Crop Identification - Alfalfa Deep taproot and welldeveloped

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2 Crop Identification - Alfalfa Deep taproot and welldeveloped crown Much branched stems up to 3 feet tall 3 leaflets in a pinnately compound leaf, pubescent, with serrations on outer l/3 of leaflet Flowers yellow or purple, raceme inflorescence. Seed is borne one to several in a spiral pod Kidney to mitt shaped Yellow to green to light brown, turning dull reddish-brown with age.

3 Crop Identification Red Clover Short-lived perennial acting as a biennial Taproot system erect, branching habit from a crown Stems pubescent; leaves palmately compound, pubescent, with white variegation Stipules prominent, with distinct green to reddish veining Reddish flowers in head-type inflorescences at end of branches. Seed is lemon-yellow to violet, with prominent nose nearly half as long as seed, giving appearance of boxing glove; a sample of seed will have a purplish cast.

4 Crop Identification White Clover Stolon root system Stems prostrate rooting at the nodes Palmately compound leaf supported by erect petiole Variegations on leaflets White dense flower head on erect peduncle. Seed is small, canary yellow to brown colored, and heart-shaped.

5 Crop Identification Hairy Vetch Winter annual Stems weak, pubescent, twining Leaves pubescent, pinnate with leaflets, terminating in a tendril Flowers lavender, several to a raceme Dehiscent seed pod, with 3 to 8 spherical, dull black (l/8 inch in diameter) seeds.

6 Crop Identification Tall Fescue Cool season perennial bunchgrass Stem erect, 2 to 3 feet tall Leaf with glabrous sheath, blade flat, with rough upper surface and margin Inflorescence an open panicle, with few to many florets per spikelet. Seed is l/4 to 3/8 inch long, retains lemma and palea in threshing Rachilla slender and found with cupped knob.

7 Crop Identification - Ryegrass Cool season bunchgrass Stem erect, 2 to 3 feet tall Leaf glossy on upper surface, blade flat, and narrow, small auricles, glabrous sheath Short membranous ligule Inflorescence is a slender spike with spikelets attached edgeways to rachis. Seed is somewhat flattened, about l/4 inch long, does not thresh free Lemma awned, rachilla wedgeshaped, lies close to lemma.

8 Crop Identification - Kentucky Perennial cool season grass Spreads by rhizomes Stems erect Leaf blade smooth, flat, or folded, ends in a boatshaped tip Panicle type inflorescence 4-5 branches at lower node, spikelets crowded at ends of branches. Seed is less than l/8 inch long, does not thresh free, persistent rachilla. Bluegrass

9 Crop Identification Smooth Perennial, cool season grass Spreads by rhizomes leaves smooth, with closed sheaths Inflorescence is an open, erect panicle with elongated spikelets, no awns. Seed is about 3/8 inch long, flattened, dark brown caryopsis shows through lemma and thin palea. Bromegrass

10 Crop Identification - Orchardgrass Perennial cool-season bunch grass Flattened leaf sheaths long membranous ligule panicle-type inflorescence, with spikelets clumped at ends of few stiff branches; spikelets 2 to 5 flowered. Seed does not thresh free; awn-pointed Rachilla present Lemma appears as if tip has been twisted quarter turn.

11 Crop Identification - Sudangrass Annual grass 6 to 8 feet tall Thin corn-like appearance Inflorescence medium to large open panicle type. Seed is brown, usually enclosed in golden-tan to purplish colored glumes; pedicels are not knobbed.

12 Crop Identification - Wheat Annual grass Auricles wrap sheath Stems 2-3 feet tall Spike-type inflorescence; awned or awnless often 3 or more fertile florets per spikelet. Seed hotdog bun shaped threshes free of lemma and palea.

13 Barley has very long and prominent auricles that clasp around the stem. The ligule is relatively short and inconspicuous. Waxycoated leaves. Wheat has short, slender, hairy auricles. The ligule is rounded. Rye has very short, sharp pointed auricles with a hairy sheath and a small inconspicous ligule. Oat auricles are absent and both the shealth and leaf margins have hairs. The ligule is relatively large and flat topped.

14 Crop Identification - Rye Winter annual Stems 3-4 feet tall Spike-type inflorescence long, slender, often drooping Short awns; kernels partly exposed from glumes. Seed size varies from small and slender to large and plump; color from light brown to greenish to dark brown.

15 Crop Identification - Barley Annual grass Spike-type inflorescence; usually awned; 3 spikes per rachis node. Six-row barlet all spikelets fertile, 2/3 of kernels have curved suture, l/3 straight Seed - lemma and palea attached, awn broken in threshing:

16 Crop Identification - Oats Annual grass Stems 3 feet tall Leaves twisted counter clock wise Open panicle-type inflorescence spikelets with large, papery glumes Seed - plump; yellow, gray, or red, depending on variety Lemma and palea do not thresh free Awns, if present, attached to back of lemma.

17 Crop Identification Grain Sorghum Annual drought tolerant grass Corn-like appearance Prominent midvein Inflorescence is a paniclelike raceme; semi-compact; dark glumes. Seed is round 3/32 inch in diameter, usually a rust-red or reddish brown in color.

18 Crop Identification Pearl Millet Annual grass with bunched habit Some to many tillers Leaf blades are long with rough edges and a distinctive midrib Ligule is large and hairlike. Inflorescence is a cat tail-like spike Seed is small round and tan in coloration. Seed threshes free of its rachilla on harvest.

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20 Weed Identification Canada Perennial creeping roots extend several feet deep and several feet horizontally Stems 2 to 5 feet tall, becoming increasingly hairy as they mature Leaves dark green on upper side, grayish underside, usually with crinkled edges and spiny, somewhat lobed margins Inflorescence 3/4 inch or less in diameter, composed of several lavender flowers and surrounded by bracts without spiny tips. Seed - light brown, slightly tapered, about 3/16 inch long, with a ridge around the blossom end, almost banana-shaped. Thistle

21 Weed Identification Field Extensive perennial root system Stems smooth, slender, 2 to 7 feet long, and vine like Leaves ovate with spreading basal lobes Flowers are funnel-like white or pink colored, about 1 inch across Flower stalk has 2 bracts l/2 to 2 inches below the flower. Seed is brownish-gray, rough, about l/8 inch in diameter, with 1 rounded and 2 flattened sides Bindweed

22 Weed Identification - Johnsongrass Perennial grass with creeping rhizomes and fibrous root system Stems erect, l l/2 to over 6 feet tall Leaves alternate, simple, 6 to 20 inches long l/2 inches wide Open panicle type inflorescence. Seed is nearly 1/8 inch long, oval, yellow to reddish-brown, with fine lines on the surface Two knobbed rachilla are on each floret.

23 Weed Identification Hoary Cress Perennial, roots deep, slender, extending horizontally and vertically as much as 10 feet Stems 1 to 1 1/2 feet tall, branching at top leaves on lower stem spatulate, tapering to a slender base, upper leaves sessile covered with whitish pubescence. Leaf margins wavy with shallow indentation Flowers white, 4 petaled, small; borne in flat-topped clusters Seed pod 2-parted, heart shaped. Seed is oval, rough about 1/16 inch long, reddish-brown.

24 Weed Identification Perennial Perennial, roots extend several feet horizontally and vertically produce shoots from buds Stems smooth, 3 to 7 feet tall, erect Milky juice exudes when stem is broken Leaves are 4 to 8 inches long, alternate, irregularly toothed, lobed, with spiny edges Inflorescence up to l l/2 inches across, composed of several deep yellow flowers. Seed - brownish, slender, about 1/8 inch long, slightly flattened, 5 to 7 longitudinal ribs running the length of the seed, a tuft of hair on one end that is easily broken off. Sowthistle

25 Weed Identification - Quackgrass Perennial grass with a sharp pointed white rhizome Stems ½ to 3 feet tall; with smooth culms and 3 to 6 nodes; Leaves with auricles, short ligule, hairy lower sheaths, upper sheaths nearly glabrous; Spike is composed of several spikelets with 3 to 7 shortawned florets. Seed does not thresh clean, florets usually thresh in small clusters rather than singly Rachilla oppressed to palea.

26 Weed Identification - Wild Garlic Perennial bulb roots small, at base of bulb Stems 1 to 3 feet tall, smooth, waxy Leaves slender, hollow, nearly round, attached to lower half of stem Aerial bulblets form in a cluster at top of stem are oval and smooth with shiny covering Flowers greenish-white, small, on short stems above aerial bulblets. Seed - black, flat on one side, about 1/8 inch long; formed only occasionally.

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