2/13/2012. Blueberries: Spartan. Earliblue. Blueberries: Wonderful fruit & Great Ornamentals. Master Gardener Handbook

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1 Blueberries: Wonderful fruit & Great Ornamentals Blueberries: Master Gardener Handbook This slide presentation and the aforementioned pages were prepared by: Dr. Bernadine Strik, Professor Extension Berry Crops Specialist Oregon State University Ripening dates in Western Oregon Bluetta Duke Earliblue Northland Bluegold Spartan Draper Reka Bluejay Toro Olympia Berkeley Bluecrop Rubel Jersey Nelson 1613-A Legacy Liberty Brigitta Blue Darrow Chandler Ozarkblue Elliott Aurora Maru Rahi Ochlockonee Tifblue Powderblue Northern highbush Rabbiteye Various cultivars are grown to extend the fruiting season from late June to early Sept. in northern highbush and Aug.- Oct. in rabbiteye New cultivar publication available for free at: Click on agriculture Then on Berries and Grapes 13-Jun 23-Jun 3-Jul 13-Jul 23-Jul 2-Aug 12-Aug 22-Aug 1-Sep 11-Sep 21-Sep Earliblue Early Sweet, good flavor Large fruit Vigorous bush Low yield Spartan Early Very large fruit Large bush 1

2 Patriot Early Duke Early Very large fruit Spreading bush Okay flavor, but crunchy texture is what people really like productive Most tolerant to heavier soil Sensitive to pseudomonas (bacterial blight) Blueray Mid-season Large fruit Erect bush Tolerant of hotter temperatures Chandler Mid-season Very good flavor Very large fruit Long fruiting season Sensitive to pseudomonas (bacterial blight) Bluecrop Mid-season Very good flavor Large fruit Erect bush Can over-crop if not pruned hard enough Berkeley Late Mid-season Fair flavor Large fruit Vigorous bush More difficult to prune 2

3 Jersey Late Mid-season Sweet Small-medium fruit Vigorous bush High yield Legacy Late Mid-season Sweet Vigorous bush Good yield Liberty Mid-late season Medium to large fruit Erect bush Hard to prune Elliott Late Mild, tart flavor Medium fruit Erect bush High yield Not highly recommended for home garden due to tart flavor Darrow Late Aurora Late Pretty good flavor if you let it hang Large fruit Bush is a bowl Very large fruit Erect bush Lower yield in cold areas August 18 3

4 Rabbiteye Blueberries (V. ashei) Powderblue Tifblue Bluetta Duke Earliblue Northland Bluegold Spartan Draper Reka Bluejay Toro Olympia Berkeley Bluecrop Rubel Jersey Nelson 1613-A Legacy Liberty Brigitta Blue Darrow Chandler Ozarkblue Elliott Aurora Maru Rahi Ochlockonee Tifblue Powderblue Rabbiteye types 13-Jun 23-Jun 3-Jul 13-Jul 23-Jul 2-Aug 12-Aug 22-Aug 1-Sep 11-Sep 21-Sep Centurion Ochlockonee Half-high blueberries Cultivars include: Polaris, Chippewa Northcountry Northsky, Northblue Hardy to -45 o F 1 to 4 high compact growth habit Yields range from: 1 to 7 lb/bush Pink Lemonade Great ornamentals or for container growing Planting Requirements: Soil ph of 4.5 to 5.5 Incorporate organic matter (and N if needed for breakdown of organic matter) Good drainage (raised beds good) 4

5 Growth in year one after planting two-year-old plants Before and after pruning at planting. Fruit buds removed; bush shaped Plants for sale, February Planting: Plant 2- or 3-year-old plants in fall (West) or spring (W & E) Surface mulching: Blueberry plant 3 to 6 in row 7 to 9 between rows Surface mulch Prune off blossoms in year 1 Blueberry roots 5

6 Care of Established Plants: Fertilization: Use only ammonium N Avoid fertilizers with Cl Apply fertilizer in smaller doses in spring Pruning: One-year-old wood (last year s growth) is productive and bright colored Wood Age Old, twiggy growth is dull in color Pruning: One-year-old wood Floral buds Fruit buds - will break in spring to produce a blossom cluster with no leaf growth Vegetative buds Leaf/vegetative buds - will break in spring to produce a leafy shoot without flowers Pruning: Pruning: Bloom Dormant Budbreak Plant Development Ripening 6

7 3-year-old Before pruning 3-year-old After pruning mature before pruning Remove/prune: Damaged or diseased wood Short thin whips at base Wood that is too low mature after pruning Pruning Severity Need balance of yield & vegetative shoot growth goal: good yield of high quality fruit & enough good shoot growth for next year s crop Too many buds left previous winter (too much fruit) 7

8 Renovating plants Harvest: Fruit will increase in size by about 20% after they first turn blue Pick fruit about every 5 days Fruit stores well in the fridge Common Problems in the Home Garden ph Problems lime induced iron deficiency ph too high Water and salt stress Weeds Blueberry plants are not good competitors with weeds Control weeds by hoeing shallowly Mulch will help somewhat 8

9 Birds Pseudomonas bacterial blight Scare devices have limited usefulness Birds will peck or take whole fruit Plots can be netted Mummy berry Botrytis gray mold Anthracnose fruit rot Alternaria fruit rot 9

10 Phytophthora root rot Blueberry Shock Virus Pollen borne Flowers blight Infected plants do not repeat cycle every year Plants appear to recover and reach full yield Blueberry Shock Virus Plant in shock year with no fruit SWD identification, damage, hosts a new invasive pest of berries, stone fruits, and grapes Leaf symptoms on shock infected plant in year 2 Amy J. Dreves Research and Extension Entomologist Normal growth -- NOT disease! Dead fruiting truss Black tip stage Dead inflorescence from last year blueberry 10

11 Native Blueberries: (also called huckleberries ) Vaccinium parvifolium Vaccinium ovatum V. ovatum Evergreen huckleberry Can be grown as a hedge Native Blueberries: (also called huckleberries ) Vaccinium membranaceum (big huckleberry) V. scoparium (grouseberry) V. cespitosum (dwarf huckleberry) V. occidentale (western bog blueberry) All native to NE Oregon 11

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