1 Factors Affecting Sweet Cherry Fruit Pitting Resistance/Susceptibility Yan Wang Postharvest Physiologist MCAREC, OSU
2 Sweet cherry pitting #1 postharvest disorder Pitting not only detract from the appearance but also hasten fruit deterioration
3 Rational of the study However, limited research on pitting of the new late-season cultivars. Sweetheart, Lapins, Skeena Pitting data in literature were generated on Lambert, Van, and Bing, with extremely contradictory results. Both growers and packers need the information on 1. What cause pitting, 2. Factors influence pitting susceptibility, on the current major cultivars.
4 Scenario of pitting formation Epidermis Hypodermis Mesocarp Healthy fruit Pitting Impact/compact damage on skin 10 layers of parenchyma cells in mesocarp collapsed and water loss Necrotic lesion formed after 1-2 weeks in storage/shipping Vascular tissue Skin depression occurred underlied the necrotic lesion Wade and Bain, cv. Ron s Seedling
5 What cause pitting of sweet cherries Heat/moisture stresses cause pitting on trees (>90 F for 3d) Skeena Regina Mechanical stresses
6 Mechanical stress & Pitting Picking Pitting generated by Squeezing by hands Fruit-to-bucket Fruit-to-fruit Fruit-to-stem
8 Pitting resistance/susceptibility However, It is often not possible to avoid all these mechanical stresses during picking, packing, and transportation. Therefore, increasing fruit pitting resistance is important. Pre-harvest factors Pre-harvest GA 3 and Ca 2+ sprays Harvest maturity Crop load Postharvest factors Postharvest Ca 2+ treatment Edible coating Fruit pulp temperature
9 1. Pre-harvest GA 3, Ca 2+ applications to increase pitting resistance of sweet cherries Yan Wang and Todd Einhorn
10 1.1. GA 3 increased fruit firmness Sweetheart, Lapins Two pitting susceptible cultivars Application rate, Application frequency, Production year, Application timing. GA 3 increased FF on both cultivars in different years Response saturated at a single, low rate (20-25 ppm) There is a wide application window: ±10d from straw color stage
11 As a result of the increased FF, GA 3 reduced pitting Response saturated at a single, low rate (20-25 ppm) Application window: ±10d from straw color stage
12 1.2. Pre-harvest calcium (Ca) sprays Ca plays an extremely important role in the fruit for Cell wall structure and strength Cell plasma membrane structure and integrity However, fruit are often deficient in Ca due to its low mobility in plants: Acid soil Ca in soil at low ph (i.e., <6) is not available for root uptake. High growing temperature Inhibit Ca uptake and transportation. Water stress, high humidity Plant uptakes and transports Ca by water flow in xylem. Low crop load Ca tends to move into actively growing leaves and shoots in stead of fruit in the condition of low crop load. High N and K levels Competition
13 Tissue Ca content & pitting susceptibility Different cultivars Pitting susceptible cultivars, like Van, have low Ca content, Pitting resistant cultivars, like Regina, have higher Ca content. Bing from different orchards Higher Ca content, less pitting, Lower Ca content, more pitting.
14 Different orchards: Skeena
15 Pre-harvest Ca 2+ sprays on Lapins A preliminary trial: CaCl 2 at 0.2% multiple sprays (6) on Lapins Increased tissue Ca content
16 Pre-harvest Ca 2+ sprays on Lapins A preliminary trial: CaCl 2 at 0.2% multiple sprays (6) on Lapins Increased tissue Ca content Increased FF Reduced pitting susceptibility
17 Pre-harvest Ca 2+ sprays on Lapins A preliminary trial: CaCl 2 at 0.2% multiple sprays (6) on Lapins Increased tissue Ca content Increased FF and pitting resistance Limited pedicel browning after 3 weeks of storage/shipping Control Ca at 0.2%
18 Pre-harvest Ca 2+ sprays on Lapins A preliminary trial: CaCl 2 at 0.2% multiple sprays (6) on Lapins Increased tissue Ca content Increased FF and pitting resistance Limited pedicel browning Reduced decay after 4 weeks of storage + 2d at room temperature.
19 Pre-harvest Ca 2+ sprays improve heat resistance A preliminary trial: CaCl 2 sprays on Skeena before heat stress. Reduced pitting caused by heat stress. Control CaCl 2 at 0.2%
20 Need more research on pre-harvest Ca 2+ sprays To optimize: 1. Ca sources: CaCl 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2, Ca citrate, Ca acetate, Chelated Ca 2. Application rate 3. Application timing 4. Application frequency
21 2. Harvest maturity affects pitting susceptibility of sweet cherries Yan Wang and Todd Einhorn
23 Harvest maturity affects pitting susceptibility As harvest timing delayed, Sweetheart ctifl 3-6; Lapins ctifl 4-7 However, fruit softened. Pitting susceptibility increased. Sweetheart at ; Lapins at
24 More mature, more susceptible to pitting Collected on line
25 Late harvest Pedicel browning: senescence Luster color loss After 4 weeks in storage at 32 F ctifl 3.5 ctifl 4.5 ctifl 5.5 ctifl 6.5
26 Conclusion (harvest maturity) To balance eating quality and shipping quality: Sweetheart at ctifl 4.5 Lapins at ctifl 5.5 Enough size and sugar, Less pitting, better luster, limited pedicel browning after storage/shipping.
27 3. Crop load (Yan Wang and Todd Einhorn) Three Crop loads: Low = 2-3 fruit/spur; Moderate = 5-7 fruit/spur; Heavy = >10 fruit/spur. Heavy crop load reduced fruit size, SSC, and fruit firmness (FF). At harvest 2 weeks at 32 F FD RR FF SSC TA FF SSC TA IP PI (mm) (ml kg -1 h -1 ) (g mm -1 ) (%) (%) (g mm -1 ) (%) (%) (1-4) (%) Lapins 2012 L 30.9a 21.4b 304a 18.7a 0.84a 316a 17.9a 0.60a 2.58b 8.5b M 29.1b 24.7ab 279b 15.9b 0.82a 295b 15.3b 0.61a 2.72ab 19.6ab H 27.3c 25.9a 263b 14.3c 0.85a 287b 14.5b 0.55b 2.92a 26.8a Lapins 2013 L 31.4a 22.6b 258a b M 29.3b 23.1b 263a b H 27.2c 28.6a 218b a Sweetheart 2012 L 28.9a 16.7b 366a 20.6a 0.87a 388a 21.2a 0.77a 2.56b 5.5b M 27.0b 16.8b 338b 19.5a 0.89a 365b 19.3b 0.76a 2.61ab 11.1a H 26.2c 23.5a 329b 17.3b 0.84a 356b 16.9c 0.70b 2.79a 12.3a Sweetheart 2013 L 28.4a 17.6a 409a 22.5a 0.91a 511a 22.1a 0.85a 2.22a M 28.2a 18.8a 415a 22.7a 0.85b 520a 21.3a 0.8b 2.28a H 27.5a 19.3a 394a 20.5b 0.73c 488b 19.7b 0.71c 2.29a
28 Crop load affects pitting susceptibility Heavy crop load, more susceptible to pitting.
29 FF is a pitting resistance predictor A wide rang of fruit quality and pitting susceptibility was generated by GA 3, harvest maturity, and crop load treatments: FF had a significant negative correlation with pitting susceptibility. SSC, size, RR, and TA were poorly related to Pitting.
30 4. Postharvest Ca treatment Calcium salts are widely used in food industry. Calcium carbonate Calcium citrate Enhance nutritional value Calcium lactate Calcium chloride Calcium phosphate Calcium propionate Calcium gluconate Preservation Enhancement of product firmness
31 Postharvest Ca treatment Calcium treatments represent a safe and effective method for increasing the quality and storage life of a wide range of fruit. apple, peach, tomato, cantaloupe, grapefruit, pomegranate, strawberry, papaya OptiCAL However, no reports on sweet cherry. Two year study: The effect of adding OptiCAL in hydrocooling water on pitting of sweet cherry
32 Postharvest Ca treatment and tissue Ca content Opti-CAL in hydro-cooling water at % for 5 or 30 min. Increase tissue [Ca] Cherry fruit uptake Ca 2+ pretty fast at low temperature, compared to other fruit.
33 Postharvest Ca treatment and pitting Opti-CAL in hydro-cooling water at % for 5 min. Increase FF, reduce pitting susceptibility
34 Postharvest Ca treatment and pedicel quality Opti-CAL in hydro-cooling water for 5 min maintained Lapins pedicel quality at % but damaged pedicel at %. Control Ca 0.2% Ca 0.5% Ca 1.0% Ca 2.0%
35 Postharvest Ca treatment and pedicel quality Opti-CAL in cold water for min maintained Skeena pedicel quality at % but damaged pedicel at %. Control Ca 0.2% Ca 0.5% Ca 1.0% Ca 2.0%
36 5. Edible coatings Research reported that the following coatings improve shipping quality of sweet cherries. Semperfresh TM Registered for sweet cherry postharvest use. Alginate Brown Algae Chitosan Shrimp shells and other sea crustaceans. Aloe Vera
37 Edible coatings Literature indicated that edible coatings improve shipping quality by 1. Reduce respiration rate 2. Reduce moisture loss Pedicel quality 3. Reduce decay and food safety microbial. We found that edible coating application rates affect pitting expression of PNW sweet cherry.
38 Semperfresh TM and pitting Semperfresh TM at 0.5% reduced pitting Chelan Sweetheart Reduced moisture loss Higher rate at 1.0% increased pitting of Sweetheart. Localized O 2 deficiency
39 Semperfresh TM and pitting
41 6. Fruit pulp temperature and pitting susceptibility The lower the pulp temperature, the more susceptible to pitting. Lapins Sweetheart
42 Box filling and pitting Fruit pulp temperature at box filling = F, therefore, extremely sensitive to pitting. Reducing the drop height or cushion the drop reduced pitting incidence.
43 Take home message s Heat/moisture stresses can cause Skeena pitting on the trees. Pre-harvest GA 3 at a single low rate and Ca 2+ multiple applications at low rate enhance fruit firmness and reduce pitting susceptibility. More mature, softer fruit and more susceptible to pitting The optimum harvest maturity: Sweetheart at 4.5; Lapins at 5.5 Heavy crop load reduces fruit firmness and increases pitting. Tissue Ca content is related to pitting resistance. Sweet cherry fruit uptake Ca 2+ at low temperature fast. Adding OptiCAL TM at % in hydro-cooling water for 5min increases fruit Ca 2+ content and pitting resistance. Higher rates at % damage pedicel quality. Semperfresh TM reduce pitting at 0.5%, but increase pitting at higher rate. The lower the fruit pulp temperature, the higher susceptibility to pitting. Box filling during on-line packing generates significant pitting. Reducing drop height or cushion the drop during box filling reduce pitting.
44 Thank you for your attention and research support!
Pre- and Postharvest 1-MCP Technology for Apples Dr. Jennifer DeEll Fresh Market Quality Program Lead OMAFRA, Simcoe, Ontario, CANADA Specific topics Definitions SmartFresh SM vs. TM SmartFresh and disorders,
Calcium Use in Apples: An Update M. Elena Garcia, PhD Physiological role of calcium 4Calcium is perhaps the most important mineral determining the quality of fruit, particularly in apples and pears because
Ripening and Conditioning Fruits for Fresh-cut Adel Kader UCDavis Management of Ripening of Intact and Fresh-cut Fruits 1. Stages of fruit development 2. Fruits that must ripen on the plant 3. Fruits that
Southeast Regional Fruit & Vegetable Conference January 9, 2015 Steve Sargent Extension postharvest horticulturist Horticultural Sciences Department University of Florida-IFAS email@example.com DEALING WITH
Vegetable Crops PLSC 451/551 Lesson 7, Harvest, Handling, Packing Instructor: Stephen L. Love Aberdeen R & E Center 1693 S 2700 W Aberdeen, ID 83210 Phone: 397-4181 Fax: 397-4311 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
FINAL PROJECT REPORT WTFRC Project Number: AP-07-707 Project Title: PI: Organization: A new approach to understand and control bitter pit in apple Elizabeth Mitcham University of California Telephone/email:
Factors to consider when ripening avocado Mary Lu Arpaia Univ. of CA Riverside, CA email@example.com Why Ripen Avocados? Untreated, fruit ripening may range from a few days to even weeks within a carton
Post-Harvest-Multiple Choice Questions 1. Chilling injuries arising from the exposure of the products to a temperature a. above the normal physiological range b. below the normal physiological range c.under
New Cherry Varieties, Pearl Series and More Lynn E. Long Oregon State University Variety Trial Established 1996 Evaluated 150+ Cultivars & selections Potential candidates for PNW industry Thanks to Mike
Reasons for using potassium nitrate in a foliar spray Potassium nitrate can be used for one or more of the following reasons: - To prevent the occurrence of nutrient deficiency before the first deficiency
CHEMICAL THINNING OF APPLE UNDER NORWEGIAN CONDITIONS. WHAT WORKS? Frank Maas & Mekjell Meland Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO Ullensvang CONTENT PRESENTATION Introduction Frank Maas Background
Olives Postharvest Quality Maintenance Guidelines Carlos H. Crisosto and Adel A. Kader Pomology Department University of California Davis, CA 95616 Scientific Name and Introduction Olive is a member of
South African Avocado Growers Association Yearbook 1996. 19:113-115 Temperature Regimes for Avocados Grown In Kwazulu-Natal C.C. Mans Haffenden Groves, Private Bag X11154, Schagen 1207 ABSTRACT This was
Fruit Set, Growth and Development Fruit set happens after pollination and fertilization, otherwise the flower or the fruit will drop. The flowering and fruit set efficiency could be measured by certain
Best Practices for use of SmartFresh on Pear Fruit Beth Mitcham Department of Plant Sciences University of California Davis 1-Methylcyclopropene Cyclic olefin gas Inhibitor of ethylene binding and action
Post harvest physiology Majid Javanmard Apple Bitter pit is a disorder in apple fruits, now believed to be induced by calcium deficiency. It occurs less commonly in pears. The disease was probably first
Regional and harvest date relationships with storage quality of Honeycrisp apples Chris Watkins and Jackie Nock Department of Horticulture Cornell University Ithaca, NY 1485 Today s presentation Background
Avocado Postharvest Handling Avocado Postharvest Handling Mary Lu Arpaia University of California, Riverside Major California Avocado Cultivars Bacon Fuerte Gwen Hass Lamb Hass Pinkerton Reed Zutano Hass
Fruit Ripening & Retail Handling Workshop Cold Storage Disorders of Fruits and Vegetables Mikal E. Saltveit Mann Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences University of California, Davis Why use cold storage?
California Avocado Society 1966 Yearbook 50: 128-133 THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE UPON RIPENING AND RESPIRATORY RATE OF AVOCADO FRUIT Irving L. Eaks University of California, Riverside Avocado fruits will not
firstname.lastname@example.org Combined Rankings (%) USDA Specialty Crops Research Project Increasing Consumption of Specialty Crops by Enhancing Their Quality & Safety Percent of the combined rankings of the reasons
March 13 th & 14 th, 21, Wenatchee, WA GALA SPLITTING Preston K. Andrews Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-6414 59-335-363 (office) email@example.com
New Zealand and Australia Avocado Grower s Conference 05. 20-22 September 2005. Tauranga, New Zealand. Session 6. Postharvest quality, outturn. 9 pages. IS RIPENING AND POST HARVEST QUALITY OF HASS AVOCADOS
MATURITY AND RIPENING PROCESS MATURITY It is the stage of fully development of tissue of fruit and vegetables only after which it will ripen normally. During the process of maturation the fruit receives
Avocado Postharvest Handling California Avocado Cultivars Bacon Fuerte Gwen Hass Mary Lu Arpaia University of California, Riverside Lamb Hass Pinkerton Reed Zutano Hass Seasonality Susceptibility to low
Proc. of Second World Avocado Congress 1992 pp. 467-472 Response of 'Hass' Avocado to Postharvest Storage in Controlled Atmosphere Conditions Dana F. Faubion, F. Gordon Mitchell, and Gene Mayer Department
Unit F: Harvesting Fruits and Nuts Lesson 2: Grade, Pack, Store and Transport Fruits and Nuts 1 I. After the fruit and nuts are safely harvested, they need to be graded so they can be sold at market. 2
Session Six Postharvest quality, outturn New Zealand and Australia Avocado Grower s s Conference 05 20-22 22 September 2005 Tauranga,, New Zealand Avocado Postharvest Quality An Overview Mary Lu Arpaia
Sticking and mold control TIA Tech 2017 Los Angeles, California Steve Bright Sticking Package Sticking Defined: Two or more tortillas that will not separate from each other without tearing or ripping after
Lecture 4. Factors affecting ripening can be physiological, physical, or biotic. Physiological factors relate to fruit maturity or environmental factors, which affect the metabolism of fruit and banana.
Some Uses of Plant Growth Regulators in Modern Apple Production Systems Steven McArtney Southeast Apple Specialist Department of Horticultural Science, NSCU Some Uses of PGR s Crop load management Control
Ripening Temperature Management Jeff Brecht Horticultural Sciences Department University of Florida firstname.lastname@example.org Why Ripen? Fruit Ripening and Ethylene Management Workshop UC Davis, April 8-9, 27 Ripening
D Lemmer and FJ Kruger Lowveld Postharvest Services, PO Box 4001, Nelspruit 1200, SOUTH AFRICA E-mail: email@example.com ABSTRACT This project aims to develop suitable storage and ripening regimes for
California Avocado Society 1993 Yearbook 77: 79-88 Studies in the Postharvest Handling of California Avocados Mary Lu Arpaia Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside
Factors to consider when ripening avocado Mary Lu Arpaia Univ. of CA Riverside, CA firstname.lastname@example.org Limitations to avocado postharvest handling v Time after harvest (fruit age) v Stage of ripeness more
Fruit Preparation for Consumers Stages of Fruit Development Stages of Fruit Development Maturation The stage of development leading to the attainment of physiological or horticultural maturity. Physiological
Subtropical Fruits Mark Ritenour Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce Jeff Brecht Horticultural Science Department, Gainesville Subtropical Fruits Some of these fruits are grown in tropical
AVOCADO FARMING Introduction Avocado is an important commercial fruit in Kenya both for local and export markets. The fruit is highly nutritious - rich in proteins and cholesterol free. Both large-scale
: 43-50 INCREASING PICK TO PACK TIMES INCREASES RIPE ROTS IN 'HASS' AVOCADOS. J. Dixon, T.A. Elmlsy, D.B. Smith and H.A. Pak Avocado Industry Council Ltd, P.O. Box 13267, Tauranga 3110 Corresponding author:
Avocado Farming Introduction Avocado is an important commercial fruit in Kenya both for local and export markets. The fruit is highly nutritious fruit rich in proteins and cholesterol free. Both large-scale
QUALITY OF IRRADIATED TROPICAL FRUIT Marisa Wall U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Hilo, HI Hawaii: Irradiation treatments approved for export to U.S. Fruit Abiu Atemoya Banana Breadfruit
Stella Maris on Wine Grapes Spring, 2018 Traditional Stella Maris wine programs have focused on improving cluster architecture, berry set, and yield. Wine Grape Benefits More recent, research has focused
Peach and Nectarine Cork Spot: A Review of the 1998 Season Kevin R. Day Tree Fruit Farm Advisor Tulare County University of California Cooperative Extension Along with many other problems, fruit corking
TM and EthylBloc TM Technology: Tools to control ripening and senescence Presented to: Fruit Ripening and Ethylene Mgt Workshop By: Deirdre Holcroft Date: 28 April 2009 2009 AgroFresh Inc. All rights reserved.
Is fruit dry matter concentration a useful predictor of Honeycrisp apple fruit quality after storage? T.L. Robinson 1, A.D. Rufato 2, L. Rufato 3 and L.I. Dominguez 1 1Dept. of Horticulture, NYSAES, Cornell
Effects of calcium sprays and AVG on fruit quality at harvest and after storage Principal Investigators Chuck Ingels and Beth Mitcham/Bill Biasi Collaborators Thom Wiseman and Michelle Leinfelder-Miles
STORAGE SCALD OF APPLES Dr. Eugene Kupferman WSU-TFREC, 11 North Western Ave. Wenatchee, WA 9881 email@example.com WHAT IS STORAGE SCALD? Simply put, storage scald is the diffuse browning of the skin of apples
Proceedings V World Avocado Congress (Actas V Congreso Mundial del Aguacate) 23. pp. 647-62. NEW ZEALAND AVOCADO FRUIT QUALITY: THE IMPACT OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND MATURITY J. Dixon 1, H.A. Pak, D.B.
J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 101(6):665-667. 1976. Chilling Sensitivity of Avocado Fruit at Different Stages of the Respiratory Climacteric 1 S. Kosiyachinda 3 and R. E. Young 2 Department of Plant Sciences,
Canola and Frost What happens to the seed? Robert Park Oilseed Specialist MAFRI Growing Degree Days 2004 Examples of low temperature impact on Growing Degree Day accumulation 1 : Location Edmonton Saskatoon
Proceedings VII World Avocado Congress 11 (Actas VII Congreso Mundial del Aguacate 11). Cairns, Australia. 5 9 September 11 Avocado sugars key to postharvest shelf life? I. Bertling and S. Z. Tesfay Horticultural
Avocado Growers Manual Postharvesting Handling If the fruit are held at 3 to 4 C once sprung, shelf life should not be affected. Care must be taken not to remove sprung fruit to a high temperature as this
200 EFFECT OF CURING AND SEAL PACKAGING ON PEEL AND PULP WEIGHT LOSS PERCENTAGE OF SCUFFING DAMAGED AND UNDAMAGED CITRUS FRUIT. Dr. M. Akram Tariq, 1 Ex Professor A. K. Thompson, 2 Ali Asghar Asi 3 and
MSU Berry Crops Entomology Lab Managing potato leafhopper in wine grapes Rufus Isaacs & Steve Van Timmeren Dept. of Entomology Michigan State University Paolo Sabbatini & Pat Murad Dept. of Horticulture,
LEKARGA Keepfresh sheets KEEPFRESH SHEET Commercial Name: KEEPFRESH SHEET Description: Keepfresh is an Ethylene Absorber sheet which allows ethylene producing and sensitive goods to be shipped or stores
Predicting Susceptibility of Gala Apples To Lenticel Breakdown Disorder: Guidelines for Using the Dye Uptake Test Dr. Eric Curry and Dr. Eugene Kupferman Preliminary research indicates the following test
Utilization of Modified Atmosphere Packaging to Increase Shelf Life Batziakas Kostas, Rivard Cary and Pliakoni Eleni Department of Horticulture & Natural Resources Kansas State University Fresh Produce
Management of Lenticel Browning in Mango R.R. Sharma and K. Prasad Division of Food Science and Postharvest Technology ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-11 12 (Email:firstname.lastname@example.org)
Modified or Controlled Atmospheres What is it? Modified and Controlled Atmospheres during Transit and Storage Beth Mitcham University of California, Davis Reduced oxygen Increased carbon dioxide Removing
HARVEST AND POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS HARVEST AND POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS U. KUMAR Managing Director Agrobios (India), Jodhpur S. PRASAD Ex-Associate Professor Rajasthan Agricultural
South African Avocado Growers Association Yearbook 1999. 22:48-50 Hot water treatment of avocado fruit to induce cold tolerance S Kremer-Köhne Merensky Technological Services, P.O. Box 14, Duivelskloof
2009 Orchard and Vineyard Show MSHS Trust Management of Croploadon Honeycrispto optimize fruit quality and return bloom Jim Flore, Phil Schwallier, Paolo Sabbatini, and Lynne Sage, MSU Research supported
Relationship between fruit pulp mineral composition and the ripening profiles of South African Hass avocado fruit FJ Kruger, O Volschenk and D Lemmer Lowveld Postharvest Services PO Box 4001, Nelspruit
Harvesting and Postharvest Harvesting and Postharvest Handling of Dates Handling of Dates Adel Kader UCDavis June. 2009 Khimri Stage of Development Khalal Stage of Development Date Orchard in Coachella
Using Natural Lipids to Accelerate Ripening and Uniform Color Development and Promote Shelf Life of Cranberries 66 Mustafa Özgen and Jiwan P. Palta Department of Horticulture University of Wisconsin, Madison,
Pecan Production 101: Physiology, Orchard Establishment, Cultivars, Training/Pruning Lenny Wells UGA Extension Horticulture Chilling/Heating As more chill hrs accumulate, less heat units required to stimulate
VERAMIN Line liquid foliar fertilizers are the first product line for plant nutrition and biostimulation based on ALOE VERA (Aloe Barbadensis) extracts and vegetable amino acids. ALOE VERA has extraordinary
: 15-26 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AVOCADO CULTIVARS LAMB HASS AND GEM MATURITY AND FRUIT QUALITY RESULTS FROM NEW ZEALAND EVALUATION TRIALS J. Dixon, C. Cotterell, B. Hofstee and T.A. Elmsly Avocado Industry
Washington Winegrowers Convention Kennewick, WA, February 6-8, 2018 Growing Grapes for White Wine Production: Do s and Don ts in the Vineyard Markus Keller Aroma, flavor: Volatiles for white wine Norisoprenoids
Platina Your insurance against cracking of cherry Composition Foliar fertilizer (nitrogen N) based on tryptophan, a plant specific amino acid Different from other amino acid fertilizers Single amino acid
2010 CHERRY TOUR OF NEW ZEALAND by Ken Gaudion Cherry Tour Of New Zealand (Central Otago) Jan. 30 th -Feb 2 nd 2010 By Ken Gaudion Organised by Anna Steinhauser, Industry Development Officer, Cherry Growers
Table Grape Postharvest Handling Carlos H. Crisosto email@example.com Three BotrytisMain Decay Problems Hairline Bleaching Add bleaching/hairline Use of SO 2 to Control Decay Time Initial Total Consumption
South African Avocado Growers Association Yearbook 1984. 7:38-40 THE INFLUENCE OF MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE STORAGE ON THE QUALITY OF FUERTE AVOCADO FRUIT M J SLABBERT AND G J VELDMAN WESTFALIA ESTATES, DUIWELSKLOOF