Overview of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Overview of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda"

Transcription

1 Overview of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Jaspreet Sidhu Rangaswamy Muniappan Virginia Tech

2 FALL ARMY WORM TAXONOMY (Spodoptera Genus) Genus Spodoptera was described by Guenee in 1852 Genera - Spodoptera, Laphygma and Prodenia - Synonimized All three combined to form Spodoptera (Bayer,1960) 25 species are in this genus.

3 FALL ARMY WORM TAXONOMY (Spdoptera frugiperda) First described in 1797 as Phaleana frugiperda In 1852, frugiperda was placed in genus Laphygma In 1958 Laphygma and spodoptera were synonymized

4 Different species in the Genus and their common names S. eridania :Southern armyworm S. exigua : Beet armyworm S. frugiperda : Fall armyworm S. ornithogalli : Yellowstriped armyworm S. praefica : Western yellowstriped armyworm Prevalent in U.S S. exempta : Nutgrass armyworm S. littoralis : Egyptian cotton leafworm S. litura : Taro caterpillar S. mauritia : Lawn armyworm

5 Current distribution of economically important species S. frugiperda: U.S, South America, Africa S. littoralis : Africa, southern Europe, Western Arabian Peninsula, Islands of Indian ocean, Islands of Atlantic ocean S. exempta : Africa, Australia, Hawaii, Western Arabian Peninsula S. litura : Australia, Pacific Islands, Asia S. mauritia : Madagascar, Saudi Arabia, Asia, Pacific Islands, Hawaii S. Exigua: Africa, Western Arabian peninsula, Islands of Indian ocean, Islands of Atlantic ocean

6 Current distribution of economically minor important species S. pectin: Asia S. ochrea : Peru S. marima : Brazil S. cilium : Africa, Western Arabian Peninsula, Islands of Indian Ocean S. triturata : Africa

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17 Species Host Plants for each species S. exempta Poaceae and Cyperacease Host Plants S. littoralis 44 families including Leguminosae, Solanaceae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Cruciferae. S. litura Over 100 hosts, including crucifers, legumes, millets, deciduous fruit trees, and various ornamentals and vegetables. S. mauritia Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Typhaceae S. pectin Poaceae and Cyperaceae S. frugiperda Over 100 host plants but prefers grasses.

18 Spodoptera frugiperda Host Plants More than 100 plant species Maize, rice, sorghum, sugarcane, cabbage, beet, peanut, soybean,alfalfa, onion, cotton, pasture grasses, millet, tomato, and potato. One of most crop damaging pests in the Americas. In Brazil, annual loss - $400 million.

19

20

21 Fall army worm strains Corn Strain: Maize and sorghum Rice strain: Rice and turfgrass Morphologically identical Distinguished by molecular markers: - Allozyme polymorphisms - Genetic polymorphisms - Mitochondrial haplotyping Molecular differences are consistent with genetically distinct populations Differ in susceptibility to chemical and biological agents

22 Maize/ Corn Strain Florida haplotype profile Florida and Caribbean population Texas haplotype profile Texas through Central America to Argentina Florida haplotype migrates north up to Canada east of the Appalachian mountains every summer Texas haplotype migrates north up to Canada west of the Appalachian mountains every summer

23 Fall Armyworm U.S. Infestation and overwintering zone Modified from R. Nagoshi ppt

24 Fall Armyworm U.S. migration Modified from R. Nagoshi ppt

25 Maize and Rice Strains Both strains occur in Africa Both strains seem to spread together Florida haplotype was identified in Togo Both strains attack maize in Africa

26 INTRODUCTION TO AFRICA (Matthew Cock et al 2017) It is intercontinental introduction Might have happened as eggs, larvae, pupae or adults or combinations of these Possible pathways of introduction: Unaided dispersal Contaminant of a commodity Stowaway on a vector

27 DISPERSAL (Matthew Cock et al 2017) Unaided dispersal Strong flier, Prevailing trade winds from Americas to Africa do not favor Contaminant of a commodity European Union interceptions on Capsicum peppers -11 on other Solanum spp. - 8 on other parts of plants Minimal trade in fresh produce between Americas and Africa indicates chances of transmission through this route is small

28 DISPERSAL (Matthew Cock et al 2017) Stowaway on a direct flight More likely In a 1950 study, of 9000 aircraft from South America and Caribbean to Miami, 98 had lepidopteran eggs Pre-oviposition female moths could be carried in cargo holds or wheel bays

29 SPREAD WITHIN AFRICA Unaided dispersal by flight Through contaminant Were there multiple introductions?

30 Biology of S. frugiperda

31 Egg mass Eggs are dome shaped Dirty white to gray in color. Laid in groups of about eggs per egg mass Eggs may be laid in a single or in two or more layers progressively superimposed on each other

32 Egg mass Mostly laid on lower surface of the leaves Eggs are covered by a layer of grayish scales or hairs giving it a hairy or moldy appearance. Eggs hatch in about three to five days in summer.

33 Six larval instars Fully-grown larvae are cm long Larva Vary in color from pale green to almost black Three yellowish stripes running down the back Wider dark stripe and a wavy yellow-red blotched stripe on each side Predominant white, inverted Y-shaped suture on the head Larval duration is about 14 days during the summer and 30 days during cool weather

34 Larval Behavior Initially, newly hatched larvae feed near where the egg mass was laid. Later, they move up onto the maize plants and consume leaf tissue excluding the veins and midrib. The larvae exhibit cannibalistic behavior. Under heavy infestations, the larval densities are often reduced to one or two per plant Does not undergo diapause Killed by winter weather

35 Pupa Pupation normally takes place in the soil at a depth of 2-8 cm. The pupa is reddish brown in color. Pupal duration is about eight to nine days during the summer, but may be longer than two weeks under winter conditions Does not diapause over winter

36 Adult The adult moths have a wingspan of 32 to 40 mm Males have dark gray and brown shaded mottled forewings with conspicuous triangular white spots at the tip and near the center of the wing The hind wing is iridescent silver-white with a narrow dark border in both sexes Adults are nocturnal, and are most active at dusk for mating Adults can live up to an average of 10 days but sometimes the duration extends up to three weeks

37 Prefers young maize plants Damage on Maize Its attacks all stages of maize plant, foliar consumption is the major factor Generally feeds on foliage, but during heavy infestations, also feed on maize ears Foliar damage characterized by ragged feeding, and moist sawdust-like frass near the whorl and upper leaves of the plant Indirect effects on grain production

38 Damage on Maize Young larvae feed on one side of leaves leaving the epidermis intact on other side Older larvae feed by making holes in leaves and eat from the edge of the leaves inward Larval feeding causes extensive defoliation Larvae can also burrow into the growing point and affect the growth of plants Larvae sometimes bore into the ear through the husk and feed on kernels

39 Damage on Maize

40 Economic losses Outbreaks of Fall Armyworm have been reported in several countries in Africa Around 330,000 hectares of staple crops, especially maize, have been affected The remaining African countries remain at high risk. The severity of the impact on regional crop production is yet to be established

41 Monitoring Often done by using blacklight traps and pheromone traps Pheromone traps are very efficient, suspended at canopy height Insect catches indicate the presence of moths in the area but not good indicators of density Once the moths are detected, search for eggs and larvae To assess the proportion of plants infested, random sampling of 20 plants in five locations, or 10 plants in 10 locations, is considered adequate

42 Chemicals in Pheromone lure The FAW sex pheromone was reported by Tumlinson et al. (1986) A mixture of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-14:Ac; (Z)-7-dodecen- 1-ol acetate, (Z)-7-12:Ac; (Z)-9-dodecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-12:Ac and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-11-16:Ac In the ratio of 81: 0.5: 0.5: 18, respectively

43 Companies producing Pheromone traps ISCA Technologies, California, U.S.A. Russell IPM, England Biocontrole Pherobank Scentry monitoring products NovAgrica Evergreen growers supply Biocontrol Research Laboratory, Bangalore, India

44 Physical control Cultural practices Host plant resistance Biological control Chemical control IPM Control methods

45 Handpicking egg masses and larvae Deep plowing to kill pupae in the soil Placing sand or ash in the whorls Cultural control Intercropping with beans has shown to reduce the FAW infestations by percent.

46 (Needs to be tested)

47 (Needs to be tested)

48 Chemical Control Insecticides main control option: > 25 % plants damaged Spot treatment for isolated areas effective Late afternoon or early morning- best time Recommended insecticides: pyrethroids, carbamates and organophosphates Granular insecticides for young plants (whorl stage)

49 Chemical Control Limitations -Concealed larvae -Expensive and not affordable -Appropriate safety procedures may not be implemented on regular basis -Personal protective equipment not available -Increased risk of exposure -Resistance development

50 Insecticide resistance First noted in 1979, FAW collected from a maize in Tifton, Georgia (U.S.) was shown to be resistant to carbaryl. In 1991, a strain of FAW collected from maize in northern Florida (U.S.) showed resistance to commonly used insecticides. Also shown resistance to current pesticides

51 Insecticide resistance management Treat when needed: follow insect pest pressure and thresholds. Conservation Biological control Augmentation biological control Don t treat successive generations with products of the same mode of action Use an approximately 30 day window to conduct sprays of insecticides of the same mode of action Do not apply products of the same mode of action over more than 50% of the crop cycle

52 Insecticides recommended for use Active ingredient Abamectin Acetamiprid acetamiprid + lambda cyhalothrin Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) var. kurstaki Bifenthrin Beauveria bassiana Carbaryl Chlorantraniliprole Trade name Abba Gazelle Thuricide Capture Sevin

53 Insecticides recommended for use Active ingredient Trade name Chlorantaniliprole +lambda cyhalothrin Besiege beta cyfluthrin Baythroid gamma cyhalothrin Proaxis lambda cyhalothrin Warrior II zeta cypermethrin Respect Dimethoate Dimethoate Imidacloprid Admire Pro Indoxacarb + acetamiprid

54 Insecticides recommended for use Active ingredient Trade name Metarhizium anisopliae Malathion Malathion Methoxyfenozide Intrepid Permethrin Ambush Spinetoram Delegate Spinosad Success

55 Bayer crop science BELT SC 480 Flubendiamide *** Cancelled By EPA in U.S. Larvicide Effective against FAW Paralyses caterpillars within 1-2 hours of application

56 Host plant resistance Transgenic/ BT maize varieties Several varieties on the market that suppress/control FAW and other lepidopteran pests. CIMMYT is addressing this aspect

57 Biological control Classical: involves introducing natural enemies from a pest's native range into a new area where native natural enemies do not provide control. Augmentative: involves the massive production and release of natural enemies to control the pest quickly. Conservation: involves conservation of existing natural enemies in an environment as these natural enemies are already adapted to the habitat and to the target pest, and their conservation can be simple and cost-effective

58 Egg parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. Species Order: family Country Agathis stigmatera Hymenoptera: Braconidae Argentina Chelonus spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Barbados, Nicaragua Honduras, Mexico, Trinidad, Argentina, Brazil Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, U.S., Uruguay, Venezuela

59 Species Order: family Country Telenomus remus Telenomus spp. Trichogramma spp. Egg parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. Hymenoptera: Platygastridae Hymenoptera: Platygastridae Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Antigua, Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Equador, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad, U.S., Venezuela, Israel, India, Papua New Guinea Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Guadeloupe, Mexico, Southeast and South Asia Barbados, Nicaragua, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Argentina, Cuba, U.S., Guadeloupe, Mexico

60 Species Order: family Country Archytas spp. Diptera: Tachinidae Argentina, Barbados, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, U.S., Venezuela, Brazil, Chile, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad, Uruguay, Cuba, Ecuador, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, Peru Chelonus spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Barbados, Nicaragua Honduras, Mexico, Trinidad, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, U.S., Uruguay, Venezuela Cotesia marginiventris Larval parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Honduras, Barbados, Nicaragua, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Suriname, U.S., Uruguay, Venezuela, Trinidad & Tobago, Colombia, Guyana

61 Species Order: family Country Ophion spp. Euplectrus spp. Lespesia spp. Larval parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, U.S., Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, Nicargua, Peru, Nicaragua, U.S., Argentina, Puerto Rico, Panama, Honduras, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Guyana, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Trinidad, Venezuela, Honduras Brazil, Honduras, U.S., Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Honduras, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Colombia

62 Pupal parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. Species Order: family Country Brachymeria spp. Hymenoptera: Chalcididae Argentina, U.S. Trichospilus pupivora Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Barbados Cryptus albitarsis Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae U.S. Diapetimorpha introita Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Honduras, U.S. Ichneumon spp. Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae U.S.

63 Predators Doru luteipes (earwig) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) - Used for the biological control of FAW eggs in Brazil - Recommended by Brazil s national research agency Orius insidiosus (pirate bug) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) - Commercially produced - Not clear if used for FAW

64 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Florida, U.S. Species Telenomus remus Aleiodes laphygmae Meteorus antographae Cotesia marginiventris Euplectrus platyhypenae Chelonis insularis Order: family Hymenoptera: Platygastridae Hymenoptera: Braconidae Hymenoptera: Braconidae Hymenoptera: Braconidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Hymenoptera:Braconidae

65 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Florida, U.S. Species Order: family Lespesia archippivora Diptera: Tachinidae Lespesia aletiae Diptera: Tachinidae Eucelatoria rubentis Diptera: Tachinidae Ophion flavidus Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae

66 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Mexico Species Order: family Chelonis insularis Hymenoptera:Braconidae Aleiodes spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Glyptapanteles spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Cotesia spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Homolobus spp. Meteorus antographae Hymenoptera: Braconidae Hymenoptera: Braconidae

67 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Mexico Species Order: family Campoletis flavicincta Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Eiphosoma vitticole Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Ophion flavidus Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Pristomerus spinator Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Aprostocetus spp. Euplectrus spp. Horismenus spp. Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

68 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Argentina Species Order: family Archytas spp. Diptera: Tachinidae Ophion spp. Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Campoletis grioti Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Chelonus insularis EuplectrusPlatyhypenae Incamyia chilensis Hymenoptera: Braconidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Diptera: Tachinidae

69 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Hondurus Species Order: family Chelonis insularis Hymenoptera: Braconidae Lespesia spp. Diptera: Tachinidae Ophion flavidus Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Eiphosoma vitticole Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Archytas spp. Euplectrus spp. Diptera: Tachinidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

70 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Hondurus Species Order: family Pristomerus spinator Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Temecula spp. Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Microcharops anticarsiae Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Cotesia marginiventris Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Rogas spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae

71 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Brazil Species Order: family Aleiodes laphygmae Hymenoptera: Braconidae Campoletis sonorensis Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Chelonis insularis Hymenoptera: Braconidae Cotesia marginiventris Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Euplectrus plathypenae Homolobus truncator Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Hymenoptera: Braconidae

72 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Brazil Species Order: family Meteorus laphygmae Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Ophion flavidus Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Euplectrus plathypenae Pristomerus spinator Trichogramma atopovirilia Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

73 Egg parasitoid, Telenomus spp. reported in Africa Telenomus spp. Host Distribution T. procas Antigastra catalaunalis Senegal, Sudan T. nemesis Chilo orichalcociliellus Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Senegal T. busseolae Busseola fusca, Sesamia spp., Coneista ignefusalis T. creusa Chilo diffusilineus Malawi T. bini Maliarpha separratella, Chilo spp., Scirpophaga spp. Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Reunion, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda Ghana, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Malawi, Senegal, Tanzania. T. thestor Chilo orichalcociliellus Ivory Coast, Kenya, Senegal, Uganda, Zaire

74 Egg parasitoid, Telenomus spp. reported in Africa Telenomus spp. Host Distribution T. soudanensis, Chilo zacconius Niger T. nephele Scirpophaga melanoclista, S. Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, occidentella, S. subumbrosa Malawi, Mali, Senegal. T. etielliphaga Etiella zinckenella, Senegal T. applanatus Eldana saccharina Gabon, Ghana, Ivory coast T. versicolor Scirpophaga melanoclista Ghana, Ivory Coast, Malawi, Senegal

75 Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp. reported in Africa Trichogramma spp. Host Distribution Trichogramma bourarachae Helicoverpa armigera Morocco Trichogramma bournieri Chilo partellus Comoros, Kenya, Trichogramma cacoeciae - Morocco Trichogramma chilonis Trichogramma ethiopicum Eldana saccharina, Busseola fusca, South Africa Chilo partellus - Cameroon

76 Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp. reported in Africa Trichogramma spp. Host Distribution Trichogramma evanescens Chilo Agamemnon, Egypt, Madagascar Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera littoralis Trichogramma japonicum Chilo partellus Malawi Trichogramma kalkae Diopsis macrophthalma Malawi Trichogramma sp. nr kalkae - Zimbabwe Trichogramma kayo - Sudan Trichogramma mandelai Diparopsis watersi Chad

77 Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp. reported in Africa Trichogramma spp. Host Distribution Trichogramma sp. mwanzai Chilo diffusilineus, Chilo Malawi, Kenya partellus, Busseola fusca, Eldana saccharina, Sitotroga cerealella Trichogramma ostriniae Busseola fusca, Chilo partellus South Africa Trichogramma papilionidis Angola T. Pretiosum Apple leaf roller South Africa Trichogramma pinneyi Diopsis macrophthalma Malawi

78 Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp. reported in Africa Trichogramma spp. Host Distribution Trichogrammatoidea eldanae E. saccharina, Sesamia calamistis Trichogrammatoidea lutea C. partellus, B. fusca, H. armigera, H. armigera Trichogrammatoidea simmondsi Diopsis acrophthalma, C. partellus, False codling moth, H. armigera, Atherigona soccata South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya South Africa, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal Malawi, South Africa, Kenya, Burkina Faso

79 Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp. reported in Africa Trichogramma spp. Host Distribution Trichogramma sp. mwanzai Chilo diffusilineus, Chilo Malawi, Kenya partellus, Busseola fusca, Eldana saccharina, Sitotroga cerealella Trichogramma ostriniae Busseola fusca, Chilo partellus South Africa Trichogramma papilionidis Angola T. Pretiosum Apple leaf roller South Africa Trichogramma pinneyi Diopsis macrophthalma Malawi

80 Efficacy of egg parasitoids The presence of scales/hairs over the egg masses act as a barrier against parasitism by Trichogramma spp. This difficulty can be overcome by using a more aggressive parasitoid, capable of breaking the physical barrier imposed by scales on the eggs It is essential to know the species/strains present in the agro-ecosystem Telenomus remus has proved very effective in South America and Florida.

81 Telenomus remus parasitizing spodoptera eggs

82 Trichogramma spp. parasitizing spodoptera eggs

83 Another parsitoid: Habrobracon hebetor H. Hebetor developing on larvae of the MHM

84 Another parsitoid: Habrobracon hebetor Wasp, belonging to family braconidae Used against pearl millet head miner Parasitoids cultured in jute bags and dispersed in millet fields

85 Habrobracon hebetor In Africa: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Egypt, Libya, Madagascar, Niger, Senegal, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mauritius (CABI) Found in Israel EPPO Countries: Mediterranean region, Portugal, Germany

86 Parasitoids Being reared Telenomus remus (Florida, Brazil) Chelonus sp. (Florida) Cotesia marginiventris (Florida) Habrobracon hebetor (Niger, Senegal)

87 Origin Southeast Asia 1963 Introduced to India from Papua New Guinea - established 1971 to 1972 Introduced to Barbados; later introduced to Antigua, Dominica, Monserrat, St Kitts, St Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago 1978 Released in El Salvador and Nicaragua (not established?) Released in Florida Telenomus remus 1989 Introduced to Venezuela established Intoduced to Honduras

88 Telenomus remus 1982 Introduced to Australia from S.E. Asia and Dominican Republic Introduced to Cyprus 1969 Introduced to Israel from Papua New Guinea 1975 Introduced to New Zealand from Pakistan 1982 Indroduced to Pakistan from Trinidad

89 Cotesia marginiventris Introduced to Australia in 1982 from U.S.A. Occurs in Fiji (Maddison, 1982) Introduced to India in 1969 from U.S.A. Introduced to Egypt in 1950s from U.S.A. Found in Central African Republic and Egypt. (CABI) Used in EPPO countries :Belgium, France, Netherlands, Spain

90 Telenomus nawai Introduced to Egypt in from Hawaii Telenomus spodopterae Introduced to Egypt in 1940 from Java Chelonus insularis Found in South Africa and Egypt. (CABI) Other species found in Israel, Egpyt

91 Other biological control options S. frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SFNPV) - Used in Brazil (Cruz et al. 1997, Barreto et al. 2005) - Increased larval mortality; up to 90 percent, Increased parasitoid populations Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana - Tested (in vitro) in Mexico, Brazil (Arenas et al. 2014, Thomazoni et al. 2014) - B. bassiana caused mortality 3-90% eggs, % (Gutierrez et al 1996) Seed treatment with Trichoderma induces defense

92 Botanicals: Anti-feedant, insecticidal effect Neem based products: Azadirachtin main component - Align -Azatin -Ecozin -Neemazal -Neememusion -Neemix - Ornazin Tephrosia Other biological control options

93 Biocontrol Cultural - Trap crops - Push and pull Summary Egg Adult FAW Larva Pupa Biocontrol Biopesticides Botanical Host Plant Resistance Chemical Physical Physical/ chemical - Pheromone traps - Light traps Biocontrol Physical - Ploughing

94 Researchable Areas for Mitigation Induce defense in maize plants by treating the seeds with Trichoderma Screen pheromone lures from different sources for their efficacy Set up pheromone traps for monitoring Set up pheromone traps on an area-wide basis for suppression of the population of FAW

95 Researchable Areas for Mitigation Adoption of trap crops. (castor plants to attract moths to lay eggs; planting young maize plants in mature crops) Application of Neem seed extract or commercial neem formulations. Survey of FAW locally recruited natural enemies and recording them on a regional and continental basis. Multiplication of effective egg/larval parasitoids in the lab for augmentative release.

96 Researchable Areas for Mitigation Consideration of classical biological control by introducing effective exotic natural enemies, if local natural enemies proven not effective Explore push and pull technique Use of Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and NPV Hand-picking caterpillars in small gardens Plow the field after harvest to kill pupae in the soil

97 Researchable Areas for Mitigation Screening insecticides for efficacy Use of selected insecticides Use of resistant varieties if available Use of GMO s (where approved)

98 IPM: Integrated Pest Management IPM developed for an entire cropping system/ crop Not focused on one pest/ disease Integration of management practices developed for FAW into the IPM package developed for Maize.

GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND Agricultural land (thousands of ha)

GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND Agricultural land (thousands of ha) Asia-Pacific GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND of as all Average size of ( 1,990,228 447,614 420,348 93.9% 689,737 34.7% 1.6 China 521,775 200,555 200,160 99.8% 370,000 70.9% 1.8 India 179,759 138,348

More information

Caterpillars The threat. Plant health Site conditions Abundance of pest Client Concerns Regulatory Concerns

Caterpillars The threat. Plant health Site conditions Abundance of pest Client Concerns Regulatory Concerns Caterpillars The threat Plant health Site conditions Abundance of pest Client Concerns Regulatory Concerns Pesticides for Caterpillars Biologicals Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) Spinosad (Conserve, Fertilome

More information

MANAGING INSECT PESTS IN BERRIES AND FRUITS. Small Farm School 8 September 2012 Bruce Nelson, CCC Horticulture Department

MANAGING INSECT PESTS IN BERRIES AND FRUITS. Small Farm School 8 September 2012 Bruce Nelson, CCC Horticulture Department MANAGING INSECT PESTS IN BERRIES AND FRUITS Small Farm School 8 September 2012 Bruce Nelson, CCC Horticulture Department RASPBERRIES TO START ORANGE TORTRIX ON RASPBERRY Raspberry Crown Borer RASPBERRY

More information

Field Crops EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN. Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists

Field Crops EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN. Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists Field Crops PURDUE EXTENSION E-17-W Department of Entomology EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists Corn borer populations

More information

MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT

MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT E MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT December 2011 In December 2011 Arabica prices underwent significant downward corrections while Robusta prices increased slightly. The average of the 2 nd and 3 rd positions

More information

Monitoring of Biocontrol. Cane Stalk Borer. Trevor Falloon Sugar Industry Research Institute Kendal Road, Mandeville

Monitoring of Biocontrol. Cane Stalk Borer. Trevor Falloon Sugar Industry Research Institute Kendal Road, Mandeville Monitoring of Biocontrol of the Sugar Cane Stalk Borer Trevor Falloon Sugar Industry Research Institute Kendal Road, Mandeville Sugar Cane Stalk Borer Diatraea saccharalis F (only species in Jamaica) Lepidoptera:

More information

Corn Earworm Management in Sweet Corn. Rick Foster Department of Entomology Purdue University

Corn Earworm Management in Sweet Corn. Rick Foster Department of Entomology Purdue University Corn Earworm Management in Sweet Corn Rick Foster Department of Entomology Purdue University Pest of sweet corn, seed corn and tomato Two generations per year where it overwinters 2 nd is usually most

More information

Light brown apple moth

Light brown apple moth Wine Australia for Australian Wine Factsheet July 2013 Light brown apple moth David Braybrook, VitiSolutions Summary The light brown apple moth (LBAM, Epiphyas postvittana) is a native leaf-roller that

More information

Coffee: World Markets and Trade

Coffee: World Markets and Trade United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service June 2016 Coffee: World Markets and Trade 2016/17 Forecast Overview World coffee production for 2016/17 is forecast to rise 2.4 million

More information

THE GLOBAL PULSE MARKETS: recent trends and outlook

THE GLOBAL PULSE MARKETS: recent trends and outlook THE GLOBAL PULSE MARKETS: recent trends and outlook CICILS/IPTIC 2004 CONVENTION 10-12 12 June 2004 Beijing, China Boubaker BENBELHASSEN Commodities and Trade Division United Nations Food and Agriculture

More information

Giant whitefly. Perennial Crops. Biological Control Update on. Citrus Leafminer Olive fruit fly. Giant Whitefly. Release

Giant whitefly. Perennial Crops. Biological Control Update on. Citrus Leafminer Olive fruit fly. Giant Whitefly. Release Perennial Crops Biological Control Update on Giant whitefly Citrus Leafminer Olive fruit fly Provide consistent plant structure for long periods Stabilized soils & microclimates allow for greater species

More information

Insect pests are often a major limiting factor. Ma naging Insect Pests of Texas. Insect pests infesting the head

Insect pests are often a major limiting factor. Ma naging Insect Pests of Texas. Insect pests infesting the head B-1488 1-98 Ma naging Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower Carl D. Patrick Extension Entomologist, The Texas A&M University System Insect pests are often a major limiting factor in Texas sunflower production.

More information

MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT

MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT E MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT July 2012 Coffee prices rebounded in July 2012, with the ICO composite indicator increasing by 9.5% compared to June, following nine consecutive months of price falls. The

More information

Fruit-infesting Flies

Fruit-infesting Flies Fruit-infesting Flies There are two families of flies that may be known as fruit flies Fruit Flies Diptera: Tephritidae Small Fruit Flies/ Vinegar Flies Diptera: Drosophilidae Western Cherry Fruit Fly/Eastern

More information

2012 Leek Moth Survey Report

2012 Leek Moth Survey Report 6 February 2013 Prepared by Marion Paibomesai & Margaret Appleby, OMAFRA marion.paibomesai@ontario.ca 519-826-4963 What are Leek Moth? 2012 Leek Moth Survey Report Leek Moth Lifecycle The leek moth, Acrolepiopsis

More information

The Caribbean

The Caribbean Sugar Cane Stalk Borer in the Caribbean Trevor Falloon SIRI Kendal Road The Caribbean History Sugarcane brought by Columbus in 1493 First planted in Dominican Republic First New World mill started in 1516

More information

1 Soybean Insect Control Recommendations E-77-W E-77-W. Field Crops SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS

1 Soybean Insect Control Recommendations E-77-W E-77-W. Field Crops SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS 1 Soybean Insect Control Recommendations E-77-W E-77-W Field Crops Department of Entomology SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS Christian H. Krupke, John L. Obermeyer and Larry W. Bledsoe, Extension

More information

MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT

MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT E MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT February 2012 Coffee prices presented a mixed performance in February, with Arabicas slipping and Robustas increasing by a similar amount. This resulted in a sharp narrowing

More information

European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: pyralidae) 1

European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: pyralidae) 1 EENY156 European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: pyralidae) 1 J. L. Capinera 2 Distribution First found in North America near Boston, Massachusetts in 1917, European corn

More information

Vegetables Home Gardens

Vegetables Home Gardens BEANS Beetles Carbaryl 1.5-3.0 tablespoons 3 Repeat as needed up to 4 times; 7 days between Bifenthrin 0.3% 1.5 fluid ounces 3 Wait at least 7 days between Aphids Bifenthrin 0.3% 1.5 fluid ounces 3 Wait

More information

Peach Twig Borer (Anarsia lineatella)

Peach Twig Borer (Anarsia lineatella) Published by Utah State University Extension and Utah Plant Pest Diagnostic Laboratory ENT-36-07 April 2007 Peach Twig Borer (Anarsia lineatella) Diane Alston, Entomology Specialist Marion Murray, IPM

More information

Some Common Insect Enemies

Some Common Insect Enemies How to Recognize Some Common Insect Enemies of Stored Grain I By M. D. Farrar and W. P. Flint F the ever-normal granary is to benefit the people of the United States and not the insect population, owners

More information

Canadian Grain Exports

Canadian Grain Exports Canadian Grain Exports Crop year 2005 2006 www.grainscanada.gc.ca Canadian Grain Exports Crop year 2005 2006 Table of Contents Tables 1. grain and wheat flour exports...3 2. Major importers of Canadian

More information

A Brief Introduction to the Cactus Moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) and its Threat to the local Prickly Pear (Opuntia) Cactus Species

A Brief Introduction to the Cactus Moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) and its Threat to the local Prickly Pear (Opuntia) Cactus Species A Brief Introduction to the Cactus Moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) and its Threat to the local Prickly Pear (Opuntia) Cactus Species By Philip Rose Natural History Division Institute of Jamaica Plants belonging

More information

MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT

MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT E MONTHLY COFFEE MARKET REPORT January 2012 Prices of the three Arabica groups remained relatively firm in January, while those of Robustas fell slightly. The monthly average of the ICO composite indicator

More information

Fruit Flies (Apple maggot, Cherry Fruit Flies, etc.) Diptera: Tephritidae

Fruit Flies (Apple maggot, Cherry Fruit Flies, etc.) Diptera: Tephritidae Fruit Flies (Apple maggot, Cherry Fruit Flies, etc.) Diptera: Tephritidae Apple Maggot Pennisetia marginata Lepidoptera: Sesiidae Apple Maggot Hosts Hawthorn (native host) Apple Crab apple Cherries Plum

More information

LETTER FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

LETTER FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR E LETTER FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR COFFEE MARKET REPORT December 2008 Price levels in December confirmed the downward trend recorded in the coffee market since September 2008. The monthly average of

More information

Scientific Note. Macadamia Felted Coccid, Eriococcus ironsidei: Biology and Life Cycle in Hawaii

Scientific Note. Macadamia Felted Coccid, Eriococcus ironsidei: Biology and Life Cycle in Hawaii Eriococcus Proceedings ironsidei of the Hawaiian Biology Entomological and Life Cycle Society in Hawaii (2016) 48:51 55 51 Scientific Note Macadamia Felted Coccid, Eriococcus ironsidei: Biology and Life

More information

NO. 4 LIGHTBROWN APPLE MOTH

NO. 4 LIGHTBROWN APPLE MOTH NO. 4 LIGHTBROWN APPLE MOTH By Adam Pietsch, Peter Burne and Dino Cotsaris, Viticultural Officers, CCW Lightbrown apple moth (LBAM) [Epiphyas postvittana] is a leaf-rolling moth native to south-eastern

More information

Horticultural Insect Pests with a Threat for Introduction or Spread in Utah

Horticultural Insect Pests with a Threat for Introduction or Spread in Utah Horticultural Insect Pests with a Threat for Introduction or Spread in Utah Diane Alston Utah State University Extension Entomologist Light Brown Apple Moth First Detector Training October 17, 2007 Kaysville,

More information

Guideline for registered agrochemicals to control Fall armyworm in South Africa

Guideline for registered agrochemicals to control Fall armyworm in South Africa Guideline for registered agrochemicals to control Fall armyworm in South Africa Precautionary measure Pesticides are poisonous. Read and follow directions and safety precautions on labels Table 1: agrochemicals

More information

Update on Small Fruit Insecticides for grapes, blueberries, and brambles. Rick Weinzierl University of Illinois

Update on Small Fruit Insecticides for grapes, blueberries, and brambles. Rick Weinzierl University of Illinois Update on Small Fruit Insecticides for grapes, blueberries, and brambles Rick Weinzierl University of Illinois weinzier@uiuc.edu New or notable registrations for grapes Renounce 20WP (3 days) Cyfluthrin

More information

Flupyradifurone. Jamin Huang, Ph.D. Bayer CropScience. Global Minor Use Workshop Chicago, September 21, 2015

Flupyradifurone. Jamin Huang, Ph.D. Bayer CropScience. Global Minor Use Workshop Chicago, September 21, 2015 Flupyradifurone Jamin Huang, Ph.D. Bayer CropScience Global Minor Use Workshop Chicago, September 21, 2015 Global Perspectives and Approaches Provide solutions to customers, and support customers needs

More information

Bromeliad-eating Weevils as Pests of Bromeliads

Bromeliad-eating Weevils as Pests of Bromeliads Bromeliad-eating Weevils as Pests of Bromeliads Teresa M. Cooper 1, Ronald D. Cave 1, and J. Howard Frank 2 1 Indian River Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Ft. Pierce, FL, USA 2 Department

More information

European corn borer. Cutworm management. Sweet corn insect pests. Sweet Corn Insect Management. Corn flea beetle management. Western corn rootworms

European corn borer. Cutworm management. Sweet corn insect pests. Sweet Corn Insect Management. Corn flea beetle management. Western corn rootworms Sweet Corn Insect Management Rick Weinzierl, University of Illinois weinzier@illinois.edu Sweet corn insect pests Corn rootworm larvae Corn flea beetles Cutworms European corn borer Corn rootworm adults

More information

Crops - Commercial. Grain Sorghum

Crops - Commercial. Grain Sorghum Ingredient Treated Chinch Bugs Soil s (Whorl Feeders) chlorpyrifos 15G 1,2 Seed Treatments Gaucho 600 Cruiser 5FS Nipsit Inside (5) 8.0 ounces 1,000 row feet 8 fluid ounces 5.1 fluid ounces ounces Foliar

More information

South American Soybeans Continue to Gain World Market Share

South American Soybeans Continue to Gain World Market Share United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service Circular Series FOP 01-04 January 2004 South American Soybeans Continue to Gain World Market Share Percent 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 S. Amer

More information

The Benefits of Insecticide Use: Avocados

The Benefits of Insecticide Use: Avocados Crop Protection Research Institute The Benefits of Insecticide Use: Avocados High Quality Avocado Avocados Damaged by Avocado Thrips Avocado Thrips March 2009 Searching for Predators of Avocado Thrips

More information

China s Vegetable Oil Imports Forecast to Reach a Record in 2004/05

China s Vegetable Oil Imports Forecast to Reach a Record in 2004/05 United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service Circular Series FOP 09-04 September 2004 China s Vegetable Oil Imports Forecast to Reach a Record in 2004/05 Million Tons 8 8 7 Soy

More information

Annex 1. Grouping of world regions

Annex 1. Grouping of world regions 23 Annex 1. Grouping of world regions Countries included in world regions 1-3 Medium/High-income countries. Region 1: Europe Albania France Netherlands Armenia Georgia Norway Austria Germany Poland Azerbaijan

More information

INTRODUCTION OF ALLORHOGAS PYRALOPHAGUS MARSH (BRACONIDAE) IN LAMPUNG (INDONESIA) WITH PRELIMINARY NOTES Oh, ITS BIOLOGY

INTRODUCTION OF ALLORHOGAS PYRALOPHAGUS MARSH (BRACONIDAE) IN LAMPUNG (INDONESIA) WITH PRELIMINARY NOTES Oh, ITS BIOLOGY Entomology I INTRODUCTION OF ALLORHOGAS PYRALOPHAGUS MARSH (BRACONIDAE) IN LAMPUNG (INDONESIA) WITH PRELIMINARY NOTES Oh, ITS BIOLOGY Ubandi Harsanto and Sunaryo Research Division, P.T. Gunung Madu Plantations,

More information

Greg Krawczyk, Larry A. Hull, Travis R. Enyeart and Margaret E. Reid

Greg Krawczyk, Larry A. Hull, Travis R. Enyeart and Margaret E. Reid BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG IN PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT ORCHARDS RESULTS OF BMSB ADULTS DIRECT CONTACT LABORATORY BIOASSAYS AND 2011 PA FIELD EXPERIENCE UPDATE Greg Krawczyk, Larry A. Hull, Travis R. Enyeart

More information

Papaya. Carica. Papaya Readings (On web page) Paw paw Papaw Family Caricaceae Genus Carica Species papaya

Papaya. Carica. Papaya Readings (On web page) Paw paw Papaw Family Caricaceae Genus Carica Species papaya Papaya Paw paw Papaw Family Caricaceae Genus Carica Species papaya Papaya Readings (On web page) Nishina et al., 2. Papaya Production in Hawaii. CTAHR, F&N-3. Manshardt, 1999. UH Rainbow Papaya. A High-Quality

More information

The Bean Plataspid, Megacopta cribraria, Feeding on Kudzu: an Accidental Introduction with Beneficial Effects

The Bean Plataspid, Megacopta cribraria, Feeding on Kudzu: an Accidental Introduction with Beneficial Effects The Bean Plataspid, Megacopta cribraria, Feeding on Kudzu: an Accidental Introduction with Beneficial Effects Jim Hanula 1, Yanzhuo Zhang 2 and Scott Horn 1 1 USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station,

More information

CHAPTER 7.3 FOCUS ON FAIRTRADE PRODUCTS COCOA

CHAPTER 7.3 FOCUS ON FAIRTRADE PRODUCTS COCOA CHAPTER 7.3 FOCUS ON FAIRTRADE PRODUCTS COCOA MONITORING THE SCOPE AND BENEFITS OF FAIRTRADE SIXTH EDITION 2014 95 MONITORING THE SCOPE AND BENEFITS OF FAIRTRADE SIXTH EDITION 2014 96 7.3 Fairtrade Fact

More information

Managing Spotted Wing Drosophila in Michigan Cherry

Managing Spotted Wing Drosophila in Michigan Cherry Managing Spotted Wing Drosophila in Michigan Cherry Julianna Wilson 1, Larry Gut 1, Nikki Rothwell 3, Michael Haas 2, Emily Pochubay 3, Karen Powers 3, Mark Whalon 1, and John Wise 1,2 1. Department of

More information

World of sugar PAGE 54

World of sugar PAGE 54 World of sugar More than 1 countries produce sugar, about 8% of which is made from sugar cane grown primarily in the tropical and sub-tropical zones of the southern hemisphere, and the balance from sugar

More information

Evaluation of microbial pesticides against major foliage feeders on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]

Evaluation of microbial pesticides against major foliage feeders on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] JBiopest 6(2):144-148 Evaluation of microbial pesticides against major foliage feeders on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] K. C. Ahirwar*, R. S. Marabi, A. K. Bhowmick and S.B. Das ABSTRACT Field trial

More information

Monitoring EU Agri-Food Trade: Development until January 2018

Monitoring EU Agri-Food Trade: Development until January 2018 Monitoring EU Agri-Food Trade: Development until January 2018 January 2018: good start of a year for EU agri-food exports The value of EU agri-food exports in January 2018 kept its very high level, now

More information

A brief history of Cactoblastis cactorum and its effects on Florida native Opuntia

A brief history of Cactoblastis cactorum and its effects on Florida native Opuntia A brief history of Cactoblastis cactorum and its effects on Florida native Opuntia Heather Jezorek Peter Stiling University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA Cactoblastis cactorum - Intro Family Pyralidae

More information

7.22b Celery stalkworm; larva; actual size 25 mm. 8.1a Bacterial leaf spot (peppery leaf spot); lesions on Brussels sprouts.

7.22b Celery stalkworm; larva; actual size 25 mm. 8.1a Bacterial leaf spot (peppery leaf spot); lesions on Brussels sprouts. 7.22b Celery stalkworm; larva; actual size 25 mm. 8.1a Bacterial leaf spot (peppery leaf spot); lesions on Brussels sprouts. 8.1b Bacterial leaf spot (peppery leaf spot); lesions on a cauliflower leaf.

More information

GRAPEVINE. Solutions for the Growing World

GRAPEVINE. Solutions for the Growing World Solutions for the Growing World INTRODUCTION Isoclast active is a new foliar-applied insecticide for control of a wide range of sap feeding pests. It belongs to a new class of chemistry the sulfoximines,

More information

WINE EXPORTS. February Nadine Uren. tel:

WINE EXPORTS. February Nadine Uren. tel: WINE EXPORTS February 2012 Nadine Uren tel: +27 21 807 5707 e-mail: nadine@sawis.co.za OVERVIEW OF WINE EXPORTS HIGHLIGHTS Exports as a percentage of wine production decreased from 48.5% in 2010 to 43.2%

More information

YOUR EXPERT IN COCOA TRANSPORTATION

YOUR EXPERT IN COCOA TRANSPORTATION YOUR EXPERT IN COCOA TRANSPORTATION MSC, YOUR PARTNER IN THE JOURNEY OF COCOA If there s one product loved the world over and forever in favour, it s chocolate. This global obsession means a constant demand

More information

2017 Update: Potentially Affected Trade from World Agricultural Exporters with European Union Regulation of Endocrine Disruptors

2017 Update: Potentially Affected Trade from World Agricultural Exporters with European Union Regulation of Endocrine Disruptors Prepared for the European Crop Protection Association 2017 Update: Potentially Affected Trade from World Agricultural Exporters with European Union Regulation of Endocrine Disruptors Part II, Country Data

More information

Spices of the World. Spices Drove Exploration. An Overview. Major voyages of exploration in search of spices Pepper and Clove

Spices of the World. Spices Drove Exploration. An Overview. Major voyages of exploration in search of spices Pepper and Clove Spices of the World An Overview Spices Drove Exploration Major voyages of exploration in search of spices and Clove High demand in Europe Very valuable commodity Find and control source Spices Important

More information

YOUR EXPERT IN COCOA TRANSPORTATION

YOUR EXPERT IN COCOA TRANSPORTATION YOUR EXPERT IN COCOA TRANSPORTATION MSC, YOUR PARTNER IN THE JOURNEY OF COCOA If there s one product loved the world over and forever in favour, it s chocolate. This global obsession means a constant demand

More information

Managing Spotted Wing Drosophila in Michigan Cherry

Managing Spotted Wing Drosophila in Michigan Cherry MANAGING SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA IN MICHIGAN CHERRY 1 Managing Spotted Wing Drosophila in Michigan Cherry Julianna Wilson1, Larry Gut1, Nikki Rothwell3, Michael Haas2, Emily Pochubay3, Karen Powers3, Mark

More information

APPENDIX Thirty Trees Sampling Method for CBB Monitoring

APPENDIX Thirty Trees Sampling Method for CBB Monitoring APPENDIX Thirty Trees Sampling Method for CBB Monitoring Based on a Presentation by Luis F. Aristizábal (University of Florida) Revised: January 2014 by CBB Summit Committee I t is not enough to know that

More information

PERMIT TO ALLOW MINOR USE OF AN AGVET CHEMICAL PRODUCT

PERMIT TO ALLOW MINOR USE OF AN AGVET CHEMICAL PRODUCT PERMIT TO ALLOW MIN USE OF AN AGVET CHEMICAL PRODUCT F CONTROL OF VARIOUS INSECT PESTS ON BRASSICA LEAFY VEGETABLES, RUCOLA (ROCKET), SPINACH, SILVERBEET, CUCUMBER AND RADISH CROPS PERMIT NUMBER PER14433

More information

IPM Updates for Scott Stewart Entomology and Plant Pathology UT Extension.

IPM Updates for Scott Stewart Entomology and Plant Pathology UT Extension. IPM Updates for 2014 Scott Stewart Entomology and Plant Pathology UT Extension www.utcrops.com www.news.utcrops.com Relatively New Insecticides (or new uses) Transform Radiant Intrepid Edge Besiege Triple

More information

' DJOKO PRAMONO AND BOEDIJONO WIRIOATMODJO 569

' DJOKO PRAMONO AND BOEDIJONO WIRIOATMODJO 569 I Entomology ASSESSMENT OF ALLORHOGAS SP.N. (BRACONIDAE, HYMENOPTERA) AS A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT OF THE SUGARCANE TOP AND STEM BORERS Djoko Pramono & Boedijono Wirioatmodjo Indonesian Sugar Research

More information

FIELD EFFECTS OF BT CORN ON THE IMPACT OF PARASITOIDS AND PATHOGENS ON EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN ILLINOIS M.E.

FIELD EFFECTS OF BT CORN ON THE IMPACT OF PARASITOIDS AND PATHOGENS ON EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN ILLINOIS M.E. 278 Venditti and Steffey FIELD EFFECTS OF BT CORN ON THE IMPACT OF PARASITOIDS AND PATHOGENS ON EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN ILLINOIS M.E. Venditti and K.L. Steffey Department of Crop Sciences, University of

More information

Pea Leaf Weevil : Sitona lineatus Linnaeus Monitoring Protocol

Pea Leaf Weevil : Sitona lineatus Linnaeus Monitoring Protocol Pea Leaf Weevil : Sitona lineatus Linnaeus Monitoring Protocol Host plants: Plants belong to the family Leguminaceae including cultivated and wild legume species and specifically dry beans, faba beans

More information

Host Colonization Behavior of the Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman, in California Hinds Walnut

Host Colonization Behavior of the Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman, in California Hinds Walnut Host Colonization Behavior of the Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman, in California Hinds Walnut Andrew Graves, Stacy Hishinuma, Shakeeb Hamud and Steven Seybold Presentation Outline

More information

Japanese Knotweed Red Winged Blackbird

Japanese Knotweed Red Winged Blackbird Japanese Knotweed Red Winged Blackbird Emerald Ash Borer White Ash Tree Asian Long Horned Beetle Maple Tree I am a beautiful songbird native to North America. I live in marine and freshwater wetlands and

More information

Update on microbial control of arthropod pests of strawberries

Update on microbial control of arthropod pests of strawberries Update on microbial control of arthropod pests of strawberries Surendra Dara Strawberry and Vegetable Crops Advisor Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties University of California Cooperative Extension

More information

Spotted wing drosophila management recommendations for Wisconsin raspberry growers

Spotted wing drosophila management recommendations for Wisconsin raspberry growers Spotted wing drosophila management recommendations for Wisconsin raspberry growers Christelle Guédot Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin; (608) 262-0899; guedot@wisc.edu Spotted wing drosophila

More information

Organic Grape Production

Organic Grape Production Organic Grape Production Organic vs. Conventional Growing costs were 69 91% higher for organic High weed control cost was a major factor (based on a 5 yr. study @ Cornell Univ.) Estimated establishment

More information

SWD Management Recommendations for Michigan Blueberry

SWD Management Recommendations for Michigan Blueberry Updated June 20 SWD Management Recommendations for Michigan Blueberry Rufus Isaacs, John Wise,2, Carlos Garcia-Salazar, and Mark Longstroth 4. Department of ntomology, 2. Trev or Nichols Research Complex,.

More information

The source of about 7 percent of the world s calorie supplies, sugar is an

The source of about 7 percent of the world s calorie supplies, sugar is an Sugar Policies: Opportunity for Change Donald Mitchell 10 The source of about 7 percent of the world s calorie supplies, sugar is an important commodity in many countries, accounting for 10 percent or

More information

Bt Susceptibility and Oviposition Preferences of Fall Armyworm (Lepidotera: Noctuidae) Host Strains

Bt Susceptibility and Oviposition Preferences of Fall Armyworm (Lepidotera: Noctuidae) Host Strains Bt Susceptibility and Oviposition Preferences of Fall Armyworm (Lepidotera: Noctuidae) Host Strains David A. Ingber and Charles E. Mason University of Delaware, Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology

More information

Threats From Beyond Our Borders: Exotic Diseases and Pests in Citrus

Threats From Beyond Our Borders: Exotic Diseases and Pests in Citrus Threats From Beyond Our Borders: Exotic Diseases and Pests in Citrus MaryLou Polek, Plant Pathologist Vice President Science & Technology Citrus Research Board Disease: The Malfunctioning of Cells & Tissues

More information

CONTROL OF RED PALM WEEVIL, RHYNCHOPHORUS FERRUGINEUS OLIVER USING PROPHYLACTIC SPRAYING OF DATE PALMS AND TRUNK INJECTION

CONTROL OF RED PALM WEEVIL, RHYNCHOPHORUS FERRUGINEUS OLIVER USING PROPHYLACTIC SPRAYING OF DATE PALMS AND TRUNK INJECTION CONTROL OF RED PALM WEEVIL, RHYNCHOPHORUS FERRUGINEUS OLIVER USING PROPHYLACTIC SPRAYING OF DATE PALMS AND TRUNK INJECTION K. M. Azam, and S. A. Razvi Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture,

More information

Chemical Control Options for SWD in Blueberries, Caneberries, Strawberries, Grapes, and Stone fruits

Chemical Control Options for SWD in Blueberries, Caneberries, Strawberries, Grapes, and Stone fruits Chemical Control Options for SWD in Blueberries, Caneberries, Strawberries, Grapes, and Stone fruits Rufus Isaacs Department of Entomology Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 isaacsr@msu.edu

More information

Managing Lygus Bugs in Strawberries

Managing Lygus Bugs in Strawberries Managing Lygus Bugs in Strawberries Production Guideline by Frank Zalom, Jianlong Bi & Pat Thompson Issue 3.1 June 2011 The California Strawberry Commission Production Guidelines are produced in cooperation

More information

HASS CARMEN. Carlos Illsley. Rob Brokaw. Salvador Ochoa. Therese Bruwer A PRECOCIOUS FLOWERING AVOCADO TREE

HASS CARMEN. Carlos Illsley. Rob Brokaw. Salvador Ochoa. Therese Bruwer A PRECOCIOUS FLOWERING AVOCADO TREE HASS CARMEN Carlos Illsley Rob Brokaw Salvador Ochoa Therese Bruwer A PRECOCIOUS FLOWERING AVOCADO TREE Introduction In approximately 1986, a distinct avocado tree was observed in the southern region of

More information

Agri-Food Exports. Alberta to 2014 Economics and Competitiveness. Highlights on Alberta Agri-Food Exports in Tables:

Agri-Food Exports. Alberta to 2014 Economics and Competitiveness. Highlights on Alberta Agri-Food Exports in Tables: Agri-Food Exports Alberta 2005 to 2014 Economics and Competitiveness Highlights on Alberta Agri-Food Exports in 2014 Tables: Alberta Agri-Food Exports, 2005-2014: - Top 5 Export Products and Markets -

More information

Entomopathogenic fungi on field collected cadavers DISCUSSION Quality of low and high altitude hibernators

Entomopathogenic fungi on field collected cadavers DISCUSSION Quality of low and high altitude hibernators Fig. 2. Incidence of entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes on field collected Coccinella septempunctata cadavers. B.b Beauveria bassiana; P.f Paecilomyces farinosus; others other entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes

More information

Strawberries: Main Pests and Beneficials in Florida 1

Strawberries: Main Pests and Beneficials in Florida 1 HS1018 Strawberries: Main Pests and Beneficials in Florida 1 Silvia I. Rondon, James F. Price and Daniel J. Cantliffe 2 The strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa, is an important small fruit crop in Florida.

More information

Alliances between beneficial insects, plants & fungi pollinate, protect, & promote crop production

Alliances between beneficial insects, plants & fungi pollinate, protect, & promote crop production Alliances between beneficial insects, plants & fungi pollinate, protect, & promote crop production Peter G. Kevan School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, ON 1 October, 2010 Pollinator Biocontrol

More information

Import Volume of coffee into Japan (metric tons) Total Green Beans equivalent. Soluble Coffee

Import Volume of coffee into Japan (metric tons) Total Green Beans equivalent. Soluble Coffee Market in Japan -111- History 1. A limited amount of coffee was drunk by Dutch residents of Nagasaki at the end of the eighteenth century. However, coffee was not generally sold until the last quarter

More information

PERMIT TO ALLOW MINOR USE OF AN AGVET CHEMICAL PRODUCT FOR THE CONTROL OF CERTAIN PESTS ON BRASSICA LEAFY VEGETABLES AND RADISHES.

PERMIT TO ALLOW MINOR USE OF AN AGVET CHEMICAL PRODUCT FOR THE CONTROL OF CERTAIN PESTS ON BRASSICA LEAFY VEGETABLES AND RADISHES. PERMIT TO ALLOW MIN USE OF AN AGVET CHEMICAL PRODUCT F THE CONTROL OF CERTAIN PESTS ON BRASSICA LEAFY VEGETABLES AND RADISHES. PERMIT NUMBER -PER11475 This permit is issued to the Permit Holder in response

More information

Milk and Milk Products. Price and Trade Update. Weekly Newsletter. Milk and Milk Products. Price and Trade Update: April

Milk and Milk Products. Price and Trade Update. Weekly Newsletter. Milk and Milk Products. Price and Trade Update: April April Milk and Milk Products Price and Trade Update Weekly Newsletter Milk and Milk Products Price and Trade Update: April 1 PRICES: Remain depressed International dairy product prices began the year at

More information

WCF LATAM SEMINAR GLOBAL COCOA MARKET. 5 th Sept 2016

WCF LATAM SEMINAR GLOBAL COCOA MARKET. 5 th Sept 2016 WCF LATAM SEMINAR GLOBAL COCOA MARKET 5 th Sept 2016 AGENDA Supply and Demand Regional Production and Fine Flavor Exports Consumption Pattern LATAM Potential Growth? Fine Flavor Challenges Discussion Points

More information

LANDSCAPE & ORNAMENTALS

LANDSCAPE & ORNAMENTALS PURDUE EXTENSION E-33-W LANDSCAPE & NAMENTALS Department of Entomology MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF NUT TREES Clifford S. Sadof and Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologists Insect and mite pests of nuts are

More information

West Texas Sunflower Insects

West Texas Sunflower Insects West Texas Sunflower Insects Ed Bynum 1 and Calvin Trostle 2 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service 1 Extension Entomologist, Amarillo, TX (806) 677-5600, ebynum@ag.tamu.edu 2 Extension Agronomist, Lubbock,

More information

November 2016 PEST Report - THE NETHERLANDS CLOSING NOTE

November 2016 PEST Report - THE NETHERLANDS CLOSING NOTE November 2016 PEST Report - THE NETHERLANDS CLOSING NOTE National Plant Protection Organization POBox 9102 6700 HC Wageningen The Netherlands 1.1 Confirmation of eradication of Ralstonia solanacearum (race

More information

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 26

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 26 Lecture 26 Cassava: Manihot esculenta, Euphorbiaceae Cassava is one of the most important tropical root crops, also known as manioc, sagu, yuca (Spanish), and tapioca. Cassava is the fastest growing crop

More information

Instructor: Dr. Stephen L. Love Aberdeen R & E Center 1693 S 2700 W Aberdeen, ID Phone: Fax:

Instructor: Dr. Stephen L. Love Aberdeen R & E Center 1693 S 2700 W Aberdeen, ID Phone: Fax: Vegetable Crops PLSC 451/55 Lecture 13,, Instructor: Dr. Stephen L. Love Aberdeen R & E Center 1693 S 2700 W Aberdeen, ID 83210 Phone: 397-4181 Fax: 397-4311 Email: slove@uidaho.edu Also Known As: Dasheen

More information

Managing Pantry Pests Descriptions and Photographs

Managing Pantry Pests Descriptions and Photographs FCH11 4a December, 2010 Managing Pantry Pests Descriptions and Photographs Indian Meal Moth (Plodia interpunctella) The Indian meal moth is the most common food infesting moth found in homes, grocery stores

More information

Vegetable Insecticide Update. Final cancellation order for sulfoxaflor¹. Calypso 4 F (thiacloprid) Final cancellation order for sulfoxaflor

Vegetable Insecticide Update. Final cancellation order for sulfoxaflor¹. Calypso 4 F (thiacloprid) Final cancellation order for sulfoxaflor Vegetable Insecticide Update Frank A. Hale, Ph.D. Professor Entomology & Plant Pathology Find PDFs of presentations and links to new publications at the Soil Plant and Pest Center web site under publications

More information

Universal Salt Iodisation in Africa: Road to overcoming the last hurdles

Universal Salt Iodisation in Africa: Road to overcoming the last hurdles Universal Salt Iodisation in Africa: Road to overcoming the last hurdles Solutions for hidden hunger www.micronutrient.org 2 Universal Salt Iodisation in Africa The road to overcoming the last hurdles

More information

Vine Mealybug Biology & Control Strategies

Vine Mealybug Biology & Control Strategies Foothill Grape Day June 14, 2007 Vine Mealybug Biology & Control Strategies Monica Cooper, Kent Daane, Glenn Yokota Grape Longtailed Obscure Vine Vine Mealybug is Different from Grape Mealybug Grape mealybug

More information

Information - Peanuts

Information - Peanuts Information - Peanuts Peanuts were grown by ancient civilizations of South America at least 2,000 years ago. Peanuts, though native to South America, have been consumed as food for centuries in other places

More information

Managing potato leafhopper in wine grapes

Managing potato leafhopper in wine grapes MSU Berry Crops Entomology Lab Managing potato leafhopper in wine grapes Rufus Isaacs & Steve Van Timmeren Dept. of Entomology Michigan State University Paolo Sabbatini & Pat Murad Dept. of Horticulture,

More information

Vegetable Crops. Vegetable Pests. Common Pests of Vegetable Crops INCLUDES MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR COMMERCIAL AND HOME USE

Vegetable Crops. Vegetable Pests. Common Pests of Vegetable Crops INCLUDES MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR COMMERCIAL AND HOME USE Vegetable Crops Vegetable Pests John Rinehold, Neil Bell, and Tim Waters Latest revision March 2017 INCLUDES MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR COMMERCIAL AND HOME USE In all cases, follow the instructions on the

More information

MAJOR COCONUT PESTS Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros L.)

MAJOR COCONUT PESTS Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) BREAKTHROUGH S MAJOR COCONUT PESTS Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) Coconut log was found to support generations of beetles from 5 to 7 years starting on the 10 th month after felling with peak

More information

2012 Estimated Acres Producers Estimated Production Units Estimated Farm Value Farm Crawfish 182,167 1,251 90,973,725 Lbs.

2012 Estimated Acres Producers Estimated Production Units Estimated Farm Value Farm Crawfish 182,167 1,251 90,973,725 Lbs. www.lsuagcenter.com 2012 Estimated Acres Producers Estimated Production Units Estimated Farm Value Farm Crawfish 182,167 1,251 90,973,725 Lbs. $152,835,858 Crawfish Biology Life Cycles evolved in nature,

More information

THE COFFEE POT OF THE WORLD BRAZIL

THE COFFEE POT OF THE WORLD BRAZIL THE COFFEE POT OF THE WORLD BRAZIL Brazil lies in the north-eastern part of South America and occupies a little less than one-half the total area of the continent. In area, this is the fifth largest country

More information