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1 Vegetable Crops PLSC 451/55 Lecture 13,, Instructor: Dr. Stephen L. Love Aberdeen R & E Center 1693 S 2700 W Aberdeen, ID Phone: Fax: Also Known As: Dasheen Cocoyam Kolocasi Ocumo Dalo Domestication Probably originated in India or Southeast Asia Probably originated in India or Southeast Asia Taken to China and Japan AD Spread to Africa and South Pacific AD Came to the Western Hemisphere with slaves 1

2 Yautia ( relative) Domestication Also called Tannia Yautia is a related Arum species and is replacing in many African countries Native of tropical America Species name: Xanthosoma sagittifolium Very similar in appearance, culture, use Production Climate and soils Tropical Warm-season, very tender Tolerates heavy, clay soils Needs abundant water Can withstand waterlogged soils Optimal ph Tolerates salty water, quick storm recovery Production Systems Very few large producers (Partially mechanized) Virtually no organic production Most production on subsistence and small market farms 2

3 Production System - Dryland Not ponded d Irrigated or planted in the dry season Often intercropped in subsistence production Herbicides commonly employed for weed control Production System - Wetland Ponded or flooded Requires cheap, surplus water Monoculture Herbicides not required Propagation Often propagated from a huli Propagules commercially unavailable Nurseries co-produced Hand-planted or machine assisted 3

4 Harvest Maturity indicated by leaf drop and yellowing Harvest usually by hand No post-harvest curing necessary Store at degrees Can be stored for 18 weeks, 2 day shelf-life Harvested taro, ready for market Major Producing Countries China 1,320 mt Nigeria 1,300 Ghana 1,240 Japan 330 Papua New Guinea 220 Considered to be a staple crop in Africa 4

5 Consumer use Fresh market Boiled or baked Processed Chips, canned, frozen, dehydrated flour used for noodles, cakes and baby food Taxonomy Monocotyledon Family: Araceae Genus and species: Colocasia esculenta Related species: calamus, Jack-in-the-pulpit (D. batatas) 5

6 Taxonomy Monocotyledon Family: Dioscoraceae Genus and species: Dioscorea (species) Related species: 250 species of wild yams Species used for cultivation D. alata (greater yam) SE Asia D. batatas (Chinese yam) China D. rotunda (yellow yam) Africa D. esculenta (lesser yam) SE Asia D. bulbifera (aerial yam) Africa D. trifida (cush-cush) Tropical America Major Producing Countries Nigeria 27 mil mt Ghana 4 Ivory Coast 3 Benin 2 Togo 0.5 Colombia 0.3 6

7 Domestication Used for food in West Africa (probable area of origin) >50,000 years ago Cultivated 3000 BC in West Africa and SE Asia Use and importance Important staple crop in Africa Subsistence production systems Considered to be an under-utilized crop Very high in starch, protein, minerals African peanut and yam soup Consumer use Fresh market Baked, boiled, pounded, fried, dried and ground into flour (Some types must be heavily processed - boiled, pounded and leached - to eliminate alkaloids) 7

8 Unusual compounds Dioscorine alkaloid in D. hispida and other yams, very poisonous (used as a pest poison) Sapogenin steroidal alkaloid used in the production of cortisone, progesterone, and other drugs Production Climate and soils Tropical Warm-season, very tender Will not grow in temps <70 degrees Needs abundant water Requires a well-drained soil Production Propagated using head of tubers from the previous crop Six mo to 2 yr growing season Vines are staked and trained 8

9 Production constraints: Quantity of tubers for seed (30% of production) Quantity of labor to plant, stake, and harvest Tubers are deep and harvest difficult Production Diseases and Pests Has very few natural pests Production Harvest and storage Mostly hand harvested Stored at degrees Chilling injury at <50 degrees Ventilation essential Stored for 6-8 months (ambient) 9

10 Jerusalem Artichoke Domestication Native of North America found wild in the midwest and northeast Cultivated by the Indians prior to European migration Taken to Europe where it is grown in dry climates Name derived from Italian girasole articocco (sunflower edible) Jerusalem Artichoke Use and importance Similar in appearance and size to Irish potato Very limited usage Storage carbohydrate in inulin (polymer of fructose), useful for diabetics Cooked and eaten in similar manner to potato Production Jerusalem Artichoke Production in specialty market gardens Planted using tuber pieces Planted in fall or very early spring Relative easy to grow 10

11 Jerusalem Artichoke Production - Misc. Volunteers become weedy Volunteers become weedy Harvested by hand or machine Careful handling necessary if stored Store at degrees Can be stored for several months 11

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