TANYA JAMES, DIETITIAN

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1 Food Preservation FOOD PRESERVATION TANYA JAMES, DIETITIAN

2 Freezing Herbs Vegetables Fruits Benefits- preserves more nutrients and fresh flavour than heat processing. Added sugar and salt are not necessary. Quick and easy! Limitations- frozen food does not survive power outages, uses more energy to preserve food than canning

3 Freezing How to freeze: Light-coloured fruit, e.g. apples, peaches, apricots Berries, rhubarb, grapes, etc. Herbs Vegetables: use blanching Maximum 1 year storage time Freezer packaging needs to be moisture and vapour-proof

4 Dehydration Herbs Vegetables Fruit Leathers Natural preservatives Vitamin C or lemon juice dip Blanching (vegetables only) How to use dehydrated foods?

5 Dehydration Methods Outdoors on a sunny day: cover foods with cheese cloth to protect Oven (between F) Hanging or on screens indoors Electric dehydrator Important Factors Heat, humidity, air circulation Once dried, store food out of sunlight in an airtight container

6 Canning Waterbath canning: Used for tomatoes with added acid, salsa, jelly or jam, fruit, products made with vinegar Acidity is key! Pressure Canning: good for low acid foods like meats, vegetables, chili, fish Storage: up to one year To check seal on lids remove screw band; jars can remain without screw band during storage

7 Canning Canning Methods Hot vs. cold/raw pack

8 Key Components Sugar Salt Acidity What NOT to modify from tested canning recipes? Headspace Time Pressure Size of fruit/vegetable pieces

9 Reduced Sugar Canning Sugar effects texture, shape and colour of fruit, but all fruit can be safely canned without sugar Ascorbic or citric acid, or lemon prevents darkening Hot pack method gives better flavour Enjoy natural sweetness from the fruit: Make unsweetened apple or pear sauce Make unsweetened apple, peach or pear butter Can fruit in water or 100% fruit juice

10 Low Salt Canning Pickled meat/fish NEEDS salt to be safe Salt is used in canned vegetables to preserve the colour, add flavour, but is not a safety requirement Flavour can be added from spices + herbs

11 Jams and Jellies Role of Sugar Sugar is used to gel traditional jams and jellies, both with natural or added pectins Inhibits microbial growth Non-caloric sweeteners do NOT Jam is usually 55-85% sugar What is pectin? A carbohydrate that works with sugar and the acid in fruit to form a gel Naturally occurring vs. store-bought prepared pectin

12 Reduced Sugar Jams and Jellies Special pectin for reduced sugar jams or gelatin may be used Non-caloric sweeteners do NOT inhibit microbial growth Canning in a water bath or freezing is necessary for long-term storage of reduced sugar products Refrigerate after opening, keep for 2-3 weeks

13 Plate Test

14 Pickles, Relish, Chutneys High acidity from vinegar, as well as salt and sugar create an environment hostile to bacteria Sweet relish and pickle recipes do not adapt easily to sugar-free canning, may need to be heat processed in water bath L l hi h id i b d f l S k Low salt, high acid recipes can be made safely. Seek out specific reduced-salt recipes

15 Where to find recipes? Canning manufacturers (Bernadin, Ball Corp., etc.) websites. Also a great source of general information Package instructions on store store-bought pectin Old family recipes? Only if methods used are proven to be safe. If unsure, find a similar tested recipe

16 Examples: Saurkraut Soy sauce Kimchi (Korean cabbage and hot pepper pickle) Yogourt Miso (fermented soy bean paste) Why lacto -fermentation?

17 Health lhbenefits Probiotics: what are they? Benefits: Immune function Digestion Increased nutrient absorption, e.g. Vitamin C in cabbage Some benefits are lost when saurkraut, etc. is canned

18 Sauerkraut = sour cabbage

19 Bacteria create lactic acid (preservative+flavour)

20

21 THANK YOU

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