifying foods and drinks for school If you re involved in selecting foods and drinks for catered meals, tuck shops and canteens, vending machines, sponsorship deals, or fundraisers and other special events, Fuelled4life can help you identify healthier options. Foods and drinks have been classified into the following three categories, which are designed to help schools provide everyday foods from the four food groups: Everyday foods Everyday foods and drinks are from the four good groups. These are the healthiest choices, and should make up most of the menu. Sometimes foods Sometimes foods and drinks are mostly processed foods with some added fat, salt or sugar. Don t let these sometimes foods dominate the food choices available. If you would like help choosing pre-packaged foods, view our online Fuelled4life Schools Buyers Guide at Occasional foods These foods and drinks are high in saturated fat, salt or sugar and should not be provided in schools. It is important that the healthy-food message stays consistent, even at special events (such as family days, celebrations, excursions or fundraising events. Certain foods and drinks automatically fall into the occasional food category and shouldn t be provided in schools. These foods are: confectionary 1 deep-fried foods (for example, chips, deep-fried fish) energy drinks 2, including those sweetened artificially as well as full-sugar energy drinks other full-sugar drinks (for example soft drinks/fizzy drinks) sports drinks 3 foods and drinks containing caffeine >56mg/serve any food or beverage labelled not recommended for children. 1 The term confectionery refers to a range of sugar-based products, including boiled sweets (hard glasses), fatty emulsions (toffees and caramels), soft crystalline products (fudges), fully crystalline products (fondants), gels (gums, pastilles and jellies) and chocolate. 2 Energy drinks are defined as non-alcoholic water-based flavoured beverages that contain caffeine and may contain carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins and other substances, including other foods, for the purpose of enhancing mental performance. 3 A sports drink (or electrolyte drink) is a drink formulated and represented as suitable for the rapid replacement of fluid, carbohydrates, electrolytes and minerals. 4

6 SECTION 2 : CATERING INFORMATION Catering guidelines Choosing foods and drinks for students to consume at school is a very important role. Food can affect young people s health and ability to learn. What is purchased, as well as how it is stored and prepared, can make a difference. It s not always easy to make changes, but small changes are better than none at all so start with the changes that are easiest to make. Remember, it may take some time to achieve all the changes that have been identified. These catering guidelines are based on the Food and Beverage Classification System (FBCS) and include ways to produce menu items that are lower in saturated fat, salt and sugar and higher in fibre. There is usually no need to add salt and sugar to food. Use these ideas to make healthy changes to the menu. View recipes online at: Ingredients checklist Use the following ingredients checklist to choose healthier alternatives to commonly used foods: INGREDIENT OR FOOD SUGGESTED ALTERNATIVES RESULT Bread, pita bread, wraps Wholemeal or wholegrain varieties. More fibre Breadcrumbs white Wholemeal breadcrumbs. More fibre Butter Vegetable margarine or oil. Less saturated fat Use a minimum amount. Canned vegetables No-added-salt varieties. Less salt Casseroles To thicken, add rice, barley or oats. More fibre Cheddar cheese Lower-fat hard cheese, eg., edam, mozzarella, Less saturated fat reduced-fat cheddar. Chutney or pickle Reduced-salt varieties where available. Less salt and sugar Use sparingly. Coconut cream Reduce the amount. Choose light coconut cream or Less saturated fat milk, or dilute coconut cream with reduced-fat milk. Light evaporated milk plus coconut essence (or coconut-flavoured evaporated milk). Reduced-fat yoghurt mixed with small amounts of desiccated coconut. Cream Reduced-fat cream (if whipping is not required). Less saturated fat Whipped cream mixed half-and-half with plain yoghurt. For creamy casseroles, plain yoghurt mixed with a little flour and added at the last minute. Cream cheese Low-fat soft cheese, eg., cottage cheese, ricotta, quark, Less saturated fat reduced-fat cream cheese. Evaporated milk full cream Lower fat or light evaporated milk. Less saturated fat Fish canned Canned in water. Less fat and salt Flour Wholemeal flour or half white, half wholemeal. More fibre French dressing Vinaigrettes or no-oil commercial dressings. Your own interesting combination of vinegars, lemon juice, herbs and spices. Less fat Fruit canned fresh Non-sweetened or canned in own juice. Peel fresh fruit only if required. Less sugar More fibre Icing No icing or dust sparingly with icing sugar. Less sugar Icing cream cheese Ricotta cheese blended with yoghurt and honey. Less sugar and fat Margarine and spreads or oil Use sparingly. Oil sprays for frying and/or browning. Low-salt margarines and spreads. Less fat Less salt 5

7 Mayonnaise, salad dressings Reduced-fat mayonnaise. Less fat Standard mayonnaise and dressings diluted with reduced-fat yoghurt or milk. Meat Lean meats with visible fat removed. Less saturated fat Reduced quantity by adding dried beans, peas or lentils, rice, pasta or vegetables. Milk Reduced-fat milk. Less fat Peanut butter and other nut spreads Poultry Salami and bacon Salt Sauces, eg. gravy Sauces commercial Sauces tomato, sweet chilli, barbecue, satay/peanut Sausages and sausage meat Spreads jam, honey, yeast spreads Sour cream Soy, fish, oyster and other Asian sauces Stock cube No added salt and sugar varieties. Use spreads in small amounts. Remove skin before serving (before cooking if moist methods, such as casseroles, after cooking if grilling or roasting). Lowest fat versions with visible fat trimmed. Use very small amounts, and only use them to flavour dishes. Use sparingly; use iodised salt. Add flavour with herbs, spices, lemon juice and pepper. Use stocks, water, fruit juice, reduced-fat milk or yoghurt thickened with flour, cornflour or arrowroot. Use very small amounts. Low-fat or low-salt varieties. Use sparingly. Choose reduced-salt varieties where available. Reduce the amount by adding rice, pasta, legumes, bread or vegetables. Do not add fat when cooking. Choose lean versions of sausages. Boil sausages before grilling/frying. Use sparingly. Serve with bread-based food. Unsweetened reduced-fat yoghurt or small amounts of reduced-fat sour cream. Low-salt varieties. Reduce the amount used. Home-made stock. Use vegetable cooking water. Less salt and fat Less saturated fat Less fat and salt Less salt Less fat Less fat, salt and sugar Less salt and sugar Less fat, more fibre Less salt Less sugar Less fat Less salt Less salt Sugar or honey or golden syrup Reduce usage where possible. Less sugar Vegetables fresh Peel only when necessary. Do not add salt. More fibre Less salt Yoghurt Reduced-fat versions. Less fat 6

8 Nutrition Information The FBCS focuses on four nutrients: energy (measured in kilojoules), saturated fat, sugar and sodium (salt). Fibre is also a focus for some product groups. Energy Food and drinks provide the energy we need for our bodies to grow and function properly. Energy, measured in kilojoules (kj), is released when food is eaten and then broken down in the body. Balancing the amount of kilojoules consumed (through foods and drinks) with kilojoules expended (through activity and growth) is important for good health. The nutrients that provide energy are protein, carbohydrate and fat. Foods that are high in fat or sugar are often high in kilojoules (energy) and lacking in essential nutrients, including vitamins, minerals and fibre. Many of these foods do not fit into the four food groups (see page 3). Fats and oils All fats are a mixture of saturated fats (which includes trans-fatty acids) and unsaturated fats (both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats). Most food contains a mixture of the three types of fats, but one type of fat usually dominates. For example, foods of animal origin mainly contain saturated fat (such as butter and meat fat), whereas foods of plant origin (such as nuts, vegetable oils and avocado) contain mainly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. All fats contain the same amount of kilojoules (energy) per gram use them all in small amounts. Polyunsaturated fats Use these in small amounts. Good food sources of polyunsaturated fats are: Polyunsaturated vegetable oil, such as safflower, soybean, sunflower and corn Polyunsaturated margarines Oils naturally present in fish Seeds and nuts (eg. walnuts, pine nuts and brazil nuts) Omega-3 fats are types of polyunsaturated fat found mainly in oily fish (such as tuna, kahawai, trevally, kingfish, warehou, dory, salmon, sardines and mussels), canola oil or canola margarine, flaxseed oil (linseed oil), and walnut oil. Monounsaturated fats Use these in small amounts. Good food sources of monounsaturated fats are: Avocado and avocado oil Peanuts and peanut butter Canola oil and peanut oil Olives and olive oil Olive oil-based margarine Rice bran oil Nuts (eg. cashews, almonds, macadamias, pistachios and hazelnuts). 7

9 Saturated fats These are the ones to reduce or avoid. Major sources are: Dairy fats: Butter, light butter, butter blends, semi-soft butter and shortenings Milk (homogenised or full cream) Hard cheeses, cream cheese, mascarpone, and double- and triple-cream soft cheeses Cream, sour cream and ice cream Meat fats: Lard, dripping, suet and beef tallow White visible fat on beef, mutton, lamb, pork, poultry and fatty mince Processed meat, such as luncheon, salami, most sausages and canned corned beef Tropical oils While most saturated fats are of animal origin, there are two saturated vegetable oils: Coconut oil Palm oil These are used widely in the food industry for deep-frying and to make snack foods, pastries and biscuits. Hydrogenated vegetable oils Oils are hydrogenated to make them less susceptible to flavour changes and/or to make them solid. These are used by the food industry to make foods such as pastry (pies, savouries), biscuits, muesli bars, commercial cakes and muffins. These fats may appear in ingredients lists on food packaging as vegetable fat, baking margarine or vegetable shortening. Avoid these oils. Trans-unsaturated fats Trans-fats are formed during the conversion (hydrogenation or hardening) of oil to margarine. Some of these fats also occur naturally. Avoid these oils. 8

10 The following table summarises which fats to use and which fats to avoid: FOOD GROUP BEST CHOICES Avoid Mainly polyunsaturated Mainly monounsaturated Mainly saturated and/or with high content of trans-unsaturated Fats and oils Safflower oil Wheat germ oil Soybean oil Sesame oil Sunflower oil Olive oil Canola oil Peanut oil Avocado oil Rice bran oil Lard, suet Dripping, beef fat Palm oil Coconut oil Hydrogenated oils baking margarine Hard white block fats Spreads Polyunsaturated spreads Monounsaturated spreads Butter, light butter made with sunflower oil made with canola, rice bran Butter blends or olive oil Semi-soft butter Shortenings Nuts and seeds Walnuts Peanuts Coconut cream Pine nuts Pumpkin seeds Sunflower seeds Sesame seeds Almonds Cashews Fruit Avocados Olives Dairy products Sour cream Cream cheese Double cream cheese Cream Meat, fish, chicken Oily fish Visible white meat fat Chicken skin and fat Other Chocolate Fat content of cheese* FAT CONTENT RANGE CHEESE TYPE Less than 15% Cottage, ricotta, low-fat cream cheese, low-fat cheese slices 15-29% Edam, mozzarella, feta, cheese slices, low-fat or light cheddar, camembert 30-40% Cheddar (mild and tasty), colby, cream cheese, parmesan, gouda *For example a lower fat cheese is edam cheese while a reduced fat cheese could be a reduced-fat tasty cheese. Salt (sodium) Limit high-salt foods. Salt is a compound called sodium chloride. Sodium is an essential mineral in tiny amounts. Large intakes of sodium can lead to poor health. Salt is used to add flavour. It is also an essential ingredient in some foods as a preservative. Common processed foods containing sodium are bread, cheese, biscuits, cakes, convenience foods and sauces. Most of the salt in our diet (up to 75%) is from processed and manufactured foods. The remainder of the salt in our diet is from salt added to foods in cooking or at the table. Sugar Limit foods with high added sugar. Sugar is defined as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer, cook, or consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, and fruit juices. Sugar is a simple type of carbohydrate providing energy and sweetness to food. It does not contain the same amounts of vitamins, minerals and fibre that wholegrain sources of carbohydrate provide. If we eat foods high in sugar with fewer other nutrients we can often feel our energy levels go up and down. Too much sugar also contributes to tooth decay. Remember that there are naturally occurring sugars in nutritious foods like fruit and plain milk, which do not have the same effect as added sugar. We encourage people to include these as part of a healthy eating pattern. 9

11 Preparation and cooking methods Once you have selected healthy ingredients, the next stage is to put them together in ways that maintain or enhance their goodness. The following checklist will help. Food Vegetables and Fruit Fruit Peel only when necessary. Guidelines Use a sharp knife to cut fruit thinly and minimise loss of vitamin C. Stew in a little water with no added sugar. Potatoes Bake, microwave, boil or mash with reduced-fat milk rather than using added fat to roast, fry or deep-fry. Keep skins on. Salads Green Pasta/rice/orzo Potato/kūmara Coleslaw Tabouleh Couscous Vegetables Include a variety of different coloured vegetables. Serve as a plate, tub or in a noodle box. Lean meats, chicken, tuna, egg or reduced-fat cheese add protein and variety. Select the dressing carefully a dressing with no or reduced oil is preferable. Read labels of commercial dressings. Try making your own vinaigrettes or yoghurt-based dressings. Peel only when necessary. Use a sharp knife when cutting to minimise loss of vitamin C. Prepare as close to cooking time as possible; do not soak. Use no salt. Boil in a little water, microwave or steam. Do not overcook. Sauté or stir-fry by brushing the pan with a small amount of oil then adding a little water. Rice, pasta, noodles, bread and breakfast cereals Bread: Select a variety of breads, preferably wholegrain. Bread can be used for snacks and main meals. Choose a variety to add interest to your menu. Toasted sandwiches with fillings are a tasty alternative to sandwiches, especially in winter. Bread cases can be stuffed with similar fillings to those in baked potatoes. Toasted fruit bread or muffins are popular snack foods, and lower in sugar and fat than cakes or biscuits. Make your own garlic bread to give you control over the amount of fat added. Spread with small amounts of margarine, garlic (fresh or commercial) and/or herbs (fresh or dried). Rice and noodles: Fried rice Sushi Plain rice and rice noodles are low in fat and salt. Fried rice and hot noodle cups can be high in salt and fat. Cook fried rice with small amounts of oil and add vegetables; or serve plain rice or noodles with stir-fried vegetables and/or chicken, meat or seafood. Soy sauce is very high in salt, only provide when requested. 10

12 Milk and milk alternatives Cheese See Table: Fat content of cheeses (page 9). Parmesan cheese is high in fat but its strong flavour means that small amounts can be used to boost flavour. Sprinkle over savoury dishes or add a little to cheese sauces. Use reduced-fat cheese in cooking, salads, sandwich/roll fillings, desserts and snacks. For example: Replace cheddar in pizza with edam In savoury dishes, use cottage and ricotta cheeses, reduced-fat sour cream and cream cheese Milk School children and young people do not need full-fat milk. Select reduced- or low-fat versions where possible. Drinks Provide reduced-fat milk as a drink. Other milk drinks include fruit smoothies. Sauces Use reduced-fat milk in white or cheese sauces, macaroni cheese and savoury pies (fish pie). Fruit smoothies Use fruit, ice, yoghurt and reduced-fat milk or calcium-enriched soy milk. Fruit can be fresh, canned or frozen (eg. berries). Follow a recipe to keep the unit cost down. Soy Milk Use as an alternative to milk if necessary. Choose a calcium-fortified soy milk. Lower-fat varieties are available. Meat, fish, poultry, and meat alternatives Canned, poached, fresh and frozen fish and seafood: Canned tuna, salmon, sardines and smoked fish Fresh or frozen fish and seafood Eggs Choose varieties canned in spring water or brine or try flavoured tuna check labels for salt and fat content. Drain brine off before using to reduce the salt content. Use in sandwiches, rolls (hot or cold), salads or quiche. Fish may be grilled, baked or steamed. Use in dishes such as fish pie, kedgeree, and seafood chowder. Bake crumbed fish instead of frying or deep-frying. Cook without adding extra fat. Scramble or poach and serve on a muffin split or English muffin for a good, low-cost breakfast choice. Hard-boil to put in salads or to mash with a little reduced-fat milk and parsley or chives for sandwiches or rolls. Try a self-crusting quiche or a frittata made with reduced-fat milk, lower-fat cheeses, and vegetables cooked in muffin trays for single-serve sizes. Legume products: Baked beans Falafels Lentil patties Baked beans can be used in sandwiches, toasted sandwiches or as a muffin-split topping for a vegetarian option. Baked falafels and/or lentil patties can be used in pita bread sandwiches or rolls served with salads and yoghurt-based sauce and/or relish or chutney. Canned bean mixes and salads can be used for salad choices. Use canned chickpeas to make hummus for pita bread pockets or sandwiches. Add beans to mince to make it go further and reduce the fat content while increasing fibre (eg. chilli bean mince). Use split peas or lentils in winter soups. Meat alternatives: Nutmeat Vegetarian sausages Tofu Serve with pasta, rice, bread or other grains, vegetables and lower-fat milk products. Include in vegetarian meat loaves, casseroles, etc. Boil or grill and serve with a bread-based product and vegetables or salad. Use as an alternative source of protein in a stir-fry for a vegetarian meal. 11

13 Meat and poultry: Lean red meat (eg. roast beef) Chicken (no skin) Meat should be purchased lean and any visible fat removed. Recommended serving sizes are 2 slices for younger children and 3-4 slices cooked lean red meat for older children, ¾-1 cup mince or casserole, 2-3 chicken drumsticks or 1-1 ½ chicken legs. Lean mince should contain 10% or less fat. Drain any excess fat once heated. Meat and chicken should be cooked without adding extra fat. Lean meat and chicken may be grilled, baked, casseroled, stir-fried or barbecued. Use meat and poultry in sandwiches, rolls (hot or cold), salads, pizza toppings, hamburgers, etc. Chicken should be skinned before eating if roasted or baked, and before cooking in a casserole. Serve lean mince in hamburgers, lasagne and spaghetti bolognese and with breads (eg. burritos or tortillas). Processed fish and seafood products: Surimi Crumbed fish and seafood Processed meat: Ham Salami Luncheon Bacon Sausages, frankfurters and saveloys These foods can be high in salt and/or saturated fat and should be an occasional food. Choose low-fat cooking methods, such as oven baking or grilling. Check labels carefully. Serve with vegetables or salad and a bread-based item such as a bread roll, burger bun or foccacia. Use small amounts of reduced-fat mayonnaise or tartare sauce (this is a high-fat sauce). If using coconut cream, reduce the amount by diluting with reduced-fat milk or water, or choose a lower-fat version. These foods are usually high in salt and/or saturated fat and should be an occasional food. If using these foods, do so in small amounts and serve with a bread-based product, pasta or rice and vegetables or salad. Trim fat off bacon and ham. These foods are usually high in salt and/or saturated fat and should be an occasional food. Check fat and salt content and choose the lower-fat and lower-salt products. Boil or grill; serve with a bread-based product and vegetables or salad. Main meal items Chop suey or chow mein Use lean beef, skinless chicken, or canned corn beef with the fat drained off. Add plenty of vegetables, noodles and fresh or pre-prepared garlic and ginger for extra flavour. Use small amounts of vegetable oil for stir-frying. Soy sauce is very high in salt, so use in small amounts. Curry Use lean meat or chicken. Use reduced-fat milk or yoghurt instead of cream. Don t use butter. Use coconut-flavoured evaporated milk instead of coconut milk or cream. Serve with plenty of rice or other side dishes (eg. chapattis, lightly-heated poppadams (no added fat) and reduced-fat yoghurt, vegetables, a small amount of pickles or chutney). Fried rice Cook fried rice with small amounts of oil and add vegetables; or serve plain rice or noodles with stir-fried vegetables and/or chicken, meat or seafood. Soy sauce is very high in salt so use in small amounts. Frittata Use leftover vegetables and chop them finely. If using ham or bacon, use lean versions and trim the fat. Add reduced-fat milk (not cream) and eggs to bind the mixture. Use reduced-fat cheese, such as edam, mozzarella or reduced-fat cheddar. Do not add salt or pepper. 12

14 Hamburgers Purchase or make low-fat meat patties. Grill, bake or use spray oil on a non-stick pan or hot plate. If making your own, use lean mince. Bulk out the mixture with breadcrumbs (bread from the everyday category) and/or rolled oats. Add grated or finely-chopped vegetables, eg. onion, carrot, parsnip, courgette or kūmara. Add a little tomato paste or tomato sauce for flavour. Grill, bake or fry them, using spray oil in a non-stick pan or on a hot plate. Choose a variety of vegetable or fruit fillings and spreads. Home-made chips and wedges Think beyond potato these can also be made with kūmara, pumpkin, taro or parsnip. Scrub the vegetables well and avoid peeling them unless necessary. Place the prepared vegetables in a plastic bag and shake them with a little olive oil. Bake them in a hot oven until crisp on the outside and cooked inside. If choosing commercial varieties, choose those with the least added fat and bake, rather than fry them. Home-made sausage rolls Prepare the meat mixture using mince, not sausage meat; follow the guidelines for hamburgers and meat loaf. Use filo or bread wraps instead of standard pastry. Muffins Make with oil or margarine and reduced-fat milk. Use mini muffin trays (for primary children) or standard-size muffin trays (for older children) rather than large muffin trays. Make fruit-based muffins (with fresh, canned, dried or frozen fruit) or savoury muffins (eg. with onion, spring onion, herbs, lower-fat cheese, lean ham, capsicum, celery); avoid adding confectionery 1. Serve without spread. Pancakes, pikelets Make with reduced-fat milk. Cook on a non-stick pan or with a minimum amount of oil or spray oil. Serve without spread. For variety, add mashed banana or berries to the batter. Pasta products: Lasagne Spaghetti Bolognese Macaroni cheese Meat balls Use tomato-based sauces instead of cream-based ones. Edam, mozzarella and small amounts of parmesan are lower-fat cheese choices. Make meat sauce with lean mince; add vegetables such as mushrooms, spinach, courgettes, red or green capsicum, carrots or frozen peas. Make a white sauce with margarine, reduced-fat milk and lower-fat cheese or low-fat milk and cornflour. Approximate serving sizes are 1/2 cup for primary school children, ¾-1 cup for secondary school students. Avoid large servings. Pizza and pizza bread Make a thin pizza base or use bread as a base (eg. homemade dough, pita bread, ready-made pizza bases). If home-made, use ½ wholemeal and ½ plain flour. Include plenty of vegetables in the topping. Serve with salad or a salad box. Muffin splits, English muffins or pita breads can be topped with spaghetti, pineapple and grated cheese for a quick hot snack. 1 The term confectionery refers to a range of sugar-based products, including boiled sweets (hard glasses), fatty emulsions (toffees and caramels), soft crystalline products (fudges), fully crystalline products (fondants), gels (gums, pastilles and jellies) and chocolate. 13

15 Savoury snack foods: Rice crackers Popcorn Crackers and cheese Cheese toasties Scones Choose plain rice crackers with hummus or avocado dip. Make your own popcorn and add home-made flavourings or serve natural. Offer cheese slices and crackers as a combo, using lower-fat cheese, and tomato chutney for added flavour. Use wholemeal bread for toasties, include vegetables such as onion, tomato, pineapple, cream corn or finely-diced capsicum. Use a lower-fat or reduced-fat cheese. Use reduced-fat milk. Scones can be fruit- or savoury-based use reduced-fat cheese. Soup Soup is a great winter food. Either made from scratch in the canteen (eg. tomato, chicken and vegetable) or made from lower-salt pre-prepared soup mixes, soup can be served in cups with a bread roll. Add vegetables (eg. grated carrot, celery or onion). For a thicker soup add split peas, lentils, barley or dried beans. Use reduced-fat milk in chowders. 14

16 Meal ideas Breakfast ideas A good breakfast gives children and young people a great start to the day. If healthy breakfast foods are offered at school, children who may not have eaten at home will be able to choose a nutritious meal before school begins. Some children like breakfast foods at other times of the day, too. Keep the menu simple, with hot foods in winter and cool choices in summer. Offer special options or meal deals sometimes. Serve cereal or fruit in paper cups or pottles and toasted items on a serviette. What to offer: Cereals: Wholegrain cereals, such as wheat biscuits or non-toasted muesli, served with reduced-fat milk or yoghurt and fruit (fresh or canned) Porridge in winter Toasted bread products: Bread, preferably wholegrain with choices of spread (see ideas below) Bagel Muffin split or English muffin Fruit loaf or buns Rēwena bread Crumpets Toast topping ideas: Spread margarine thinly; some toppings may not need any (such as peanut butter and hot choices like spaghetti). Sliced tomato Creamed corn Peanut butter Reduced-fat cream cheese Banana Spaghetti Baked beans A slice of reduced-fat cheese Poached, scrambled or soft-boiled egg Fruit: Fresh fruit served whole or as fruit salad or kebabs Canned fruit (in fruit juice) Milk products: Milk Fruit smoothie Fruit yoghurt Drinking yoghurt 15

17 Sandwiches, rolls and wraps What to offer: Limit the menu to a realistic number of sandwich choices, depending on the staff and equipment required. Some larger canteens may be able to offer up to 10 fillings, while smaller canteens may not. Take note of sales and any student feedback. Also, offer some simple fillings for fussy eaters; for example, avocado or banana wrapped in a slice of bread. Check the fat, salt and fibre content of the sandwiches you offer. For example, in egg sandwiches, replace salt and standard mayonnaise with herbs and a reduced-fat mayonnaise; better still, a reduced-fat milk. Use fresh bread and prepare sandwich fillings each day Make sandwich fillings before making the sandwiches, to stop the bread from drying out Once made, place the crusts or damp clean cloths on top of the stack of sandwiches to keep them fresh Wrap as soon as possible in clear food wrap, with the filling showing Use labels or signs Promote as a combo with a drink (water or plain milk), and a fruit salad or vegetable sticks and hummus Sharp knives and/or a food processor speeds preparation and makes it easier to serve portions of a consistent size Keep salt content down by replacing salt in fillings with herbs, lemon juice, sauces or relish Bread ideas: Wholemeal, wholegrain rolls of different shapes (long, round, seeded or French stick), rēwena, fa apapa, pita breads, tortilla bread, foccacia, panini, rye, bagels, baps. Sandwiches can also be different sizes and shapes, such as triple-decker for older students or four triangles for smaller appetites. Spreads: Spread margarine thinly, allowing about one pottle of margarine for every three loaves of bread. Remember, some fillings will not require margarine Alternatives to margarine include peanut butter, mashed avocado, and low-fat spreadable cheeses such as cream cheese, cottage cheese, ricotta or quark. For extra variety try small amounts of pickle, chutney, pesto, vegetable-based dips or hummus Sauces: Fat, salt and sugar are added to pre-prepared sauces for flavour. Look for low-salt soy sauce and low-sugar, low-salt tomato sauce Use these ready-made sauces in small amounts Vegetable-based sauces are usually healthier choices than creamy sauces (such as tartare sauce) Filling ideas: With cheese (cottage, cheese slices, grated edam) Crushed pineapple and spring onion Tomato Shredded lettuce and tomato Pickle With chicken (skin removed) Lettuce, low-fat mayonnaise, finely-chopped parsley and bean sprouts Lettuce, tomato and sliced peppers Seeded mustard, lettuce and cucumber With lean meat Thinly sliced beef, horseradish sauce, lettuce and tomato Shaved ham, chutney, lettuce and tomato Shaved ham, seeded mustard and coleslaw 16

18 With egg (mash hard-boiled egg with a little pepper and reduced-fat milk to combine; add a little curry powder or finely chopped parsley for variation) Lettuce, red pepper and spring onion Tomato, lettuce and gherkin Avocado, cucumber and tomato With fish Drained canned tuna, cottage cheese, spring onion and a dash of vinegar Drained canned tuna or salmon (mix in a little lemon juice), grated carrot and chopped chives Drained canned tuna, lettuce, low-fat mayonnaise and cucumber Drained canned tuna, pineapple and lettuce With nuts, beans or lentils Crunchy peanut butter, grated carrot and chopped raisins Baked beans, spring onion and chopped celery Hummus, tomato and cucumber Falafel (sliced), tomato, lettuce and chutney With vegetables Roasted vegetables and sliced edam Asparagus, grated carrot and low-fat mayonnaise Hummus, tomato, lettuce and cucumber Pita pockets Falafel, couscous, lettuce, chutney and grated carrot Spiced beef, lettuce, raita, chopped tomato and chutney Bean booster Tabouleh and cucumber Panini Roasted vegetables (such as potato, kūmara, pumpkin, red onion, pepper or carrot), thin slices of edam cheese and vegetable or tomato chutney Roast beef, tomato and red pepper Ham, tomato, spring onion and mustard Wraps Guacamole or hummus, lettuce leaves, cooked shredded chicken, sliced tomato, mung bean sprouts, and low-fat mayonnaise (optional) Cooked shredded chicken, tomato salsa, shredded lettuce, sliced cucumber, tomato and grated carrot 17

19 Vegetarian eating Children can eat a vegetarian diet and remain healthy. There are several different types of vegetarian: Vegans eat no animal products Lacto-ovo vegetarians include milk, milk products and eggs in their diet but not other animal foods Semi-vegetarians may eat fish and/or chicken but do not eat red meat In order to meet a vegetarian s nutritional needs, it is important to offer a wide variety of foods. Including at least one vegetarian choice on the menu is recommended. Healthy vegetarian choices include wholegrain cereals, reduced-fat or low-fat milk products, nuts and seeds, dark green vegetables, soy products such as tofu, and pea and bean products such as lentils, hummus, felafels and baked beans. Find out what vegetarian customers would like. A vegetarian choice could be offered daily, as other students may like it too. Rolls and sandwich fillings: Use wholegrain rolls or breads Alternative protein sources (depends on the type of vegetarian) include egg, reduced-fat cheese, hummus, peanut butter, baked beans, dahl, falafels, and lentil patties Include a range of vegetables because these vitamin C-rich foods help the absorption of iron, which is important for children and young people. Snacks Children and young people need snacks to top up their energy and nutrient levels between meals. Keep snacks an appropriate size for the students ages. For example, a mini muffin, scone or pita bread for primary school children and a medium-sized muffin or scone or whole pita bread for older children. Many snacks are simple to prepare and are based on the four food groups: bread and cereals (Ngā kai paraoa), milk and milk products (He miraka me ngā momokai miraka), vegetables and fruit (Hua whenua me hua rākau), lean meat, fish, poultry, seafood, eggs, legumes, nuts and seeds (He mīti whēroki, heihei, kai moana, pīni maroke, nati hēki rānei). Ideas for snacks are: Bread cases Fruit salad with yoghurt Reduced-fat cheese slices and crackers Wholemeal toasted sandwiches Wholemeal toast with topping Pizza (using a muffin split or pita bread) Corn cobs Muffin splits or English muffins Muffins fruit, or bran and fruit Rice cakes Scones Noodles Smoothies Vegetable sticks Pita breads (fill with baked beans, spaghetti or creamed Fruit bread corn and heat with a little grated edam cheese) Fruit salad Fruit (fresh or canned) Nut and seed combos Cheesy rolls Pikelets (plain or fruity) Slushies Salad bags (carrot, celery, egg, Bagels thinly spread with low-fat cream cheese cucumber, cherry tomatoes, lettuce) Pita bread crisps with hummus or tomato salsa Popcorn Canteen-made garlic bread View recipes online at: 18

20 Hot foods Hot foods are popular in cooler weather for both snacks and meals. They need to be filling and nutritious. Offer hot choices as daily or weekly specials, to simplify preparation and serving time and add variety to the menu. Some canteens require students and staff to pre-order hot meals. Choose bases and toppings for a variety of combinations. Bases Pita bread Muffin splits Focaccia bread Baked potato or kūmara Bread cases hot Savoury Toppings Baked beans Creamed corn, celery, lower-fat grated cheese Canned tuna or smoked fish in white sauce Canned tomato and vegetable sauce Savoury mince and vegetable sauce Ham, tomato and poached egg Scrambled egg Pizza 1. Choose 1 base, 1 spread, 1 protein and a variety of toppings, including several vegetable options 2. Spread tomato paste on the base 3. Add some toppings, finishing with lower-fat grated cheese 4. Bake at 200 C for 15 minutes or until golden brown BASE (choose 1) SPREAD (choose 1) TOPPING (choose a variety) PROTEIN (choose 1) Homemade pizza dough Ready-made pizza base Pita bread Scone dough (make a plain dough) Tomato paste Tomato sauce Pasta sauce Canned spaghetti Grated cheese (lower fat) Drained, crushed pineapple Chopped onion Sliced mushroom Sliced peppers Sliced tomato Finely diced ham Canned tuna or salmon Lean cooked mince Burgers Cook protein using a low-fat cooking method. Choose a type of bread and top it with spread and the chosen protein (eg. a hamburger patty). Add a selection of fillings. BASE (choose 1) SPREAD (choose 1) Fillings* (choose a variety) PROTEIN (choose 1) Hamburger roll Sliced toast bread French bread Focaccia Tomato sauce Mustard Chutney or relish Reduced-fat mayonnaise or salad dressing Pesto Salsa Lettuce Tomato Grated lower-fat cheese (eg. edam) Cucumber Beetroot Pineapple rings Sautéed onion Sautéed mushroom Avocado Hamburger patty or lean schnitzel Crumbed fish Lentil patty Chicken breast or crumbed chicken * For bought-in options refer to 19

21 Baked potatoes or kūmara Scrub the potatoes or kūmara. Cook in the microwave or oven until soft. Cut a cross in the top and split open. Heat the topping of your choice and add it to the baked potato. Sprinkle with protein and vegetables. Topping (choose 1) PROTEIN (choose 1) Vegetables (choose a variety) Spaghetti Baked beans Creamed corn Pasta sauce Chilli bean mince Bean booster Chopped ham Canned tuna or salmon Grated reduced-fat cheese Cooked onion Sliced mushrooms Chopped capsicum Sliced tomatoes Combos or special meal deals These are a good way to get students to eat a range of foods and to try new foods. Offer a couple of meal or snack deals to suit different appetites and budgets, for example, $3 for two items and $5 for three items. Meal deal ideas: Filled roll, small milk drink and fruit Burger, smoothie and fruit Soup, bread roll and fruit Slice of pizza and a salad bag Wrap, soup and fruit Macaroni cheese and fruit Snack meal deals: Cheese and crackers with fruit Toasted fruit bread, a cheese slice and a mandarin Yoghurt and fruit Muffin and a banana Mini muffin-split, pizza and a small apple 20

22 Seasonal vegetable and fruit planner: Good choice, widely available and well priced Use less, higher priced Out of season, not best choice Summer (Dec Jan Feb) Autumn (Mar Apr May) Winter (Jun Jul Aug) Spring (Sept Oct Nov) VegETABLES Asparagus Broccoli Brussel Sprouts Cabbage Capsicum Carrot Cauliflower Celery Courgette Cucumber Eggplant Kumara Leeks Lettuce (Iceberg) Mushrooms Onion Parsnip Potato Pumpkin Silverbeet Spinach Spring Onion Swede Tomato Yam FRUIT Apples Apricots Avocado Bananas Blueberries Feijoa Grapes Kiwifruit Lemons Mandarins Nectarines Oranges Peaches Pears Pineapple Plums Rhubarb Rock Melon Strawberries Tamarillos Tangelos Watermelon Seasonal planner provided by Bidvest. All fresh and prepared vegetables and fruit can be purchased through Bidvest

23 Add vegetables and fruits to your meals Vegetables and fruit are important for children and young people. Here are some creative ideas on how to increase consumption of vegetables and fruit: Add sliced banana, grated apple or chopped pear to porridge or cereal Grate vegetables into mince dishes, eg. carrots, courgettes Use avocado as a spread instead of butter or margarine Make a quick salsa by finely cutting tomatoes, onions, garlic and herbs and serve with vegetable sticks Boil cauliflower, parsnip, kumara or pumpkin in with your potatoes and mash Make savoury muffins or scones using diced or grated onion, corn, spinach, courgette or pumpkin Puree frozen peas to make a dip Chop up kiwifruit, apples, pears, oranges and strawberries into bite-size pieces and let children make their own kebabs. Serve with a yoghurt-based dipping sauce Fill sushi with avocado, finely-sliced carrots, red capsicum, and cucumber Make fruit platters for morning, afternoon tea or for celebrations. Chop pineapple, orange wedges, grapes, bananas, strawberries or any fruit that is in season Make smoothies by blending berries, bananas or oranges with milk or yoghurt Instead of flour use pumpkin, potato or kūmara to thicken a casserole dish Add corn, peas, onion, tomato or grated carrot to pasta dishes Use vegetable leaves to wrap food, eg. lettuce or cabbage Instead of using pastry for the top of a pie, use mashed potato or kūmara 22

24 SECTION 3 : MENU PLANNING Principles of menu planning Planning the menu in advance helps the caterer to: Meet the nutritional needs of students Provide a variety of food Keep to the budget Plan catering staff workloads Evaluate and improve the menu according to customer and staff feedback Provide a record or summary for customers and school personnel Consider: Customer characteristics nutritional requirements, preferences, cultural and religious backgrounds and special diets, such as for vegetarians Food characteristics variety and taste, appearance, cultural and social acceptability, seasonal variations, ease of serving at peak times, cost Resources finance, staffing, preparation and cooking facilities, storage capacity How to plan the menu: 1. Check any recent consumer feedback about previous menus, along with any special dietary requirements that need to be considered. 2. Decide on the menu structure, that is, what kinds of foods will be offered at the times the canteen is open (for example, breakfast, snacks, hot dishes, sandwiches and/or rolls, soups, and so on). Are there any special events or theme days in the school? 3. Use the template provided or develop your own. For example, if your menu is small and you only need to plan sandwiches and rolls (types of bread and fillings), it may be easy enough to develop your own template. 4. Start your planning. Have old menus, customer feedback, new recipe ideas, food policy, and the Fuelled4life School Canteen Catering Guide on hand. 5. Plan each type of menu item in turn, so you can concentrate on one kind of food at a time. Fill in standard items that are the same every day Plan the main hot dish or dishes Plan hot snack items Plan sandwiches and/or rolls Plan other items 6. Review the menu each day for repetition of major ingredients, flavours and colours. 7. Customer feedback is helpful, so consider setting up a questionnaire or forum for students and staff. 23

25 Menu-planning template Full Service Breakfast parakuihi Hot Items MONDAY Rāhina Cold Items Drinks Interval Kai ō te ata Hot Items Cold Items Drinks Lunch Kai ō te tina Hot Items Cold Items Other Drinks TUESDAY Rātu WEDNESDAY Rāapa THURSDAY Rāpare FRIDAY Rāmere 24

26 Menu-planning template Lunch only MONDAY Rāhina Hot Items Cold Items Drinks TUESDAY Rātu WEDNESDAY Rāapa THURSDAY Rāpare FRIDAY Rāmere 25

27 Modify recipes to make them healthier Finding healthy recipes to serve in schools is not always easy. Understanding how to modify recipes will make life a lot simpler, and many dishes can be easily developed to better meet food and nutrition guidelines. To help with your planning, a range of recipes can be found at When modifying a recipe, ask the following questions: 1. What ingredients are making this recipe high in fat, sugar and salt? Ingredients such as butter, cream, full-fat milk, oil, salt, sugar and/or chocolate are high in fat, salt and/or sugar. 2. Is it possible to eliminate, reduce or substitute? For each of the ingredients you identify, work out the most appropriate action. 3. Could the nutritional value of the recipe be enhanced by adding nutrient-rich ingredients? For example, add vegetables, fruit or legumes. 4. are there any steps in the selection, preparation or cooking that could be changed? For example, with a meat dish: a. Selection buying lean meat b. Preparation cutting off all visible fat c. Cooking grilling rather than frying Not all recipes can be low in fat, salt and sugar. For example, cake and biscuit recipes may require adjusting and testing to produce a successful result. Example 1: How to modify Hungarian beef casserole Eliminate 1 kg stewing steak 4 tablespoons flour 4 tablespoons butter Trim the visible fat Reduce to 2 tablespoons Ingredients eliminated: butter Ingredients reduced: oil Ingredients substituted: low-salt stock for stock cubes, natural yoghurt Nutrient-rich ingredients added: vegetables, red kidney beans Add lots of other vegetables, eg. carrots, parsnips, kūmara Use natural yoghurt 4 tablespoons oil 2 onions 2 cups water 3 beef stock cubes ½ cup tomato paste 1 cup sour cream Use lowsalt stock or reduce the quantity Add a tin of red kidney beans Nutritional comparison per standard (adult-sized) serving TRADITIONAL CASSEROLE Total 2045 kilojoules MODIFIED CASSEROLE Total 1606 kilojoules Total fat 39 g Total fat 12.9 g Saturated fat 17 g Saturated fat 3.6 g Fibre 1 g Fibre 5.5 g 26

28 Example 2: How to modify blueberry muffins Replace 1 cup with wholemeal flour and Add 2 tsp baking powder Reduce to ½ cup 2 cups self-raising flour ¼ teaspoon salt 1 cup blueberries 1 cup sugar 2 eggs 125 g melted butter 1 cup milk Add 2 mashed bananas Substitute 2 tablespoons margarine Substitute reducedfat milk Ingredients eliminated: none Ingredients reduced: sugar, fat Ingredients substituted: wholemeal flour for half the white flour, margarine for butter, reduced-fat milk for full-fat milk Nutrient-rich ingredients added: bananas Nutritional comparison per standard-sized muffin TRADITIONAL MUFFIN MODIFIED MUFFIN Total 1050 Total 605 kilojoules kilojoules Total fat 10.6 g Total fat 2.5 g Saturated 6.5 g Saturated 0.5 g fat fat Fibre 1.2 g Fibre 2.5 g Example 3: How to modify pizza Replace with 50 g lean ham Reduce to 1 cup 1 large pizza base ¼ cup pasta sauce 100 g salami ¼ cup pitted black olives 2 cups grated mozzarella Add drained pineapple pieces, sliced capsicum, mushrooms, sweet corn, courgette, celery or any leftover vegetables Eliminate Ingredients eliminated: olives Ingredients reduced: meat, cheese Ingredients substituted: lean ham for salami Nutrient-rich ingredients added: vegetables, pineapple Nutritional comparison (per slice) TRADITIONAL PIZZA MODIFIED PIZZA Total 1160 Total 695 kilojoules kilojoules Total fat 16.0 g Total fat 4.5 g Saturated 7.0 g Saturated 2.2 g fat fat Fibre 1.8 g Fibre 2.2 g Sodium 851 mg Sodium 340 mg 27

29 Reducing waste in the kitchen 1. Menu planning: By planning a seasonal menu, you can plan ahead which will help with purchasing, storage and stock. 2. Stock rotation: When unpacking new items, move older products to the front of the fridge/freezer/pantry and put the newer products at the back. This way you are more likely to use up the older products before they expire. 3. Monitor what you throw away: Designate a week to write down everything you throw out on a regular basis. Are you tossing out half a loaf of bread each week? Try freezing half a loaf at the start of the week. 4. Take stock: Keep note of upcoming expiry dates of products. These products can be included in your menu accordingly, before they expire. Have a list of products stored in the freezer, including the expiry date, on the freezer door. 5. Use leftovers: Get creative! Leftover vegetables are great in a frittata or soup. 6. Use it all: When cooking, use every piece of the ingredients you are using. For example, leave the skin on potatoes or cook broccoli steams as well as the florets. 7. Store better: If you are regularly throwing away stale crackers or cereal, try moving these products into air-tight containers. 8. Re-use produce: Produce doesn t have to be thrown out if it s over ripe. Brown bananas can be used in baking or frozen (remove skin before freezing) for smoothies, and wilted vegetables are still great in soups. 9. Ordering: Order the minimal amounts more frequently. Also, keep the ordering to one person only, so you don t accidentally double-up on items. 10. Deliveries: Carefully check all deliveries for contamination, damage, use-by dates and temperature of fresh foods. Food Safety Safe food handling practices in the canteen Why is food safety so important? Food can be dangerous if not handled, prepared and stored correctly. It is important to reduce the risk of spreading bacteria from the people preparing the food to the customers. Children are particularly vulnerable, so it s essential that school canteen staff practise safe food handling skills. Food Act 2014 The Food Act 2014 was passed into law in June 2015 and will come into force by March A three-year transition period for food businesses starts on 1 March For more information see Tips for food safety How to store food Order only what is needed and rotate stock properly. This will reduce waste and loss of quality Store food under recommended conditions Ensure that refrigerator and freezer temperatures are monitored and meet required standards (2-4 C for fridges and minus 15 C to minus 18 C for freezers) Avoid overloading the refrigerator; take storage space into account when planning the menu Store raw foods below cooked foods in the fridge. Keep food covered while on display or in storage Foods that are prone to bacterial contamination include raw and cooked meats (including chicken), dairy products, seafood, ready-packed salads and vegetables, cooked rice and pasta and products containing egg or other protein-rich foods (for example, quiche, soya bean products) Personal hygiene Wash your hands before handling food and in between preparing different foods. Avoid touching your hair or face, and keep hair covered (or tied back) when preparing and serving food Avoid unnecessary handling of food by using utensils like tongs, scoops and spoons instead of your hands. Use disposable gloves (change gloves regularly) Taste food with a clean spoon, not your fingers Anyone with vomiting, diarrhoea or infections should not be working with food Cover cuts or sores on hands or arms with coloured sticking plasters and disposable gloves. This is to stop germs from the wound contaminating the food, while using coloured sticking plasters helps prevent the plasters from falling into the food unnoticed. If the wound cannot be covered, the food worker must not handle unwrapped food 28

30 Food preparation and cooking Clean kitchen surfaces thoroughly before preparing food and between preparation of different foods especially raw and cooked foods Wash all vegetables and fruit thoroughly before use Cook hot foods thoroughly and reheat foods until piping hot Do not refreeze thawed or heated food Do not reheat hot foods more than once Keep food at safe temperatures, that is, keep hot foods hot and keep cold foods cold: Remember the two-hour rule: never leave perishable foods between 4ºC and 65ºC for more than two hours Keep cold foods in a refrigerator before serving Always hot-wash equipment immediately after preparing raw meats, especially chicken, or use separate utensils and/or knives and chopping boards for raw and ready-to-eat foods How should utensils be cleaned? Wash chopping boards and utensils thoroughly in very hot water and detergent, rinsing in very hot water and regularly changing tea towels and cloths Wash dishes thoroughly, either in a dishwasher or in very hot water and detergent rinsing them in very hot water and leaving them to air-dry What about volunteers? Ensure staff and volunteers follow food safety procedures Provide suitable training, as well as reminders such as posters or signs on walls Basic food safety courses are usually short, involve practical and theory sessions and may not have an exam. Courses are available at local polytechnics and by distance learning (for example, through The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand). More information on food safety issues is available at 29

31 Equipment needs in the kitchen The equipment required for each canteen will vary; however, we have provided a basic list with suggested uses. Not all of this is essential; what you need will depend on the type of foods and drinks served. Equipment Preparation Food processor or blender Vegetable knives (regularly sharpened) Electric knife or serrated bread knife Spatula Lidded containers or portioned containers Cling film dispenser Fridge with adequate space Freezer with adequate space Bench space Disposable gloves Cooking Sandwich press, toasted-sandwich maker Non-stick pans Stockpot or crock pot Hot plate Toaster (multiple slices) or oven grill Food warmer Heavy-based pan or wok Probe thermometer Microwave oven Conventional oven Oven baking dishes Muffin trays (mini and standard size) Quiche dishes Display cabinet Useful for Salad ingredients, sandwich fillings, soup, vegetables, smoothies Fruit and vegetable preparation Sandwich preparation Spreading on breads, rolls, and pizzas Storage of sandwich fillings to simplify preparation Sandwich wrapping Safe food storage, smoothies Safe food storage, slushies Food preparation Reducing direct hand contact with food Panini, toasted sandwiches, wraps Bolognese sauce Soups, curries, sauces Crumbed fish/chicken, hamburger patties Toasting bread Keeping cooked foods hot (eg. pizza, toasted sandwiches) Stir-frying, meat sauces Checking temperature of food or storage space Popcorn, heating foods Hot meals, wedges, pizza, muffins, scones Macaroni cheese, fish pie Suitable sizes of muffins, bread cases, mini quiches Self-basing quiche; frittata Sandwiches, wraps, pita breads 30

32 What to include in a catering contract School management is responsible for ensuring that contract caterers in the school canteen provide foods and drinks that meet the students nutritional needs. These guidelines for contract caterers will help management to write contracts that set and maintain high standards for the school canteen catering service. Food choices To ensure that nutritious, appetising foods are available, the contract should specify that the contractor provide food consistent with the: Ministry of Health Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Adolescents Fuelled4life Food and Beverage Classification System Fuelled4life School Canteen Catering Guide School food and nutrition policy The contract may include information about food preparation, availability, safety and evaluation to give the contractor more detail about what is required. Providing information about the Food and Beverage Classification System and this Fuelled4life School Canteen Catering Guide could do this. Food preparation The contract may specify: The type of service required, such as café style including hot meals, snacks and sandwiches The way food is to be presented, such as café style using refrigerated cabinets for displaying food A level of presentation appropriate to the situation Food availability The contract may specify: The numbers and types of meals required and the times for serving those meals and snacks Different foods for special occasions, such as sports days and other events Food safety The contract should specify that safe food handling practices are adhered to at all times. For more information about food safety, see Evaluation The contract may specify methods for checking that the standards of the contract are being met. For example: Times are specified for regular meetings between the contractor and the client Menus are presented to the client on a regular basis The contractor will regularly seek customer feedback and make the results of customer surveys available to the client, including details of changes to be made 31

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