Overview of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

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1 Overview of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Jaspreet Sidhu Rangaswamy Muniappan Virginia Tech

2 FALL ARMY WORM TAXONOMY (Spodoptera Genus) Genus Spodoptera was described by Guenee in 1852 Genera - Spodoptera, Laphygma and Prodenia - Synonimized All three combined to form Spodoptera (Bayer,1960) 25 species are in this genus.

3 FALL ARMY WORM TAXONOMY (Spdoptera frugiperda) First described in 1797 as Phaleana frugiperda In 1852, frugiperda was placed in genus Laphygma In 1958 Laphygma and spodoptera were synonymized

4 Different species in the Genus and their common names S. eridania :Southern armyworm S. exigua : Beet armyworm S. frugiperda : Fall armyworm S. ornithogalli : Yellowstriped armyworm S. praefica : Western yellowstriped armyworm Prevalent in U.S S. exempta : Nutgrass armyworm S. littoralis : Egyptian cotton leafworm S. litura : Taro caterpillar S. mauritia : Lawn armyworm

5 Current distribution of economically important species S. frugiperda: U.S, South America, Africa S. littoralis : Africa, southern Europe, Western Arabian Peninsula, Islands of Indian ocean, Islands of Atlantic ocean S. exempta : Africa, Australia, Hawaii, Western Arabian Peninsula S. litura : Australia, Pacific Islands, Asia S. mauritia : Madagascar, Saudi Arabia, Asia, Pacific Islands, Hawaii S. Exigua: Africa, Western Arabian peninsula, Islands of Indian ocean, Islands of Atlantic ocean

6 Current distribution of economically minor important species S. pectin: Asia S. ochrea : Peru S. marima : Brazil S. cilium : Africa, Western Arabian Peninsula, Islands of Indian Ocean S. triturata : Africa

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17 Species Host Plants for each species S. exempta Poaceae and Cyperacease Host Plants S. littoralis 44 families including Leguminosae, Solanaceae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Cruciferae. S. litura Over 100 hosts, including crucifers, legumes, millets, deciduous fruit trees, and various ornamentals and vegetables. S. mauritia Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Typhaceae S. pectin Poaceae and Cyperaceae S. frugiperda Over 100 host plants but prefers grasses.

18 Spodoptera frugiperda Host Plants More than 100 plant species Maize, rice, sorghum, sugarcane, cabbage, beet, peanut, soybean,alfalfa, onion, cotton, pasture grasses, millet, tomato, and potato. One of most crop damaging pests in the Americas. In Brazil, annual loss - $400 million.

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21 Fall army worm strains Corn Strain: Maize and sorghum Rice strain: Rice and turfgrass Morphologically identical Distinguished by molecular markers: - Allozyme polymorphisms - Genetic polymorphisms - Mitochondrial haplotyping Molecular differences are consistent with genetically distinct populations Differ in susceptibility to chemical and biological agents

22 Maize/ Corn Strain Florida haplotype profile Florida and Caribbean population Texas haplotype profile Texas through Central America to Argentina Florida haplotype migrates north up to Canada east of the Appalachian mountains every summer Texas haplotype migrates north up to Canada west of the Appalachian mountains every summer

23 Fall Armyworm U.S. Infestation and overwintering zone Modified from R. Nagoshi ppt

24 Fall Armyworm U.S. migration Modified from R. Nagoshi ppt

25 Maize and Rice Strains Both strains occur in Africa Both strains seem to spread together Florida haplotype was identified in Togo Both strains attack maize in Africa

26 INTRODUCTION TO AFRICA (Matthew Cock et al 2017) It is intercontinental introduction Might have happened as eggs, larvae, pupae or adults or combinations of these Possible pathways of introduction: Unaided dispersal Contaminant of a commodity Stowaway on a vector

27 DISPERSAL (Matthew Cock et al 2017) Unaided dispersal Strong flier, Prevailing trade winds from Americas to Africa do not favor Contaminant of a commodity European Union interceptions on Capsicum peppers -11 on other Solanum spp. - 8 on other parts of plants Minimal trade in fresh produce between Americas and Africa indicates chances of transmission through this route is small

28 DISPERSAL (Matthew Cock et al 2017) Stowaway on a direct flight More likely In a 1950 study, of 9000 aircraft from South America and Caribbean to Miami, 98 had lepidopteran eggs Pre-oviposition female moths could be carried in cargo holds or wheel bays

29 SPREAD WITHIN AFRICA Unaided dispersal by flight Through contaminant Were there multiple introductions?

30 Biology of S. frugiperda

31 Egg mass Eggs are dome shaped Dirty white to gray in color. Laid in groups of about eggs per egg mass Eggs may be laid in a single or in two or more layers progressively superimposed on each other

32 Egg mass Mostly laid on lower surface of the leaves Eggs are covered by a layer of grayish scales or hairs giving it a hairy or moldy appearance. Eggs hatch in about three to five days in summer.

33 Six larval instars Fully-grown larvae are cm long Larva Vary in color from pale green to almost black Three yellowish stripes running down the back Wider dark stripe and a wavy yellow-red blotched stripe on each side Predominant white, inverted Y-shaped suture on the head Larval duration is about 14 days during the summer and 30 days during cool weather

34 Larval Behavior Initially, newly hatched larvae feed near where the egg mass was laid. Later, they move up onto the maize plants and consume leaf tissue excluding the veins and midrib. The larvae exhibit cannibalistic behavior. Under heavy infestations, the larval densities are often reduced to one or two per plant Does not undergo diapause Killed by winter weather

35 Pupa Pupation normally takes place in the soil at a depth of 2-8 cm. The pupa is reddish brown in color. Pupal duration is about eight to nine days during the summer, but may be longer than two weeks under winter conditions Does not diapause over winter

36 Adult The adult moths have a wingspan of 32 to 40 mm Males have dark gray and brown shaded mottled forewings with conspicuous triangular white spots at the tip and near the center of the wing The hind wing is iridescent silver-white with a narrow dark border in both sexes Adults are nocturnal, and are most active at dusk for mating Adults can live up to an average of 10 days but sometimes the duration extends up to three weeks

37 Prefers young maize plants Damage on Maize Its attacks all stages of maize plant, foliar consumption is the major factor Generally feeds on foliage, but during heavy infestations, also feed on maize ears Foliar damage characterized by ragged feeding, and moist sawdust-like frass near the whorl and upper leaves of the plant Indirect effects on grain production

38 Damage on Maize Young larvae feed on one side of leaves leaving the epidermis intact on other side Older larvae feed by making holes in leaves and eat from the edge of the leaves inward Larval feeding causes extensive defoliation Larvae can also burrow into the growing point and affect the growth of plants Larvae sometimes bore into the ear through the husk and feed on kernels

39 Damage on Maize

40 Economic losses Outbreaks of Fall Armyworm have been reported in several countries in Africa Around 330,000 hectares of staple crops, especially maize, have been affected The remaining African countries remain at high risk. The severity of the impact on regional crop production is yet to be established

41 Monitoring Often done by using blacklight traps and pheromone traps Pheromone traps are very efficient, suspended at canopy height Insect catches indicate the presence of moths in the area but not good indicators of density Once the moths are detected, search for eggs and larvae To assess the proportion of plants infested, random sampling of 20 plants in five locations, or 10 plants in 10 locations, is considered adequate

42 Chemicals in Pheromone lure The FAW sex pheromone was reported by Tumlinson et al. (1986) A mixture of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-14:Ac; (Z)-7-dodecen- 1-ol acetate, (Z)-7-12:Ac; (Z)-9-dodecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-12:Ac and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-11-16:Ac In the ratio of 81: 0.5: 0.5: 18, respectively

43 Companies producing Pheromone traps ISCA Technologies, California, U.S.A. Russell IPM, England Biocontrole Pherobank Scentry monitoring products NovAgrica Evergreen growers supply Biocontrol Research Laboratory, Bangalore, India

44 Physical control Cultural practices Host plant resistance Biological control Chemical control IPM Control methods

45 Handpicking egg masses and larvae Deep plowing to kill pupae in the soil Placing sand or ash in the whorls Cultural control Intercropping with beans has shown to reduce the FAW infestations by percent.

46 (Needs to be tested)

47 (Needs to be tested)

48 Chemical Control Insecticides main control option: > 25 % plants damaged Spot treatment for isolated areas effective Late afternoon or early morning- best time Recommended insecticides: pyrethroids, carbamates and organophosphates Granular insecticides for young plants (whorl stage)

49 Chemical Control Limitations -Concealed larvae -Expensive and not affordable -Appropriate safety procedures may not be implemented on regular basis -Personal protective equipment not available -Increased risk of exposure -Resistance development

50 Insecticide resistance First noted in 1979, FAW collected from a maize in Tifton, Georgia (U.S.) was shown to be resistant to carbaryl. In 1991, a strain of FAW collected from maize in northern Florida (U.S.) showed resistance to commonly used insecticides. Also shown resistance to current pesticides

51 Insecticide resistance management Treat when needed: follow insect pest pressure and thresholds. Conservation Biological control Augmentation biological control Don t treat successive generations with products of the same mode of action Use an approximately 30 day window to conduct sprays of insecticides of the same mode of action Do not apply products of the same mode of action over more than 50% of the crop cycle

52 Insecticides recommended for use Active ingredient Abamectin Acetamiprid acetamiprid + lambda cyhalothrin Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) var. kurstaki Bifenthrin Beauveria bassiana Carbaryl Chlorantraniliprole Trade name Abba Gazelle Thuricide Capture Sevin

53 Insecticides recommended for use Active ingredient Trade name Chlorantaniliprole +lambda cyhalothrin Besiege beta cyfluthrin Baythroid gamma cyhalothrin Proaxis lambda cyhalothrin Warrior II zeta cypermethrin Respect Dimethoate Dimethoate Imidacloprid Admire Pro Indoxacarb + acetamiprid

54 Insecticides recommended for use Active ingredient Trade name Metarhizium anisopliae Malathion Malathion Methoxyfenozide Intrepid Permethrin Ambush Spinetoram Delegate Spinosad Success

55 Bayer crop science BELT SC 480 Flubendiamide *** Cancelled By EPA in U.S. Larvicide Effective against FAW Paralyses caterpillars within 1-2 hours of application

56 Host plant resistance Transgenic/ BT maize varieties Several varieties on the market that suppress/control FAW and other lepidopteran pests. CIMMYT is addressing this aspect

57 Biological control Classical: involves introducing natural enemies from a pest's native range into a new area where native natural enemies do not provide control. Augmentative: involves the massive production and release of natural enemies to control the pest quickly. Conservation: involves conservation of existing natural enemies in an environment as these natural enemies are already adapted to the habitat and to the target pest, and their conservation can be simple and cost-effective

58 Egg parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. Species Order: family Country Agathis stigmatera Hymenoptera: Braconidae Argentina Chelonus spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Barbados, Nicaragua Honduras, Mexico, Trinidad, Argentina, Brazil Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, U.S., Uruguay, Venezuela

59 Species Order: family Country Telenomus remus Telenomus spp. Trichogramma spp. Egg parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. Hymenoptera: Platygastridae Hymenoptera: Platygastridae Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Antigua, Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Equador, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad, U.S., Venezuela, Israel, India, Papua New Guinea Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Guadeloupe, Mexico, Southeast and South Asia Barbados, Nicaragua, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Argentina, Cuba, U.S., Guadeloupe, Mexico

60 Species Order: family Country Archytas spp. Diptera: Tachinidae Argentina, Barbados, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, U.S., Venezuela, Brazil, Chile, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad, Uruguay, Cuba, Ecuador, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, Peru Chelonus spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Barbados, Nicaragua Honduras, Mexico, Trinidad, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, U.S., Uruguay, Venezuela Cotesia marginiventris Larval parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Honduras, Barbados, Nicaragua, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Suriname, U.S., Uruguay, Venezuela, Trinidad & Tobago, Colombia, Guyana

61 Species Order: family Country Ophion spp. Euplectrus spp. Lespesia spp. Larval parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, U.S., Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, Nicargua, Peru, Nicaragua, U.S., Argentina, Puerto Rico, Panama, Honduras, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Guyana, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Trinidad, Venezuela, Honduras Brazil, Honduras, U.S., Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Honduras, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Colombia

62 Pupal parasitoids of Spodoptera spp. Species Order: family Country Brachymeria spp. Hymenoptera: Chalcididae Argentina, U.S. Trichospilus pupivora Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Barbados Cryptus albitarsis Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae U.S. Diapetimorpha introita Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Honduras, U.S. Ichneumon spp. Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae U.S.

63 Predators Doru luteipes (earwig) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) - Used for the biological control of FAW eggs in Brazil - Recommended by Brazil s national research agency Orius insidiosus (pirate bug) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) - Commercially produced - Not clear if used for FAW

64 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Florida, U.S. Species Telenomus remus Aleiodes laphygmae Meteorus antographae Cotesia marginiventris Euplectrus platyhypenae Chelonis insularis Order: family Hymenoptera: Platygastridae Hymenoptera: Braconidae Hymenoptera: Braconidae Hymenoptera: Braconidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Hymenoptera:Braconidae

65 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Florida, U.S. Species Order: family Lespesia archippivora Diptera: Tachinidae Lespesia aletiae Diptera: Tachinidae Eucelatoria rubentis Diptera: Tachinidae Ophion flavidus Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae

66 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Mexico Species Order: family Chelonis insularis Hymenoptera:Braconidae Aleiodes spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Glyptapanteles spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Cotesia spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae Homolobus spp. Meteorus antographae Hymenoptera: Braconidae Hymenoptera: Braconidae

67 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Mexico Species Order: family Campoletis flavicincta Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Eiphosoma vitticole Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Ophion flavidus Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Pristomerus spinator Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Aprostocetus spp. Euplectrus spp. Horismenus spp. Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

68 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Argentina Species Order: family Archytas spp. Diptera: Tachinidae Ophion spp. Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Campoletis grioti Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Chelonus insularis EuplectrusPlatyhypenae Incamyia chilensis Hymenoptera: Braconidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Diptera: Tachinidae

69 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Hondurus Species Order: family Chelonis insularis Hymenoptera: Braconidae Lespesia spp. Diptera: Tachinidae Ophion flavidus Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Eiphosoma vitticole Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Archytas spp. Euplectrus spp. Diptera: Tachinidae Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

70 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Hondurus Species Order: family Pristomerus spinator Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Temecula spp. Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Microcharops anticarsiae Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Cotesia marginiventris Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Rogas spp. Hymenoptera: Braconidae

71 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Brazil Species Order: family Aleiodes laphygmae Hymenoptera: Braconidae Campoletis sonorensis Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Chelonis insularis Hymenoptera: Braconidae Cotesia marginiventris Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Euplectrus plathypenae Homolobus truncator Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Hymenoptera: Braconidae

72 Parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda in Brazil Species Order: family Meteorus laphygmae Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Ophion flavidus Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Euplectrus plathypenae Pristomerus spinator Trichogramma atopovirilia Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

73 Egg parasitoid, Telenomus spp. reported in Africa Telenomus spp. Host Distribution T. procas Antigastra catalaunalis Senegal, Sudan T. nemesis Chilo orichalcociliellus Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Senegal T. busseolae Busseola fusca, Sesamia spp., Coneista ignefusalis T. creusa Chilo diffusilineus Malawi T. bini Maliarpha separratella, Chilo spp., Scirpophaga spp. Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Reunion, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda Ghana, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Malawi, Senegal, Tanzania. T. thestor Chilo orichalcociliellus Ivory Coast, Kenya, Senegal, Uganda, Zaire

74 Egg parasitoid, Telenomus spp. reported in Africa Telenomus spp. Host Distribution T. soudanensis, Chilo zacconius Niger T. nephele Scirpophaga melanoclista, S. Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, occidentella, S. subumbrosa Malawi, Mali, Senegal. T. etielliphaga Etiella zinckenella, Senegal T. applanatus Eldana saccharina Gabon, Ghana, Ivory coast T. versicolor Scirpophaga melanoclista Ghana, Ivory Coast, Malawi, Senegal

75 Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp. reported in Africa Trichogramma spp. Host Distribution Trichogramma bourarachae Helicoverpa armigera Morocco Trichogramma bournieri Chilo partellus Comoros, Kenya, Trichogramma cacoeciae - Morocco Trichogramma chilonis Trichogramma ethiopicum Eldana saccharina, Busseola fusca, South Africa Chilo partellus - Cameroon

76 Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp. reported in Africa Trichogramma spp. Host Distribution Trichogramma evanescens Chilo Agamemnon, Egypt, Madagascar Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera littoralis Trichogramma japonicum Chilo partellus Malawi Trichogramma kalkae Diopsis macrophthalma Malawi Trichogramma sp. nr kalkae - Zimbabwe Trichogramma kayo - Sudan Trichogramma mandelai Diparopsis watersi Chad

77 Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp. reported in Africa Trichogramma spp. Host Distribution Trichogramma sp. mwanzai Chilo diffusilineus, Chilo Malawi, Kenya partellus, Busseola fusca, Eldana saccharina, Sitotroga cerealella Trichogramma ostriniae Busseola fusca, Chilo partellus South Africa Trichogramma papilionidis Angola T. Pretiosum Apple leaf roller South Africa Trichogramma pinneyi Diopsis macrophthalma Malawi

78 Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp. reported in Africa Trichogramma spp. Host Distribution Trichogrammatoidea eldanae E. saccharina, Sesamia calamistis Trichogrammatoidea lutea C. partellus, B. fusca, H. armigera, H. armigera Trichogrammatoidea simmondsi Diopsis acrophthalma, C. partellus, False codling moth, H. armigera, Atherigona soccata South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya South Africa, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal Malawi, South Africa, Kenya, Burkina Faso

79 Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp. reported in Africa Trichogramma spp. Host Distribution Trichogramma sp. mwanzai Chilo diffusilineus, Chilo Malawi, Kenya partellus, Busseola fusca, Eldana saccharina, Sitotroga cerealella Trichogramma ostriniae Busseola fusca, Chilo partellus South Africa Trichogramma papilionidis Angola T. Pretiosum Apple leaf roller South Africa Trichogramma pinneyi Diopsis macrophthalma Malawi

80 Efficacy of egg parasitoids The presence of scales/hairs over the egg masses act as a barrier against parasitism by Trichogramma spp. This difficulty can be overcome by using a more aggressive parasitoid, capable of breaking the physical barrier imposed by scales on the eggs It is essential to know the species/strains present in the agro-ecosystem Telenomus remus has proved very effective in South America and Florida.

81 Telenomus remus parasitizing spodoptera eggs

82 Trichogramma spp. parasitizing spodoptera eggs

83 Another parsitoid: Habrobracon hebetor H. Hebetor developing on larvae of the MHM

84 Another parsitoid: Habrobracon hebetor Wasp, belonging to family braconidae Used against pearl millet head miner Parasitoids cultured in jute bags and dispersed in millet fields

85 Habrobracon hebetor In Africa: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Egypt, Libya, Madagascar, Niger, Senegal, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mauritius (CABI) Found in Israel EPPO Countries: Mediterranean region, Portugal, Germany

86 Parasitoids Being reared Telenomus remus (Florida, Brazil) Chelonus sp. (Florida) Cotesia marginiventris (Florida) Habrobracon hebetor (Niger, Senegal)

87 Origin Southeast Asia 1963 Introduced to India from Papua New Guinea - established 1971 to 1972 Introduced to Barbados; later introduced to Antigua, Dominica, Monserrat, St Kitts, St Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago 1978 Released in El Salvador and Nicaragua (not established?) Released in Florida Telenomus remus 1989 Introduced to Venezuela established Intoduced to Honduras

88 Telenomus remus 1982 Introduced to Australia from S.E. Asia and Dominican Republic Introduced to Cyprus 1969 Introduced to Israel from Papua New Guinea 1975 Introduced to New Zealand from Pakistan 1982 Indroduced to Pakistan from Trinidad

89 Cotesia marginiventris Introduced to Australia in 1982 from U.S.A. Occurs in Fiji (Maddison, 1982) Introduced to India in 1969 from U.S.A. Introduced to Egypt in 1950s from U.S.A. Found in Central African Republic and Egypt. (CABI) Used in EPPO countries :Belgium, France, Netherlands, Spain

90 Telenomus nawai Introduced to Egypt in from Hawaii Telenomus spodopterae Introduced to Egypt in 1940 from Java Chelonus insularis Found in South Africa and Egypt. (CABI) Other species found in Israel, Egpyt

91 Other biological control options S. frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SFNPV) - Used in Brazil (Cruz et al. 1997, Barreto et al. 2005) - Increased larval mortality; up to 90 percent, Increased parasitoid populations Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana - Tested (in vitro) in Mexico, Brazil (Arenas et al. 2014, Thomazoni et al. 2014) - B. bassiana caused mortality 3-90% eggs, % (Gutierrez et al 1996) Seed treatment with Trichoderma induces defense

92 Botanicals: Anti-feedant, insecticidal effect Neem based products: Azadirachtin main component - Align -Azatin -Ecozin -Neemazal -Neememusion -Neemix - Ornazin Tephrosia Other biological control options

93 Biocontrol Cultural - Trap crops - Push and pull Summary Egg Adult FAW Larva Pupa Biocontrol Biopesticides Botanical Host Plant Resistance Chemical Physical Physical/ chemical - Pheromone traps - Light traps Biocontrol Physical - Ploughing

94 Researchable Areas for Mitigation Induce defense in maize plants by treating the seeds with Trichoderma Screen pheromone lures from different sources for their efficacy Set up pheromone traps for monitoring Set up pheromone traps on an area-wide basis for suppression of the population of FAW

95 Researchable Areas for Mitigation Adoption of trap crops. (castor plants to attract moths to lay eggs; planting young maize plants in mature crops) Application of Neem seed extract or commercial neem formulations. Survey of FAW locally recruited natural enemies and recording them on a regional and continental basis. Multiplication of effective egg/larval parasitoids in the lab for augmentative release.

96 Researchable Areas for Mitigation Consideration of classical biological control by introducing effective exotic natural enemies, if local natural enemies proven not effective Explore push and pull technique Use of Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and NPV Hand-picking caterpillars in small gardens Plow the field after harvest to kill pupae in the soil

97 Researchable Areas for Mitigation Screening insecticides for efficacy Use of selected insecticides Use of resistant varieties if available Use of GMO s (where approved)

98 IPM: Integrated Pest Management IPM developed for an entire cropping system/ crop Not focused on one pest/ disease Integration of management practices developed for FAW into the IPM package developed for Maize.

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