2017 Update: Potentially Affected Trade from World Agricultural Exporters with European Union Regulation of Endocrine Disruptors

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1 Prepared for the European Crop Protection Association 2017 Update: Potentially Affected Trade from World Agricultural Exporters with European Union Regulation of Endocrine Disruptors Part II, Country Data October 2017

2 This document supplements the report, Estimation of Potentially Affected Agricultural Imports Due to Hazard-Based Criteria in the EU Regulation of Plant Protection Products, produced in October 2017 by Bryant Christie Inc. Part 1 of the report, under separate cover, provides an Executive Summary and presents the value of potentially affected trade flows for each of the following ten geographical areas: Global Central and South America Sub-Saharan Africa North America and the Caribbean Southeast Asia Non-EU/EFTA Europe East and South Asia North Africa and the Middle East Oceania Central Asia Global and regional data are analyzed by product group and by exporting country. The summary of global results includes a list of all trading partners and the total value of potentially affected commodities from each. This document, Part 2 of the report, presents the 2016 values of potentially affected exports for the 50 top exporting countries, and identifies for each the top three product groups that could be affected. These 50 countries account for a combined 95.7 percent of all potentially affected imports into the EU. Note that this analysis provides an estimation of trade flows that could potentially be affected, not a prediction of the likely trade effects. Study limitations, including under- and over-estimation, are discussed in the methodology section. This study was funded by CropLife International and the European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and relevant active substances were compiled by ECPA from European Commission documents. The analysis and all other data collection are the independent work of Bryant Christie Inc.

3 Page 1 of 72; Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS METHODOLOGY, ASSUMPTIONS & LIMITATIONS... 4 ARGENTINA... 7 AUSTRALIA... 9 BOLIVIA BRAZIL CAMBODIA CAMEROON CANADA CHILE CHINA COLOMBIA COSTA RICA COTE D IVOIRE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC ECUADOR EGYPT ETHIOPIA GHANA GUATEMALA HONDURAS INDIA INDONESIA... 31

4 Page 2 of 72; Table of Contents IRAN ISRAEL KENYA MADAGASCAR MALAYSIA MAURITIUS MEXICO MOLDOVA MOROCCO NEW ZEALAND NICARAGUA NIGERIA PAKISTAN PAPUA NEW GUINEA PARAGUAY PERU PHILIPPINES RUSSIA SERBIA SOUTH AFRICA SRI LANKA THAILAND TUNISIA... 58

5 Page 3 of 72; Table of Contents TURKEY UGANDA UKRAINE UNITED STATES URUGUAY VIETNAM VALUE OF POTENTIALLY AFFECTED EU IMPORTS (4-, 6-, and 8-Digit HS Codes)... 67

6 Page 4 of 72; METHODOLOGY, ASSUMPTIONS & LIMITATIONS METHODOLOGY, ASSUMPTIONS & LIMITATIONS Drawing upon the European Commission s impact assessment on the endocrine disruption criteria as well as the current classifications of substances under the EU Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation, and recently proposed classifications by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), a list of 58 active substances has been identified that could be assessed as being impacted by the hazard-based properties included in Regulation 1107/209. The list developed by ECPA, included as Appendix A, served as the list of relevant active substances for the BCI study. Appendix A also provides the expiry date of EU approval for each substance, suggesting the time frame within which it will be assessed against the cut-off criteria. Because there is no readily available data regarding the use of specific active substances for protection of specific crops in specific countries, and research on actual usage is beyond the scope of this study, the existence of an MRL in a trading partner was used as a proxy for accepted use of the active substance for production of a commodity in that country. The Global MRL database maintained by Bryant Christie Inc. was used to identify current MRLs established for markets around the globe, including the EU, for the 58 selected substances. Pivot tables were then generated to conduct a commodity-specific analysis of EU MRLs and corresponding MRLs in exporting markets. Data was eliminated where MRLs were already at the default level of 0.01 ppm (such as for those substances for which the EU approval has already been allowed to expire; see Appendix A). This produced a list of commodities in each exporting market that would need to comply with a more restrictive EU default MRL. The list of relevant commodities was further refined by removing products of animal origin, products for industrial or technical uses unrelated to food production, and processed products. Because commodities to which MRLs apply are identified by their commodity code, whereas trade flow data identifies commodities by their Harmonized System (HS) code, it was necessary to crosswalk the commodities to appropriate HS codes. This process resulted in a list of products that are included in the following nine 2-digit HS chapters: 07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 10 Cereals 12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruit; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes 17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal fodder Within these chapters, a number of additional 4-digit, 6-digit, and 8-digit sub-classifications were removed because they could confidently be deemed irrelevant to the study. These included inedible, industrial, animal-derived products. Also excluded where possible are highly processed products, for which the effect of changes in MRLs will be modified by the application of (yet unpublished)

7 Page 5 of 72; METHODOLOGY, ASSUMPTIONS & LIMITATIONS concentration or dilution factors. 1 Appendix B, included in Part 2 of this report provides a list of the 82 four-digit HS classifications that were included, and included sub-classifications in cases where some sub-classifications were excluded. For each of the relevant HS classifications, data was extracted from the Eurostat Comext database, capturing imports into the EU from all world export sources for the 2016 calendar year, denominated in 2016 Euros. All countries with trade flows in the relevant commodities were included, numbering 179. European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries 2 were not considered as exporters to the EU. The European Commission recognizes dozens of self-governing Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) with have special links with Member States Denmark, France, the Netherlands, or the United Kingdom. These countries have been included as exporters in the analysis, as research indicates that their MRLs are not fully harmonized with the EU-28/EFTA. Trade data was analyzed by country and region of origin. To provide some context for the magnitude of potentially affected trade, total agricultural imports into the EU were estimated by summing the 2016 values of imports within HS Chapters and 23. Part 1 of this report presents the global results of the analysis and results for the following nine regions: Central & South America Central Asia East & South Asia Europe (Non-EU/EFTA) North Africa & Middle East North America & Caribbean Oceania Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan Africa For each region, it provides the 2016 value of relevant EU imports by product group and country, and identifies the top three relevant export commodities for each country. Part 2 contains brief reports for each of the 50 top exporting countries for potentially impacted commodities, by value. Together these countries accounted for 95.7 percent of all EU imports of the potentially impacted product groups in Limitations of the study. The exclusion of processed products from this analysis likely causes a degree of under-estimation in the study, as some processed products of affected commodities can also be expected to be affected. Conversely, the analysis likely over-estimates the affected trade flows due to three factors. Firstly, even at the 8-digit level of specification, HS classifications often include both relevant and nonrelevant commodities that cannot be further parsed. Thus, within the estimated trade flows that are included there are certainly some products that would not be affected. While the use of Global MRL provided a much more refined understanding of the potential regulatory alignment under 1 See European Union: Health & Food Safety Directorate General, Guidance Document on MRL setting procedure in accordance with Articles 6 to 11 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 and Article 8 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009, 23 September 2016, SANTE/2015/10595 Rev. 4, available at [Accessed 8 October 2017] 2 EFTA member states are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland. 3 The fifty countries have combined exports to the EU of 66,714,029,351 of potentially affected commodities; world total exports to the EU of potentially affected commodities are 69,730,943,493.

8 Page 6 of 72; METHODOLOGY, ASSUMPTIONS & LIMITATIONS proposed EU regulations, it was not possible to maintain this refinement when the potentially affected commodities were cross-walked to HS codes. Secondly, the existence of an MRL in the exporting country is a best-available, but imprecise, proxy for the actual use of an active substance in crop protection. To the degree that the active substance is not commonly used, some commodities included in this estimation may not, in fact, be at risk from the loss of the EU MRLs. Finally, it is also beyond the scope of this study to assess the possibility that, in response to a change in EU regulations, agricultural producers in exporting countries can and will switch to alternative crop protection products, thus reducing the impact on trade flows. The reader is asked to bear in mind the limitations of the study when using the resulting estimations. Note: The abbreviation NESOI indicates products not elsewhere specified or included in tariff nomenclature.

9 Page 7 of 72; ARGENTINA ARGENTINA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 4,791,827, Vegetables 113,561, Dried Legumes 98,882, Onions etc. 9,188, Veg. NESOI Fresh 3,754, Veg. Dried 1,631, Veg. Provisionally Preserved 86, Roots and Tubers with High Starch Content 10, Leguminous Veg. 3, Veg. Frozen 2, Fruits and Nuts 524,946, Citrus Fresh/Dried 351,515, Apples/Pears 88,215, Fruit NESOI 47,987, Fruit Dried 10,107, Grapes Fresh/Dried 8,537, Tree Nuts 7,222, Apricots, Cherries, Peaches 7,135, Citrus/Melon Peel 2,269, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 789, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 695, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 467, Melons 2, Coffee, Tea and Spices 13,899, Tea 9,331, Mate 4,157, Anise etc. 321, Pepper 38, Ginger etc. 33, Coffee 15, Vanilla Oilseeds and Groundnuts 635,343, Groundnuts 439,428, Sunflower Seed 95,512, Soybeans 62,081, Rapeseed 19,003, Oilseed NESOI 8,149, Sowing Seeds 7,447, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 3,272, Locust Beans 251, Flaxseed 165, Oilseed Flour 17, Other Forage 14, Vegetable Oil 4 61,546, Peanut Oil 23,923, Sun/Saf/Cotton Oil 23,396, Olive Oil 10,290, Veg. Oil NESOI 2,491, Palm Oil 1,343, Coconut Oil 77, Hydrogenated Oil 20, Soybean Oil 1, Sugar 6,123, Cane/Beet Sugar 6,123, Molasses Animal Feed Ingredients 3,324,393, Soybean Meal 3,010,015, Veg. Waste/Feed 238,395, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 75,982, Cereal Bran Cereals 112,014, Maize 87,502, Wheat 21,988, Rice 1,756, Sorghum 542, Buckwheat etc. 157, Barley 56, Oats 9,667 4 HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial uses other than the manufacture of foodstuffs for human consumption

10 Page 9 of 72; AUSTRALIA AUSTRALIA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 845,291, Vegetables 34,220, Dried Legumes 19,534, Onions etc. 12,484, Veg. NESOI Fresh 1,048, Carrots 754, Veg. Frozen 282, Veg. Dried 58, Leguminous Veg. 55, Veg. Provisionally Preserved Fruits and Nuts 168,543, Tree Nuts 154,143, Grapes Fresh/Dried 8,490, Apples/Pears 2,708, Citrus Fresh/Dried 1,252, Fruit NESOI 1,194, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 261, Apricots, Cherries, Peaches 244, Fruit Dried 205, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 27, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 14, Coffee, Tea and Spices 2,010, Coffee 833, Tea 586, Ginger etc. 270, Vanilla 185, Anise etc. 82, Pepper 51, Mate Cereals 45,258, Wheat 41,147, Rice 1,911, Maize 1,481, Buckwheat etc. 473, Sorghum 118, Barley 83, Oats 42, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 583,637, Rapeseed 518,096, Sowing Seeds 56,264, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 6,689, Hop Cones 1,208, Oilseed NESOI 657, Locust Beans 351, Other Forage 345, Sunflower Seed 11, Cereal Straw 10, Oilseed Flour 1, Groundnuts Vegetable Oil 5 4,816, Olive Oil 3,167, Veg. Oil NESOI 1,483, Coconut Oil 121, Rapeseed Oil 28, Hydrogenated Oil 12, Olive Residue Oil 1, Sun/Saf/Cotton Oil Peanut Oil Palm Oil Sugar 6,763, Molasses 3,469, Cane/Beet Sugar 3,294, Cocoa 12, Cocoa Powder 11, Cocoa Beans Animal Feed Ingredients 28, Veg. Waste/Feed 12, Soybean Meal 11, Cereal Bran 5, Peanut Meal 80 5 HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial uses other than the manufacture of foodstuffs for human consumption

11 Page 10 of 72; BOLIVIA BOLIVIA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 196,840, Vegetables 6,212, Dried Legumes 6,126, Roots and Tubers with High Starch Content 61, Veg. NESOI Fresh 13, Veg. Dried 11, Fruits and Nuts 108,079, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 103,962, Citrus Fresh/Dried 3,992, Tree Nuts 55, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 31, Fruit Dried 29, Fruit NESOI 9, Cocoa 1,104, Cocoa Butter 598, Cocoa Beans 267, Cocoa Powder 213, Cocoa Shells/Husks 24, Animal Feed Ingredients 46,622, Soybean Meal 44,902, Veg. Waste/Feed 1,671, Cereal Bran 47, Coffee, Tea and Spices 3,601, Coffee 3,574, Pepper 20, Cinnamon 7, Ginger etc Cereals 18,562, Buckwheat etc. 18,556, Maize 5, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 12,635, Oilseed NESOI 11,733, Groundnuts 601, Sowing Seeds 184, Locust Beans 83, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 21, Flaxseed 6, Sunflower Seed 4, Soybeans Oilseed Flour Vegetable Oil Olive Oil Sugar 20, Cane/Beet Sugar 20,919 6 HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial uses other than the manufacture of foodstuffs for human consumption

12 Page 11 of 72; BRAZIL BRAZIL 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 8,032,209, Vegetables 5,498, Roots and Tubers with High Starch Content 2,335, Veg. NESOI Fresh 1,423, Dried Legumes 1,316, Onions etc. 344, Veg. Preserved 40, Veg. Dried 25, Leguminous Veg. 10, Carrots 1, Fruits and Nuts 680,610, Melons 252,873, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 184,345, Citrus Fresh/Dried 107,561, Grapes Fresh/Dried 70,684, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 28,114, Apples/Pears 15,963, Bananas 12,077, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 5,114, Tree Nuts 1,194, Fruit Dried 1,011, Fruit/Nuts Preserved 710, Fruit NESOI 562, Citrus/Melon Peel 397, Coffee, Tea and Spices 2,328,308, Coffee 2,203,941, Pepper 111,813, Ginger etc. 7,114, Mate 4,750, Tea 353, Cloves 332, Cinnamon 3, Anise etc Cereals 197,710, Maize 193,223, Rice 4,481, Buckwheat etc. 4, Wheat Sorghum Oilseeds and Groundnuts 2,042,740, Soybeans 1,997,982, Groundnuts 34,249, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 6,722, Sowing Seeds 2,738, Locust Beans 436, Oilseed NESOI 325, Rapeseed 232, Oilseed Flour 51, Cereal Straw 1, Vegetable Oil 7 43,382, Peanut Oil 26,370, Palm Oil 9,671, Veg. Oil NESOI 2,766, Coconut Oil 2,470, Olive Oil 1,382, Soybean Oil 426, Hydrogenated Oil 230, Olive Residue Oil 60, Rapeseed Oil 2, Sugar 241,464, Cane/Beet Sugar 241,263, Molasses 201, Cocoa 37,749, Cocoa Butter 27,933, Cocoa Powder 8,895, Cocoa Beans 771, Cocoa Paste 86, Cocoa Shells/Husks 60, Animal Feed Ingredients 2,454,744, Soybean Meal 2,432,902, Veg. Waste/Feed 21,695, Cereal Bran 102, Starch/Sugar Residue 21, Peanut Meal 13, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 9,895 7 HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial uses other than the manufacture of foodstuffs for human consumption

13 Page 12 of 72; CAMBODIA CAMBODIA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 181,776, Vegetables 585, Veg. NESOI Fresh 433, Onions etc. 148, Leguminous Veg. 3, Dried Legumes Veg. Provisionally Preserved Fruits and Nuts 724, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 421, Melons 189, Fruit NESOI 103, Bananas 9, Coffee, Tea and Spices 938, Pepper 929, Ginger etc. 7, Coffee Tea Cereals 177,232, Rice 177,232, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 260, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 260, Locust Beans Vegetable Oil 8 57, Coconut Oil 55, Palm Oil 1, Sugar 1,978, Cane/Beet Sugar 1,978, Animal Feed Ingredients Cereal Bran 73 8 HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial uses other than the manufacture of foodstuffs for human consumption

14 Page 13 of 72; CAMEROON CAMEROON 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 731,969, Vegetables 3,028, Veg. NESOI Fresh 1,122, Roots and Tubers with High Starch Content 820, Veg. Frozen 757, Dried Legumes 184, Veg. Dried 140, Leguminous Veg. 1, Onions etc Carrots Potatoes Fruits and Nuts 240,884, Bananas 235,339, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 4,821, Fruit NESOI 354, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 227, Fruit Dried 89, Melons 36, Tree Nuts 9, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 5, Citrus Fresh/Dried 2, Coffee, Tea and Spices 40,401, Coffee 40,023, Pepper 269, Ginger etc. 106, Cloves Tea Nutmeg/Mace Vanilla Oilseeds and Groundnuts 3,638, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 3,472, Groundnuts 138, Sowing Seeds 11, Oilseed NESOI 8, Locust Beans 7, Oilseed Flour Vegetable Oil 9 46, Veg. Oil NESOI 23, Palm Oil 16, Coconut Oil 6, Peanut Oil Sugar Cane/Beet Sugar Cocoa 443,954, Cocoa Beans 387,355, Cocoa Butter 31,933, Cocoa Paste 23,538, Cocoa Shells/Husks 1,125, Cocoa Powder 2, Cereals 14, Buckwheat etc. 14, Wheat Maize Sorghum 2 9 HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial uses other than the manufacture of foodstuffs for human consumption

15 Page 14 of 72; CANADA CANADA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 1,791,521, Vegetables 242,126, Dried Legumes 238,515, Veg. NESOI Fresh 1,583, Veg. Dried 1,452, Veg. Frozen 238, Onions etc. 125, Leguminous Veg. 84, Roots and Tubers with High Starch Content 78, Carrots 23, Cucumbers 15, Veg. Provisionally Preserved 10, Fruits and Nuts 69,580, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 63,064, Apricots, Cherries, Peaches 2,355, Tree Nuts 1,839, Fruit NESOI 1,228, Fruit Dried 527, Apples/Pears 276, Grapes Fresh/Dried 273, Citrus Fresh/Dried 7, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 6, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 1, Bananas Coffee, Tea and Spices 4,383, Coffee 2,224, Tea 1,183, Ginger etc. 342, Anise etc. 316, Vanilla 265, Pepper 34, Mate 12, Cinnamon 3, Cereals 662,590, Wheat 483,723, Maize 146,163, Buckwheat etc. 32,469, Rice 145, Barley 68, Oats 18, Rye 1, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 768,941, Soybeans 435,678, Rapeseed 215,220, Flaxseed 53,383, Oilseed NESOI 30,378, Sowing Seeds 23,946, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 4,109, Locust Beans 3,386, Oilseed Flour 1,461, Other Forage 779, Sunflower Seed 595, Groundnuts Hop Cones Vegetable Oil 10 1,453, Veg. Oil NESOI 1,251, Coconut Oil 47, Olive Oil 47, Sun/Saf/Cotton Oil 40, Soybean Oil 33, Hydrogenated Oil 14, Rapeseed Oil 12, Olive Residue Oil 8, Palm Oil Peanut Oil Sugar 3, Cane/Beet Sugar 3, HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

16 Page 15 of 72; CANADA 18 - Cocoa 72, Cocoa Beans 43, Cocoa Powder 13, Cocoa Butter 13, Cocoa Paste 1, Animal Feed Ingredients 42,368, Soybean Meal 30,694, Starch/Sugar Residue 8,906, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 2,410, Veg. Waste/Feed 200, Cereal Bran 155,813

17 Page 16 of 72; CHILE CHILE 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 1,507,156, Vegetables 41,312, Veg. Frozen 24,147, Onions etc. 8,176, Veg. Dried 4,462, Dried Legumes 2,558, Veg. Provisionally Preserved 1,701, Lettuce 232, Veg. NESOI Fresh 32, Tomatoes Fruits and Nuts 1,330,444, Grapes Fresh/Dried 238,000, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 234,015, Apples/Pears 215,313, Fruit NESOI 201,225, Tree Nuts 172,520, Fruit Dried 91,702, Apricots, Cherries, Peaches 77,701, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 45,037, Citrus Fresh/Dried 40,510, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 13,728, Fruit/Nuts Provisionally Preserved 455, Citrus/Melon Peel 231, Melons 2, Coffee, Tea and Spices 635, Tea 301, Anise etc. 183, Ginger etc. 99, Pepper 50, Mate Oilseeds and Groundnuts 99,375, Sowing Seeds 49,816, Locust Beans 18,659, Sunflower Seed 11,233, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 10,593, Oilseed NESOI 7,775, Other Forage 770, Groundnuts 502, Rapeseed 20, Oilseed Flour 3, Soybeans 1, Flaxseed Vegetable Oil 11 5,172, Veg. Oil NESOI 4,357, Olive Oil 760, Olive Residue Oil 53, Hydrogenated Oil Palm Oil Sugar Cane/Beet Sugar Cocoa 2, Cocoa Powder 2, Animal Feed Ingredients 2,940, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 2,457, Veg. Waste/Feed 482, Cereals 27,270, Maize 24,935, Oats 1,391, Buckwheat etc. 901, Barley 20, Sorghum 13, Wheat 6, Rice 1, HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

18 Page 17 of 72; CHINA CHINA Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 2,147,078, Vegetables 623,285, Veg. Dried 214,428, Veg. Frozen 144,357, Dried Legumes 107,693, Onions etc. 93,477, Veg. Provisionally Preserved 37,523, Roots and Tubers with High Starch Content 13,146, Veg. NESOI Fresh 8,687, Leguminous Veg. 1,660, Carrots 1,304, Cabbages 999, Lettuce 6, Potatoes Fruits and Nuts 364,185, Tree Nuts 142,396, Fruit Dried 73,965, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 53,853, Citrus Fresh/Dried 52,195, Grapes Fresh/Dried 24,962, Apples/Pears 11,278, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 2,717, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 1,095, Fruit NESOI 1,083, Bananas 260, Fruit/Nuts Provisionally Preserved 228, Citrus/Melon Peel 129, Melons 19, Coffee, Tea and Spices 420,236, Pepper 113,622, Coffee 107,392, Tea 106,269, Ginger etc. 85,198, Anise etc. 4,913, Cinnamon 2,602, Cloves 105, Vanilla 85, Nutmeg/Mace 44, Mate 1, Cereals 7,165, Buckwheat etc. 5,964, Rice 576, Wheat 520, Barley 67, Maize 24, Sorghum 10, Oats 3, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 551,322, Oilseed NESOI 143,593, Groundnuts 113,911, Locust Beans 106,614, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 67,127, Sowing Seeds 66,909, Sunflower Seed 25,446, Soybeans 22,974, Flaxseed 3,092, Oilseed Flour 948, Other Forage 508, Rapeseed 92, Hop Cones 90, Cereal Straw 11, Vegetable Oil 13 20,690, Veg. Oil NESOI 17,554, Olive Oil 1,344, Hydrogenated Oil 1,246, Sun/Saf/Cotton Oil 279, Palm Oil 121, Peanut Oil 69, Rapeseed Oil 30, Coconut Oil 17, Olive Residue Oil 13, Soybean Oil 11, Sugar 985, Cane/Beet Sugar 981, Molasses 4, Within this report, export flows attributed to China are a consolidation of data reflecting the shipments from China and its special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau). 13 HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

19 Page 18 of 72; CHINA 18 - Cocoa 37,508, Cocoa Butter 32,783, Cocoa Paste 4,254, Cocoa Powder 419, Cocoa Beans 51, Animal Feed Ingredients 121,697, Soybean Meal 101,506, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 12,800, Starch/Sugar Residue 6,219, Veg. Waste/Feed 799, Cereal Bran 370,533

20 Page 19 of 72; COLOMBIA COLOMBIA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 1,858,039, Vegetables 545, Roots and Tubers with High 201,655 Starch Content Veg. Frozen 106, Veg. Provisionally Preserved 96, Veg. NESOI Fresh 86, Dried Legumes 46, Leguminous Veg. 8, Onions etc Fruits and Nuts 975,852, Bananas 861,254, Fruit NESOI 53,543, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, 51,004,026 Avocados Citrus Fresh/Dried 5,705, Fruit Dried 3,085, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 1,022, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 87, Apples/Pears 81, Melons 68, Coffee, Tea and Spices 587,803, Coffee 587,585, Pepper 136, Ginger etc. 73, Nutmeg/Mace 4, Tea 2, Cereals 78, Buckwheat etc. 78, Rice Maize Oilseeds and Groundnuts 351, Plants used in medicaments, 335,447 perfumery, etc Sowing Seeds 15, Locust Beans Groundnuts Cereal Straw Vegetable Oil ,668, Palm Oil 168,925, Coconut Oil 43,725, Veg. Oil NESOI 16, Soybean Oil Olive Oil Sugar 48,835, Cane/Beet Sugar 45,008, Molasses 3,827, Cocoa 31,449, Cocoa Beans 20,107, Cocoa Butter 10,900, Cocoa Paste 391, Cocoa Powder 45, Cocoa Shells/Husks 4, Animal Feed Ingredients 454, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 454, HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

21 Page 20 of 72; COSTA RICA COSTA RICA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 1,405,790, Vegetables 29,944, Roots and Tubers with High Starch Content 25,666, Veg. NESOI Fresh 3,530, Carrots 443, Tomatoes 166, Veg. Frozen 79, Leguminous Veg. 31, Cabbages 25, Onions etc. 2, Fruits and Nuts 1,295,110, Bananas 662,022, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 541,966, Melons 74,096, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 15,619, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 826, Citrus Fresh/Dried 419, Fruit NESOI 134, Apples/Pears 21, Fruit Dried 2, Fruit/Nuts Provisionally Preserved Oilseeds and Groundnuts 1,042, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 484, Sowing Seeds 481, Locust Beans 72, Soybeans 4, Oilseed NESOI Groundnuts Vegetable Oil 15 1,942, Palm Oil 1,942, Sugar 15,805, Cane/Beet Sugar 15,805, Cocoa 300, Cocoa Beans 300, Animal Feed Ingredients 835, Veg. Waste/Feed 835, Coffee, Tea and Spices 60,808, Coffee 60,677, Ginger etc. 77, Vanilla 30, Pepper 18, Anise etc. 4, Tea HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

22 Page 21 of 72; COTE D IVOIRE COTE D IVOIRE 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 3,487,240, Vegetables 1,062, Veg. NESOI Fresh 767, Roots and Tubers with High Starch Content 177, Veg. Frozen 59, Leguminous Veg. 23, Dried Legumes 16, Veg. Dried 15, Onions etc. 1, Fruits and Nuts 306,410, Bananas 229,135, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 46,106, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 29,660, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 1,166, Tree Nuts 245, Melons 68, Citrus Fresh/Dried 18, Fruit NESOI 5, Fruit Dried 3, Vegetable Oil 16 44,075, Coconut Oil 22,277, Palm Oil 20,492, Veg. Oil NESOI 1,296, Hydrogenated Oil 9, Sugar Cane/Beet Sugar Cocoa 3,039,661, Cocoa Beans 2,109,960, Cocoa Paste 544,234, Cocoa Butter 345,729, Cocoa Powder 39,139, Cocoa Shells/Husks 597, Animal Feed Ingredients 9,630, Cereal Bran 5,697, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 3,932, Coffee, Tea and Spices 85,067, Coffee 84,821, Ginger etc. 235, Tea 6, Pepper 4, Vanilla Cereals 2, Wheat 1, Rice Buckwheat etc Oilseeds and Groundnuts 1,330, Oilseed NESOI 608, Soybeans 369, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 170, Locust Beans 104, Groundnuts 73, Oilseed Flour 2, Hop Cones Sowing Seeds HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

23 Page 22 of 72; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 493,798, Vegetables 18,526, Tomatoes 1,760, Leguminous Veg. 1,194, Veg. Frozen 273, Roots and Tubers with High Starch Content 259, Dried Legumes 165, Cabbages 3, Veg. Provisionally Preserved 3, Onions etc. 1, Cucumbers Fruits and Nuts 329,919, Bananas 287,242, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, Avocados 38,222, Melons 2,157, Citrus Fresh/Dried 1,708, Fruit NESOI 335, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 171, Citrus/Melon Peel 67, Fruit Dried 10, Apples/Pears 3, Fruit/Nuts Frozen Coffee, Tea and Spices 2,407, Coffee 2,239, Ginger etc. 83, Pepper 77, Cinnamon 5, Cloves 1, Nutmeg/Mace Anise etc Vanilla Tea Oilseeds and Groundnuts 821, Sowing Seeds 530, Plants used in medicaments, perfumery, etc. 279, Locust Beans 7, Oilseed Flour 2, Copra 1, Oilseed NESOI Vegetable Oil , Veg. Oil NESOI 147, Coconut Oil 92, Palm Oil Olive Oil Sugar 4, Molasses 4, Cane/Beet Sugar Cocoa 141,876, Cocoa Beans 137,098, Cocoa Butter 4,317, Cocoa Shells/Husks 377, Cocoa Powder 74, Cocoa Paste 8, Animal Feed Ingredients Veg. Oilcake NESOI Cereals Wheat Rice HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

24 Page 23 of 72; ECUADOR ECUADOR 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 1,084,896, Vegetables 26,478, Veg. Frozen 25,255, Veg. NESOI Fresh 465, Roots and Tubers with High 337,202 Starch Content Veg. Dried 319, Leguminous Veg. 58, Dried Legumes 37, Cucumbers 2, Onions etc. 1, Veg. Provisionally Preserved Carrots Cabbages Fruits and Nuts 814,919, Bananas 779,679, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, 23,979,721 Avocados Fruit/Nuts Frozen 3,843, Melons 3,666, Fruit NESOI 2,514, Fruit Dried 1,043, Citrus Fresh/Dried 110, Grapes Fresh/Dried 79, Fruit/Nuts Provisionally 1,867 Preserved 9 - Coffee, Tea and Spices 5,283, Pepper 3,021, Coffee 2,097, Vanilla 77, Cinnamon 26, Ginger etc. 16, Anise etc. 15, Nutmeg/Mace 12, Mate 12, Tea 4, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 626, Plants used in medicaments, 406,875 perfumery, etc Oilseed NESOI 113, Groundnuts 54, Locust Beans 38, Oilseed Flour 8, Sowing Seeds 4, Soybeans Flaxseed Vegetable Oil 18 23,622, Palm Oil 21,986, Coconut Oil 1,567, Veg. Oil NESOI 69, Soybean Oil Sugar 1,992, Cane/Beet Sugar 1,992, Cocoa 210,776, Cocoa Beans 176,907, Cocoa Butter 27,987, Cocoa Paste 5,128, Cocoa Powder 556, Cocoa Shells/Husks 196, Animal Feed Ingredients 81, Veg. Waste/Feed 81, Cereals 1,114, Buckwheat etc. 1,032, Barley 36, Rice 24, Maize 19, Wheat 2, HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

25 Page 24 of 72; EGYPT EGYPT 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 796,213, Vegetables 311,430, Potatoes 66,054, Onions etc. 63,526, Leguminous Veg. 52,629, Veg. Frozen 36,005, Veg. Dried 33,674, Veg. Provisionally Preserved 31,377, Dried Legumes 11,112, Roots and Tubers with High 8,172,005 Starch Content Veg. NESOI Fresh 6,074, Tomatoes 1,424, Cabbages 898, Cucumbers 274, Carrots 187, Lettuce 19, Fruits and Nuts 326,411, Citrus Fresh/Dried 132,088, Grapes Fresh/Dried 123,639, Fruit NESOI 44,523, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 16,779, Melons 3,421, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, 3,162,486 Avocados Apricots, Cherries, Peaches 1,644, Fruit Dried 602, Citrus/Melon Peel 309, Apples/Pears 153, Fruit/Nuts Preserved 70, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 8, Bananas 5, Tree Nuts 2, Coffee, Tea and Spices 17,153, Anise etc. 10,225, Ginger etc. 4,720, Coffee 1,987, Tea 122, Pepper 61, Cinnamon 32, Nutmeg/Mace 4, Vanilla Cloves Cereals 24,157, Rice 17,668, Wheat 6,231, Buckwheat etc. 215, Maize 28, Sorghum 13, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 73,799, Plants used in medicaments, 31,466,606 perfumery, etc Groundnuts 31,317, Sowing Seeds 3,561, Locust Beans 3,448, Oilseed NESOI 2,776, Sunflower Seed 1,070, Cereal Straw 87, Oilseed Flour 55, Other Forage 15, Flaxseed Vegetable Oil 19 3,715, Olive Oil 2,039, Veg. Oil NESOI 1,012, Hydrogenated Oil 134, Palm Oil 10, Olive Residue Oil 1, Sun/Saf/Cotton Oil Rapeseed Oil Coconut Oil Sugar 20,688, Molasses 18,026, Cane/Beet Sugar 2,662, Cocoa 2, Cocoa Butter 2, Cocoa Powder Cocoa Beans Animal Feed Ingredients 18,853, Starch/Sugar Residue 17,740, Veg. Waste/Feed 811, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 215, Cereal Bran 86, HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

26 Page 25 of 72; ETHIOPIA ETHIOPIA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 310,850, Vegetables 23,945, Dried Legumes 16,719, Leguminous Veg. 3,338, Onions etc. 3,188, Veg. NESOI Fresh 654, Veg. Frozen 28, Cabbages 7, Roots and Tubers with High 4,584 Starch Content Lettuce 3, Veg. Dried Fruits and Nuts 378, Fruit NESOI 346, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, 30,763 Avocados Bananas 1, Fruit Dried Coffee, Tea and Spices 270,352, Coffee 268,967, Pepper 671, Ginger etc. 493, Tea 207, Nutmeg/Mace 11, Anise etc Cereals Barley Oats Oilseeds and Groundnuts 11,312, Oilseed NESOI 9,166, Plants used in medicaments, 1,357,666 perfumery, etc Soybeans 656, Sowing Seeds 73, Locust Beans 58, Sunflower Seed Vegetable Oil 20 3, Veg. Oil NESOI 3, Sugar 4,858, Molasses 4,858, HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

27 Page 26 of 72; GHANA GHANA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 1,592,746, Vegetables 16,745, Roots and Tubers with High 14,120,072 Starch Content Veg. NESOI Fresh 2,103, Dried Legumes 251, Veg. Frozen 242, Leguminous Veg. 13, Veg. Dried 7, Onions etc. 5, Veg. Provisionally Preserved 1, Potatoes Fruits and Nuts 115,795, Bananas 49,080, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, 42,420,665 Avocados Fruit NESOI 16,554, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 5,478, Melons 1,164, Citrus/Melon Peel 642, Fruit Dried 403, Citrus Fresh/Dried 47, Tree Nuts 3, Coffee, Tea and Spices 77, Coffee 40, Ginger etc. 32, Pepper 3, Nutmeg/Mace 1, Tea Cereals 4, Rice 2, Wheat 1, Maize Oilseeds and Groundnuts 1,363, Plants used in medicaments, 1,027,546 perfumery, etc Oilseed NESOI 239, Locust Beans 88, Groundnuts 4, Cereal Straw 1, Sowing Seeds Oilseed Flour Copra Vegetable Oil 21 37,767, Veg. Oil NESOI 26,188, Palm Oil 7,324, Coconut Oil 4,231, Hydrogenated Oil 15, Soybean Oil 5, Sun/Saf/Cotton Oil Olive Oil Olive Residue Oil Cocoa 1,419,913, Cocoa Beans 1,010,544, Cocoa Paste 193,212, Cocoa Butter 184,157, Cocoa Powder 29,435, Cocoa Shells/Husks 2,563, Animal Feed Ingredients 1,078, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 1,078, HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

28 Page 27 of 72; GUATEMALA GUATEMALA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 521,379, Vegetables 48,658, Leguminous Veg. 44,987, Veg. Frozen 2,233, Veg. NESOI Fresh 652, Carrots 389, Cabbages 228, Veg. Dried 100, Onions etc. 39, Dried Legumes 27, Fruits and Nuts 83,512, Bananas 59,081, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 8,424, Tree Nuts 6,138, Fruit NESOI 5,533, Citrus Fresh/Dried 2,646, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, 1,260,222 Avocados Melons 210, Grapes Fresh/Dried 71, Fruit Dried 70, Citrus/Melon Peel 48, Apples/Pears 27, Vegetable Oil ,436, Palm Oil 178,778, Coconut Oil 13,350, Veg. Oil NESOI 307, Soybean Oil 1, Sugar 57,308, Cane/Beet Sugar 29,932, Molasses 27,376, Cocoa 152, Cocoa Beans 103, Cocoa Powder 49, Cocoa Paste Animal Feed Ingredients Starch/Sugar Residue Coffee, Tea and Spices 116,788, Coffee 103,619, Nutmeg/Mace 11,469, Pepper 1,571, Tea 79, Anise etc. 41, Vanilla 6, Ginger etc Cereals 37, Maize 37, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 22,483, Sowing Seeds 13,718, Oilseed NESOI 6,883, Plants used in medicaments, 1,881,844 perfumery, etc. 22 HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

29 Page 28 of 72; HONDURAS HONDURAS 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 815,601, Vegetables 21,531, Veg. NESOI Fresh 11,326, Roots and Tubers with High 10,156,621 Starch Content Veg. Frozen 39, Cabbages 4, Leguminous Veg. 3, Onions etc Fruits and Nuts 50,224, Melons 40,797, Bananas 4,324, Citrus Fresh/Dried 2,362, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, 2,324,884 Avocados Citrus/Melon Peel 209, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 104, Fruit NESOI 54, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 35, Fruit Dried 11, Coffee, Tea and Spices 534,019, Coffee 532,914, Nutmeg/Mace 580, Pepper 484, Anise etc. 40, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 137, Plants used in medicaments, 112,333 perfumery, etc Sowing Seeds 24, Vegetable Oil ,786, Palm Oil 169,508, Coconut Oil 29,278, Sugar 8,960, Cane/Beet Sugar 7,329, Molasses 1,630, Cocoa 1,941, Cocoa Butter 1,422, Cocoa Paste 421, Cocoa Beans 97, Cocoa Powder HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

30 Page 29 of 72; INDIA INDIA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 1,876,144, Vegetables 153,520, Veg. Dried 66,788, Veg. Provisionally Preserved 30,335, Veg. NESOI Fresh 21,350, Dried Legumes 19,612, Onions etc. 9,841, Veg. Frozen 3,185, Roots and Tubers with High 1,254,077 Starch Content Leguminous Veg. 1,102, Cabbages 20, Cucumbers 17, Carrots 12, Potatoes Fruits and Nuts 332,290, Grapes Fresh/Dried 153,655, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 135,421, Fruit/Nuts Frozen 19,265, Tree Nuts 8,940, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, 8,268,295 Avocados Fruit NESOI 5,034, Fruit Dried 960, Fruit/Nuts Provisionally 245,926 Preserved Melons 223, Bananas 128, Citrus Fresh/Dried 107, Citrus/Melon Peel 33, Apples/Pears 5, Coffee, Tea and Spices 577,422, Coffee 284,793, Tea 129,858, Pepper 78,496, Ginger etc. 49,032, Anise etc. 25,998, Nutmeg/Mace 3,986, Vanilla 3,018, Cinnamon 1,833, Cloves 395, Mate 9, Cereals 273,852, Rice 265,330, Buckwheat etc. 6,018, Wheat 1,612, Sorghum 462, Maize 404, Oats 16, Barley 8, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 198,628, Oilseed NESOI 88,437, Plants used in medicaments, 63,758,923 perfumery, etc Sowing Seeds 14,519, Soybeans 13,683, Flaxseed 5,300, Cereal Straw 4,148, Groundnuts 3,816, Locust Beans 3,328, Oilseed Flour 1,414, Sunflower Seed 181, Copra 30, Other Forage 8, Rapeseed 2, Vegetable Oil ,000, Veg. Oil NESOI 211,338, Hydrogenated Oil 13,171, Coconut Oil 6,118, Rapeseed Oil 261, Olive Residue Oil 39, Soybean Oil 31, Sun/Saf/Cotton Oil 22, Olive Oil 8, Peanut Oil 6, Palm Oil 1, Sugar 55,153, Molasses 35,615, Cane/Beet Sugar 19,538, HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

31 Page 30 of 72; INDIA 18 - Cocoa 20,149, Cocoa Butter 19,868, Cocoa Beans 200, Cocoa Paste 40, Cocoa Powder 37, Cocoa Shells/Husks 1, Animal Feed Ingredients 34,127, Veg. Waste/Feed 15,357, Soybean Meal 9,928, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 6,004, Starch/Sugar Residue 2,107, Cereal Bran 730, Peanut Meal 31

32 Page 31 of 72; INDONESIA INDONESIA 2016 Exports to EU of Potentially Affected Commodities: 1,403,988, Vegetables 467, Dried Legumes 177, Veg. Frozen 123, Roots and Tubers with High 121,518 Starch Content Veg. Provisionally Preserved 15, Veg. NESOI Fresh 11, Leguminous Veg. 9, Veg. Dried 7, Onions etc Fruits and Nuts 61,373, Coconuts, Brazil/Cashew 59,229, Dates, Pineapples, Mangoes, 1,292,169 Avocados Citrus Fresh/Dried 333, Tree Nuts 315, Fruit NESOI 192, Fruit/Nuts Provisionally 8,902 Preserved Fruit Dried Fruit/Nuts Frozen Melons Coffee, Tea and Spices 411,114, Coffee 239,566, Pepper 85,059, Nutmeg/Mace 33,182, Vanilla 17,421, Cinnamon 15,774, Tea 14,969, Cloves 3,139, Ginger etc. 1,933, Anise etc. 69, Oilseeds and Groundnuts 6,845, Locust Beans 3,235, Sowing Seeds 2,011, Plants used in medicaments, 1,469,937 perfumery, etc Soybeans 82, Oilseed NESOI 23, Groundnuts 22, Vegetable Oil ,246, Palm Oil 438,239, Hydrogenated Oil 66,197, Coconut Oil 65,692, Veg. Oil NESOI 75, Sun/Saf/Cotton Oil 20, Olive Oil 20, Sugar 33, Cane/Beet Sugar 33, Molasses Cocoa 201,737, Cocoa Butter 157,952, Cocoa Paste 36,997, Cocoa Beans 3,717, Cocoa Powder 2,879, Cocoa Shells/Husks 190, Animal Feed Ingredients 152,110, Veg. Oilcake NESOI 151,861, Veg. Waste/Feed 249, Cereal Bran Cereals 59, Rice 59, HS codes at the 8-digit level were excluded from the analysis to eliminate vegetable oils for technical or industrial

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