IDENTIFICATION GUIDE TO FLORIDA S INVASIVE PLANT-PESTS

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1 SP 537 IDENTIFICATION GUIDE TO FLORIDA S INVASIVE PLANT-PESTS

2 Authors 2 Information and images found in this identification guide have been taken from scripted presentations developed by various authors for the Florida First Detector Workshops. To see the original presentations, please visit the website This identification guide was created by: Cory Penca, Graduate Research Assistant, UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department Amanda Hodges, Ph.D., DPM Director, Associate Extension Scientist, UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department Leroy Whilby, Bureau Chief of Entomology, Nematology, and Plant Pathology, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry Stephanie Stocks, M.S., Former Assistant-In, Extension Scientist, UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department Jennifer Hamel, Ph.D., Former Post-Doctoral Associate, UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department Produced by: Jennifer Carr and Kay Weigel, UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department Funding for the Pest Detection Workshops was provided by the USDA Farm Bill, cooperative agreement CA and the continuation of the agreement for FY2016.

3 Sample Submission Please contact your UF/IFAS Extension agent for assistance with submitting suspect samples. Sample submission forms can be downloaded from: Suspect samples should be sent to one of the following locations: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry 1911 SW 34 th St. Gainesville, FL (352) UF Insect ID Lab UF/IFAS Department of Entomology and Nematology 970 Natural Area Drive Gainesville, FL (352) UF Plant Diagnostic Center Building 1291, 2570 Hull Road Gainesville, FL (352) If you have a giant African land snail or see snails or signs of their presence, call the toll-free helpline at

4 Florida s Most Wanted: Report Suspect Invasive Plant-Pests Introduction This handbook is designed as a quick reference guide for recognizing invasive pests of concern to Florida. If you have questions or concerns about any suspect pests, please contact your local UF/IFAS Extension agent, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services - Division of Plant Industry (FDACS-DPI), or Lyle Buss in the University of Florida Insect Identification Lab. For sample submission instructions and contact information, please see page 3 of this ID deck. Why are you likely to encounter new pests? Florida has large agricultural and nursery industries as well as a climate that promotes year-round plant production. Additionally, Florida has 12 international airports, 14 deep-water ports, and leads the nation in the importation of plant materials. As a result, new pests can frequently enter Florida, and it can be easy for them to establish populations due to the climate and food availability. 4

5 Florida s Most Wanted: Report Suspect Invasive Plant-Pests Why are volunteers necessary for recognizing and reporting new pest species? Federal, state, and other agencies are responsible for preventing pest introductions, detecting pests that are accidentally introduced, and managing and eradicating pests. However, your role is an important one. First, you can expand our ability to find pests. Farms, public gardens, nurseries, state parks, and community and private gardens are likely sites for finding introduced pests, and it is not feasible for federal and state agencies to successfully monitor all of these sites in Florida. Second, you can expand our ability to find new pests early, before pests establish. Early detection of invasive pests increases the chances of eradication of those pests. Finally, you know your plants, and you are the best expert for recognizing unusual symptoms or changes that can indicate the presence of an invasive pest. 5

6 Insects This identification guide includes a number of major insect pests that threaten plant health in Florida. The insects in this deck are organized based on their taxonomic order, and include beetles (order Coleoptera), flies (order Diptera), true bugs, aphids and whiteflies (order Hemiptera), and moths and their caterpillars (order Lepidoptera). Common forms of damage: The damage caused by insects varies depending on the feeding type (chewing vs. piercing/sucking, internal or external). Chewing feeders often leave holes in plant tissue or consume the edges of the leaves. Internal chewing feeders, such as many beetle larvae, will consume plant material within the plant stem, trunk or fruiting structure, and are typically hidden from view. Piercing/sucking feeders from the order Hemiptera will pierce their host plants with their straw-like mouth parts to feed on plant nutrients, causing a stippling appearance on the plant surface and occasionally causing malformed growth around the feeding site. Direct observation of insect presence, or observation of signs of insect feeding, can alert one to the presence of insect pests. 6

7 Insects Preventing invasive insect pests from entering Florida is the first and most important line of defense. Once insect pests have established in a region it is extremely difficult and expensive to eradicate them. In most situations, the only available option is to control their impact and limit spread. The consequence of invasive insect establishment includes significant economic harm to agriculture, home landscapes and the environment. Early detection of invasive insect pests provides an important head start for limiting the damage caused by invasive pests. 7

8 Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis Not established in the U.S. 8 Adults: Glossy black with up to 20 white or yellow irregularly shaped patches on each wing cover. The antennae alternate between blue-black and blue-white bands and the legs are bluish white. ~19 36 mm. Larvae: Cream colored with a large, dark brown head and a body that tapers off toward the tail. Larvae are found feeding inside the tree. At maturity, larvae are ~30 60 mm in length. Pupae: Ivory white. Found in a pupal chamber near the sapwood. ~30 37 mm. Eggs: Eggs are oblong and white when initially laid, turning off-white as they mature. Found laid singly underneath oviposition sites on the bark. ~5 7 mm. Hosts: Preferred hosts include maple, buckeye, poplar, willow, and elm. Damage: Larval feeding in the inner bark and sapwood disrupts the movement of water and nutrients, causing branches and trees to die from the top down. Distribution: Native to China, it has been found in New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Illinois, and Ohio where eradication programs are underway. Similar Species: The white-spotted sawyer and the cottonwood borer are similar in appearance to the Asian longhorned beetle. Look for bright white spots on a shiny black body, and distinct white and blank bands on the antennae of the Asian longhorned beetle.

9 Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis Not established in the U.S. Adult Damage Larva 9

10 Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Established in the U.S., but not Florida Adults: Small beetle with an elongated, metallic green exterior. When the wings are moved aside a distinct bright-red colored abdomen is exposed (unlike any other Agrilus species found in North America). ~1.25 cm. Larvae: Larvae have a flattened, cream-colored body with bell-shaped segments. ~2.5 cm. Pupae: Initially a cream-white color, darkening near pupation. Found within the host tree. Eggs: Eggs are laid in groups or individually. Each egg looks like a small, reddish-brown coin. ~1 mm. Hosts: Limited host range includes ash and white fringetree. Damage: Initial symptoms of emerald ash borer infestation include thinning of the canopy and shoot production on the lower trunk. Signs include serpentine tunnels produced by larval feeding on the inner bark and D-shaped exit holes. Infestation can lead to tree death. Distribution: Native to China and eastern Asia. In the U.S. this species has been detected in Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. 10

11 Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Established in the U.S., but not Florida Similar Species: Can be confused with other wood borers of the genus Agrilus, such as the bronze birch borer and the two-lined chestnut borer. Look for a metallic green body with a red abdomen underneath the wings. Larva Adult Eggs Larval galleries 11

12 Goldspotted oak borer Agrilus auroguttatus Established in the U.S., but not Florida Adults: Black with a greenish iridescent sheen and various yellow markings, notably six yellow spots along the dorsal elytra surface. ~10 mm. Larvae: Cream-colored with a flattened head and two dark brown pincer-like spines at the tail end. Larvae curl into a hairpin configuration in the outer bark. 20 mm when mature. Pupae: Resemble adults in size and shape but are white and immobile until adults emerge from the outer bark. Adults leave a characteristic D-shaped emergence hole in the bark when they emerge from the pupal cell. Eggs: Very small, dull-colored, and rarely observed. Can be laid singly or in clusters on bark of the trunk and large branches. ~0.25 mm. Hosts: Known hosts include coast live oak, canyon live oak and California black oak. Other oak hosts are possible. Damage: Larvae feed in the inner bark and sapwood, disrupting the movement of water and nutrients from the roots to the crown. Distribution: Native to southeastern Arizona, central Mexico, and Guatemala. U.S. distribution includes California. Not yet detected in Florida. 12

13 Goldspotted oak borer Agrilus auroguttatus Established in the U.S., but not Florida Head of adult Adult Mature larvae in hairpin configuration 13

14 Red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus 14 Not established in U.S. Adults: Large weevil varying in color from red to black. ~3.5 cm. Larvae: Yellow, legless grubs with soft bodies and hard, reddish-brown head capsules. Larvae develop inside the tree. ~5 cm. Pupae: Pupae form cocoons from palm fibers. The pupa itself is yellow-brown, turning darker as it matures. Eggs: Eggs are laid singly in cracks and wounds of palm or in holes chewed by the female. Hosts: Many species of palm trees such as Canary Island date palm, coconut palm, and date palm. Damage: Larvae feed on plant tissue, boring their way to the center of the tree. Infestation can break the trunk and topple the palm crown. Look for tunnels on the base or crown of tree, plant fluids oozing near external tunnel entrances, distinctive fermented odor, empty pupal cases, and dead adults around heavily infested palms. Infestation can lead to tree death. Distribution: Native to Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. It has not been detected in Florida. Similar Species: Similar to the native palmetto weevil and South American palm weevil, but lacks shoulders on the front edge of the thorax and lobes on the rear edge of the thorax. Coloration is not sufficient to separate the red palm weevil from the palmetto weevil.

15 Red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Not established in U.S. Adult Adult Larva Pupal case Pupa 15

16 South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum Not established in U.S. Adults: Large weevil with a long, curved snout. Males possess a batch of hairs (called a mustache ) on the top of the snout. ~4 5 cm. Larvae: Soft bodied with a hard head capsule and strong mandibles, creamy white in color and legless. ~2.5 cm. Pupae: Pupation occurs in a cocoon made of plant fibers. Eggs: Eggs are laid singly in cracks and wounds of palm or in holes chewed by the female. Hosts: 35 plant species of 12 different families. Main hosts are primarily palms and include coconut palm, African oil palm, juçara palm, true sago palm, and Canary Island date palm. Damage: Larvae feed by tunneling into soft stem tissue. Larval tunneling may produce holes at the base of the palm frond. Heavy infestations can lead to crown dieback and tree death. Distribution: Native to Mexico, Central America, and South America, it was recently detected in California and Texas. Not present in Florida. Similar Species: Similar to the red palm weevil and the palmetto weevil. The South American palm weevil can be distinguished from these species by the absence of shoulders on the front edge of the thorax, and the presence of lobes on the back edge of the thorax. 16

17 South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum Not established in U.S. Adult Adult male with mustache Pupal case and prepupa 17

18 Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus Established in Florida Adults: A whitish-gray weevil with yellow coloration on the head. ~7 8 mm. Larvae: Larvae are creamy white, legless, and have a dark brown head capsule. Larvae feed on roots of host plants. Pupae: Pupae are seldom seen, as pupation occurs beneath the soil surface. Eggs: Eggs are laid in the soil. Hosts: Numerous hosts including cocoplum, palms, hibiscus, lychee, citrus, peach, and red maple. Damage: Larvae feed on roots, causing a decline in plant vigor. Adults feed on the edges of leaves. Distribution: Native to southern India. It is widespread in southern Florida. Similar Species: Easily confused with the native little leaf-notcher weevil, Artipus floridanus, but can be distinguished by the presence of squared shoulders on the abdomen, spines on the hind femur and yellow coloration on the head. 18

19 Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus Established in Florida Adult Adult 19

20 Swede midge Contarinia nasturtii Established in U.S., but not Florida Adults: Small, light brown fly, with long delicate legs and long beaded antennae. Wings have short fine hairs on them and limited venation. ~2 mm. Larvae: Small and clear, darkening with age. Located in the plant tissue at the growing point. Pupae: Pupation occurs in the soil. The pupae is the overwintering life stage. Eggs: Clear, sausage-shaped. Laid in the growing points of host plants. ~0.30 mm. Hosts: A serious cole crop pest, particularly for broccoli and Brussels sprouts and will also infest Brassicae weeds and canola. Damage: Signs of damage are a direct result of larval feeding. During feeding, larvae produce a secretion that breaks down plant tissue, creating a moist environment. The secretion is toxic to the plant and results in a series of tissue reactions within the plant. Distribution: Endemic to Europe and Southeast Asia. First detection in the United States occurred in Niagara County, New York in Not detected in Florida. 20

21 Swede midge Contarinia nasturtii Established in U.S., but not Florida Adult female Larva 21

22 Bagrada bug Bagrada hilaris Established in U.S., but not Florida Adults: A small stink bug with a shield-shaped body and colorful red, orange, and black markings. ~5 7 mm. Nymphs: Dark head and thorax and reddish or orange abdomen with white or black markings. Early instars are red-orange, becoming darker as they mature. Eggs: A light beige color, barrel-shaped, laid singly or in clusters, turning orange after 3 6 days. Hosts: Prefer members of the plant family Brassicaceae, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, kale, and mustard. Damage: The piercing/sucking damage of bagrada bug primarily occurs on new seedlings and cotyledons. Stunting and feeding on the growing tip can result in multiple heads, plant death, or an unmarketable product. Distribution: Native to Africa, found in California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Texas. Not found in Florida. Similar Species: Often confused with the harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, due to similar coloration, though the bagrada bug is significantly smaller. 22

23 Bagrada bug Bagrada hilaris Established in U.S., but not Florida Adult Nymph Feeding damage 23

24 Bean plataspid Megacopta cribraria Established in Florida Adults: Small true bug, light brown to olive green with a rounded body and a flattened posterior end. The tips of the forewings cannot be seen. ~3.6 6 mm. Nymphs: Nymphs tend to be pale orange, olive green, or light brown with a hairy exterior. Eggs: Barrel-shaped eggs are laid in two rows, side by side. The newly laid eggs are a pale salmon color with an iridescent coating and have a ring of rugged projections at the top end. Hosts: Primary host is kudzu. Feeds on other legumes including soybean and lablab bean, though other hosts have been noted. Damage: Feeding can produce chlorotic lesions on young leaves, stems, and seed pods. During the winter the bean plataspid may form large aggregations in houses, buildings, and vehicles and emit a foul-smelling chemical that can stain the skin and other surfaces. Distribution: Native to Asia. The bean plataspid has been detected in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. 24

25 Bean plataspid Megacopta cribraria Established in Florida Adults Nymphs Eggs Aggregation on corn in soybean field. (Corn is not a host.) 25

26 Brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys 26 Established in U.S., but not Florida Adults: Stink bug with a shield-shaped body. Key features for identification include an alternating light and dark pattern along the upper-outer edge of the abdomen, two light-colored bands on the antennae, and rounded shoulders without points. ~12 17 mm. Nymphs: Early instars are dark brown or black with yellow to orange abdomens; late instars are dark brown or black. On all instars, the center and outer edges of the abdomen have horizontal black markings. Lighter colored bands on the legs and antennae are typically seen on late instars. Eggs: Newly laid eggs, in clusters of 20 30, are a pale blue and barrel-shaped. Eggs turn light pink before nymphs emerge. Hosts: Feeds on over 250 plant species, including ornamentals, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Examples of host plant species in the U.S. include princess tree, soybean, pear, peaches, and Chinese privet. Damage: Feeds preferentially on fruiting structures, piercing the fruit with its stylet. Feeding damage can result in spots and cause a deformation of the fruit called cat facing. Distribution: Native to East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. In the U.S., established or detected in 39 states, causing severe crop damage in the Mid-Atlantic region. In Florida, several

27 Brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys Established in U.S., but not Florida specimens have been found in homes and vehicles of seasonal residents, but evidence suggests there are no established populations. Similar Species: Similar to other native brown stink bugs. An adult brown marmorated stink bug will have all three of the following characteristics: white bands on the antennae, alternating bands on the edges of the abdomen, and shoulders without points. Adult (Note light/dark alternating bands on the antennae and outer edges of the abdomen, and shoulders with no points) Nymphs Eggs 27

28 Cotton seed bug Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Established in Puerto Rico Adults: Brown and black in color with translucent white wings. The abdomen of the male is rounded while the female abdomen is truncate. The second antennal segment is yellowish near the base. ~ mm. Eggs: Eggs are pale yellow to pink in color, oval shaped, and about 0.28 mm by 0.95 mm. On cotton, the eggs are laid in the lint, close to the seed. Later in the season eggs can be found between the calyx and the base of green bolls or in holes made by bollworms in green bolls. Each female lays eggs, either singly or in groups. Nymphs: Nymphs have a brownish head and thorax and pinkish-to-orange abdomen. There are five nymphal instars. The fifth instar has a darker brown head and thorax with distinct wing pads. Hosts: Hosts are primarily from the family Malvaceae, especially cotton, hibiscus and okra. Damage: No external signs of damage. The lint will be stained pink if the insects are crushed while processing the cotton. Due to the feeding of both adults and nymphs, the seeds could lose up to 15% of their weight and seed germination is reduced drastically (up to 88%). Feeding also reduces the quality of seed oil. Distribution: Found worldwide, but not established in North America. 28

29 Cotton seed bug Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Established in Puerto Rico Similar Species: Several species of the genus Oxycarenus appear similar to the cotton seed bug and feed on the same host plants. Collect any suspected cotton seed bugs for sample submission and professional identification. Adult Nymphs 29

30 Coriander aphid Hyadaphis coriandri Found in Florida Adults: Yellowish green in color with what appears like a dusting of grayish wax on top. The siphunculi (cornicles, projections on the posterior abdomen) are short and slightly swollen (twice as long as wide). Adults may or may not have wings. Nymphs: Three instars, with the first an off-white color, transitioning towards green in the second and third instars. Hosts: In Florida, hosts include coriander, carrot, celery, fennel, parsley, dill, and cumin. Damage: Feeding can cause seed deformation and a reduction in seed quantity. Heavy infestations cause flowers to drop and reduces fruit set. Distribution: Found in Florida. Similar Species: In Florida, several aphid species appear similar to the coriander aphid and feed on the same hosts, including members of the genus Aphis. The coriander aphid siphunculi are shorter than similar-appearing Aphis species. 30

31 Coriander aphid Hyadaphis coriandri Found in Florida Adult and nymphs 31

32 Sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari Established in U.S. Adults: Wingless adults are oblong and light green to pale yellow. Wingless individuals can have black markings on their legs and antennae. Winged adults are dark-colored. ~ mm. Nymphs: Nymphs resemble wingless adults but are smaller and can be whitish when very young. Adults and nymphs have cornicles (tube-like structures on the dorsal side of the abdomen). Hosts: Main hosts are sorghum and sugarcane. It has been observed on several other grass species, including barnyard grass, rice, millet, and feather grass. Damage: Feeding damage can turn leaf tissue red or purple, eventually killing the tissue. Aphid feeding can also produce honeydew, which promotes the growth of sooty mold, which can reduce photosynthesis. Distribution: Distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions (Middle East, Africa, China, Thailand, Japan, South America). First North American report from Belle Glade, Florida in It was first identified in North Texas in 2013 when it infested thousands of acres of grain sorghum. 32

33 Sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari Established in U.S. Top left: Winged adult female; Bottom left: Nymph (always wingless); Right: Wingless adult females Sugarcane aphids with lady beetles 33

34 Bondar s nesting whitefly Paraleyrodes bondari Established in Florida Adults: Dull yellow body with white forewings. Wings have two grey bands that converge towards the center of the midline. ~1 mm. Nymphs: Oval with a translucent yellowish hue. Pupae have upward-projecting pencils of white shiny wax that can be > 1 mm long at the head region and posteriorly. The common name nesting whiteflies refers to the characteristic pattern of wax that forms around the pupa on the leaf. ~1mm. Hosts: In Florida, hosts include Ficus, avocado, coconut palm, guava, citrus (lemon, Mandarin orange, and navel orange), and sapote. They frequently share hosts with other whitefly species, including the rugose spiraling whitefly. Damage: White waxy residues left on the underside of leaves, as well as sooty mold formation on the top of leaves are an indication of whitefly feeding activity. Distribution: Native to Brazil. Recorded in Belize, Honduras, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Madeira, Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion, Taiwan, Hawaii, and Florida. 34

35 Bondar s nesting whitefly Paraleyrodes bondari Established in Florida Adult with wax nest Nymphs 35

36 Ficus whitefly Singhiella simplex Established in Florida Adults: Yellow body and white wings, with a faint gray band towards the middle of the wing. If the foliage on an infested plant is disturbed, small clouds of tiny, white, moth-like adults will fly up from the foliage. Nymphs: Can be found on the undersides of leaves. Nymphs can be very difficult to see because they tend to be very flat and transparent in color. Pupae: Small tan to light green discs with red eyes, measuring ~1.3 mm long and 1 mm wide. Precise identification of whitefly species relies heavily on this life stage. Eggs: Often found along the midvein and in high numbers toward the base of the leaf. Hosts: Ficus species, including weeping fig, banyan tree, strangler fig, Cuban laurel, fiddle-leaf fig, and banana-leaf fig. Damage: Severely infested plants will drop yellowed leaves. Branch dieback has also been associated with some infestations. Distribution: Originated in Burma, China, and India. Established in south and central Florida. 36

37 Ficus whitefly Singhiella simplex Established in Florida Adult Nymphs flat and transparent Eggs Pupa 37

38 Orange spiny whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus 38 Not established in continental U.S. Adults: Metallic blue-gray wings and top of body with reddish brown eyes and light spots on the wings. A light coating of wax gives them a dusty appearance. Abdomen is red to orange and legs and antennae are white with yellow markings. Females are larger than males, but both are quite small at ~2 3 mm. Eggs: Very small, elongate, and kidney-shaped. Held upright from the leaf surface by a stalk. Eggs are yellow when first laid and darken to brown as the egg matures. Nymphs: Mobile first instar nymphs are dusky-colored with six legs and are very small. Second instar nymphs settle on the plant to feed and do not move again until the adult stage. All nymphal instars are elliptical in shape, black in color, covered with long and short spines, with a wide margin of white waxy fringe. Four molts occur, and nymphs increase in size with each molt. Pupae: Shiny black, convex with a white fringe around the margin and dark spines along the submargin. Elliptical and measure ~ long and ~ mm wide, with females being slightly larger than males. The pupal stage is required for identification. Hosts: Citrus is the major host of economic significance, but roses, grapes, peaches, guava, pears, and persimmon are also hosts. Wild and ornamental landscape plants may also be affected.

39 Orange spiny whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus Not established in continental U.S. Damage: Hundreds of juveniles can be found on leaf undersides, branches, and occasionally fruit. Trees are weakened as the whiteflies suck water and nutrients, causing leaves to drop and reducing plant vigor. As sugary waste, called honeydew, collects on leaf surfaces, sooty mold fungus grows on the honeydew and inhibits photosynthesis. Heavily infested trees may die. Distribution: Native to tropical Asia, orange spiny whitefly has spread throughout Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Region. It has also been reported from Jamaica and the European continent. U.S. distribution is currently limited to Hawaii. Adult 39

40 Potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli Established in U.S. but not Florida Adults: The pattern on the back of the head is distinctive a dark background with light patterns and a light-colored raised rim around the top of the head. ~3 mm. Nymphs: Yellowish, sometimes nearly colorless when hatched, usually progressing to orange or tan and finally to green when mature. Nymphs are flat and oppressed to the leaf surface. ~2 mm. Hosts: Infests plants in the family Solanaceae, such as tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, and eggplant. Damage: Damage to potato crops includes chlorosis and stunting, curled leaves, and the top of the plant turning yellow-green or purple-red. Potato tubers are commonly misshapen and overall growth of the plant is stunted (called psyllid yellows ). The potato psyllid is a vector of zebra chip disease. Distribution: Native to Central America and western North America. It has been intercepted on shipments coming into Florida but has not established. 40

41 Potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli Established in U.S. but not Florida Adults Nymph Psyllid yellows Zebra chip disease 41

42 Rugose spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Established in Florida Adults: Moth-like and relatively large for a whitefly. Adult wings appear to have four horizontal light gray dots located at mid-wing and a light gray inverted V-shaped band located near the wing tip. ~2.5 mm. Eggs: Females of all Aleurodicus species in Florida lay eggs in a concentric spiraling pattern and cover them with white wax. Nymphs: Immature stages are found on the lower leaf surface. Light to golden yellow in color and covered to various degrees by white wax. ~1.1 mm. Pupae: Pupae can be found on any part of the lower leaf surface, but tend to develop along either side of the leaf midrib. The pupae are positioned on top of a cushion of wax with filaments of crystal-like rods projecting from the sides and top of the body. Dark brown to nearly black puparia are parasitized. Hosts: Over 90 plant hosts have been recorded. However, over 60% of all detections have been reported on the following hosts: gumbo limbo, coconut, Calophyllum species, avocado, black olive, pygmy date palm, bird of paradise, Christmas palm, and mango. 42

43 Rugose spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Established in Florida Damage: Infestations can be extremely dense. Whiteflies remove water and nutrients causing plant health to decline. This pest can become a nuisance due to its heavy wax and honeydew production. This honeydew promotes the growth of sooty mold (a fungus) which can cover the plants and everything found beneath them. The honeydew also attracts other insects, such as ants. Distribution: Likely native to Central America. Common in South Florida, where it is established and spreading to other counties. Adult Eggs Nymphs and pupae, lined up along midvein 43

44 European pepper moth Duponchelia fovealis Established in U.S., but not Florida Adults: Forewings are gray-brown with two yellowish-white transverse lines. The outermost of these lines has a pronounced finger that points towards the back edge of the wing. The abdomen is circled by cream-colored rings. Wingspan ~19 21 mm. Eggs: Newly laid eggs are scale-like and pale, transitioning from pink to red and then to brown before hatching. Eggs are laid singly or in groups of 3 10, mostly on the undersides of leaves. Larvae: Coloration can vary depending on feeding. On live food, the larva has a shiny dark head and dark dorsal plate (just behind the head) and salmon pink body. A line of brown/gray spots extends across and around each body segment (though some segments contain two transverse rows of spots). Larvae that feed on detritus appear very dark and the spots may be hard to see. Pupae: The pupal case is made of webbing, frass, and soil particles and measures ~15 19 mm. Hosts: Listed as a pest on several aquatic plants, crop plants, and ornamental plants, including green peppers, tomatoes, strawberries, geraniums, begonias, poinsettias, and water hyssop. Damage: Larvae feed on leaves, stems, roots, flowers, buds, and fruit. Larvae bore into the stem to feed, causing the stem to collapse from girdling. 44

45 European pepper moth Duponchelia fovealis Established in U.S., but not Florida Distribution: Native to Europe. In the U.S. it has been detected in several states, including Alabama, Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Washington. Widespread distribution includes parts of Africa, Asia and North America. Note the finger found on the forewing of the adult Stem girdling of peppers by larval feeding of the European pepper moth Larva that has fed on detritus 45

46 Mexican rice borer Eoreuma loftini 46 Established in U.S. Adults: Light tan in color without obvious wing patterns. Mouthparts are long and the forehead is slightly conical (visible under magnification only). ~1.2 cm. Larvae: Whitish in color with a tan head capsule and two pairs of broken pink to purple longitudinal stripes. ~2.5 cm. Pupae: The pupa is brown and found within a thin cocoon inside the tunnel near the emergence hole. Eggs: Spherical, globular, and cream-colored; laid in clusters of Females lay eggs on dead shoots and on leaves at the base of the stem. Hosts: Crops and ornamental plants such as sugarcane, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, and lemongrass are susceptible hosts. Possible wild hosts in Florida include many other large grasses such as barnyardgrass, Johnsongrass, sudangrass, and Vasey s grass. Damage: Early signs of injury include orange discoloration and lesions on the leaf sheath; in rice and sugarcane, a condition known as deadheart can result from the withering and death of the youngest leaves. Tunneling from feeding larvae causes the stem to weaken and makes a plant more susceptible to lodging (or falling over) prior to harvest. Distribution: Native to Mexico. Can be found in Texas, Louisiana, and Florida.

47 Mexican rice borer Eoreuma loftini Established in U.S. Adult Image of conical head and long mouthparts Deadheart symptom Larva 47

48 Old World bollworm Helicoverpa armigera 48 Established in Puerto Rico Adults: A stout-bodied moth, variable in color, but typically yellowish brown, light yellow, or light brown. Forewings have a black or dark-brown kidney-shaped marking near the center. Hind wings are creamy white with a dark-brown or dark-gray band on outer margin. Length ~14 20 mm, wingspan ~35 40 mm. Eggs: Yellowish white and glistening at first, changing to dark-brown before hatching; pomegranate-shaped. ~ mm. Larvae: The first and second larval instars are generally yellowish white to reddish brown in color, without prominent markings. Color Pattern: Medially narrow dark dorsal band; on each side from top to bottom, first a broad pale band, then a broad dark band; on the lateral line a broad, very light band on which the spiracles show up clearly. ~30 40 mm. Pupae: Pupae are brown, rounded both anteriorly and posteriorly, with two tapering parallel spines at posterior tip. Pupae typically are found in soil. ~14 22 mm. Hosts: Feeds on a variety of important plant families, including economically valuable plants such as cotton, tomato, corn, and legumes. Damage: Larvae feed on developing fruit and flowering structures, typically by tunneling into the fruit or flower bud and feeding from the inside.

49 Old World bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Established in Puerto Rico Distribution: Widespread throughout the Eastern Hemisphere. Recent detections in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico (2014) have increased the likelihood of its spread to the U.S. In 2015 it was detected by the USDA in Florida, but additional surveys determined it had not established in the area. Similar species: May be confused with the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, a common moth native to North America. Accurate identification requires dissection of adult genitalia or the use of molecular techniques. Adult Larva 49

50 Rice/cotton cutworm and Egyptian cottonworm Spodoptera litura & S. littoralis 50 Not established in U.S. Adults: Gray-brown body with forewings gray to reddish brown. Lines along the veins (in males, bluish areas occur on the wing base and tip). The hindwings are grayish white with gray margins, often with dark veins in S. litura, but without in S. littoralis. The variability and similarity of the two species often make it difficult to distinguish them visually. ~15 20 mm. Eggs: Spherical, somewhat flattened, laid in clusters and covered with hair scales. Usually pale orange-brown or pink in color (S. litura) or whitish yellow (S. littoralis). ~0.6 mm. Larvae: Variable in color (blackish gray to dark green, becoming reddish brown or whitish yellow). Sides of body with dark and light longitudinal bands, dorsal side with two dark semilunar spots laterally on each segment, except for the prothorax. Though the markings are variable, a bright yellow stripe along the length of the dorsal surface is characteristic of S. litura larvae. ~40 45 mm. Pupae: Red-brown with two small spines on tip of abdomen. ~15-20 mm. Hosts: Both species are polyphagous, feeding on over 40 plant families. The host range for S. littoralis contains at least 87 species of economic importance, including alfalfa, corn, cotton, and tomatoes. Damage: Larvae defoliate host plants.

51 Rice/cotton cutworm and Egyptian cottonworm Spodoptera litura & S. littoralis Not established in U.S. Distribution: Spodoptera litura is widespread in southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. Spodoptera littoralis is widespread in Africa and the Middle East, with localized distribution in Europe. In the U.S., interceptions of both species have occurred on shipments, but neither species has established. Similar species: Both larvae and adults of S. litura and S. littoralis appear very similar. Other native Spodoptera species can also be easily confused with either S. litura or S. littoralis. Adult of S. litura Damage to leaves Larva of S. litura 51

52 Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Not established in U.S. Adults: Adult moths have overlapping forewings of varying brown shades. Forewing pattern varies, and cannot be used as a diagnostic character. Moths have whip-like antennae, forward-facing palpi, and no scales on the proboscis. ~10 mm. Eggs: pale white to light green eggs are laid in overlapping clusters on the leaf surface or near the petiole of fruit. Eggs hatch in 8 9 days. Larvae: First instars are pale green, later instars are darker green with an olive band. Larvae are leaf rollers, meaning web leaves together and feed inside these tents. Pupae: Brown pupae are found within nests of rolled leaves. Adults emerge after 10 days. ~10 mm. Hosts: Can feed on over 2,000 plant species. In Florida, hosts include ornamental and landscape plants such as acacia, butterfly bush, cassia, cypress, datura, eucalyptus, geranium, passionflower, pine, rose, trema, trumpet vine, willow, and Virginia creeper, as well as agriculture plants including apple, apricot, avocado, bean, blueberry, cabbage, carrot, celery, citrus, corn, litchi, loquat, mango, pepper, potato, pumpkin, radish, strawberry, and tomato. Damage: Larval feeding can scar leaf surfaces, fruit and vegetables. Older larvae may burrow into fruits. 52

53 Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Not established in U.S. Distribution: Originated in Australia and spread to groves in New Zealand, Hawaii, England, and New Caledonia, probably via trade of stone fruit. Recently invaded France and California, possibly via the cut flower industry. Does not currently occur in Florida, but may hitchhike to Florida on lettuce, cut flowers, or strawberries imported from California. Similar species: This species may be confused with other leafroller moths from the family Tortricidae. DNA analysis is required for positive identification. Adult Light brown apple moth larvae web leaves together 53

54 Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta Not established in U.S. Adults: Mottled brown-gray in color with dark spots on narrow forewings and fringes of long hairs on back edge of hindwings. Antennae are long and filiform with alternating light and dark bands. Mouthparts curve upwards. ~10 mm. Eggs: Small, cylindrical, and creamy white to yellow, turning yellow-orange as they develop and turn black just before hatching. Eggs are usually laid on the underside of leaves. Larvae: Creamy in color with a dark head at hatching. The color changes to green or light pink in later stages. 8 mm at maturity. Pupae: Green at first, turning dark brown as they mature. Male pupae are smaller (~4.25 mm) than female pupae (~4.7 mm). Hosts: Preferentially feeds on tomato. May also be found on other solanaceous crops such as potatoes, eggplant, and pepper. Damage: Larvae feed on leaves, shoots, flowers, and fruit, creating conspicuous mines as they tunnel. Larval tunneling and feeding can cause injury to the harvestable portions of the plant, as well as reduce overall plant health, potentially leading to plant death. Distribution: Native to South America, spread to the Mediterranean region and can now be found in Europe, Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Not present in North America. 54

55 Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta Not established in U.S. Similar species: Other leaf mining moths in the family Gelechiidae, such as the potato tuber moth Phthorimaeae operculella and the tomato pinworm Keiferia lycopersicella, appear similar to the tomato leafminer, and can be found on the same hosts. Larva Adult Feeding damage 55

56 Mites Mites are very small arthropods related to spiders. Plant-feeding mites attack a wide variety of agricultural and ornamental plants. Their small size and habit of feeding on the undersides of leaves makes them difficult to detect until they cause serious damage to a plant. Predatory mite species are beneficial and often used for control of pest mite species and other small arthropods. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus is sold commercially for control of the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Common forms of mite damage: Leaf stippling: A stippled appearance may occur on the leaves following feeding by mites. This damage is caused by the insertion of mouthparts into the leaves. Leaf distortion: Leaves can become distorted when the plant s growth is disrupted by chemicals in the mite s saliva. Distorted leaves may curl abnormally, have tufts of hair, or form galls. If you suspect mite damage: Contact your county UF/IFAS Extension agent. Your extension agent can help you determine the cause of damage and assist you with submitting samples to a diagnostic lab. 56

57 Mites Adults Damage Leaf galls 57

58 Citrus brown mite Eutetranychus orientalis Not established in U.S. Adults: Adults range from pale brown to dark green with yellow legs. When resting, the first two pairs of legs are held straight and forward while the third and fourth pairs are held straight and backward. Females are broadly oval and somewhat flattened in shape, while the males are slender and triangular in shape with long legs relative to the size of their body. Immatures: Immatures are small and pale brown to light green in color. Eggs: The eggs are oval or circular and flattened, coming to a point dorsally. Eggs are bright yellow when first laid and turn a darker yellow as the eggs mature. Hosts: Over 200 host plants, with citrus being the preferred host. Will also feed on bananas, cassava, cotton, figs, and guava. Damage: Feeding occurs on the upper side of the leaf, starting along the midrib and then spreading to the side veins. The leaves become yellow, with pale yellow streaks developing along the midrib and veins. Heavy infestations or lesser infestations in dry areas can cause the leaves to drop and eventually defoliate a tree. Distribution: Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Australia. Not currently found in the U.S. 58

59 Citrus brown mite Eutetranychus orientalis Not established in U.S. Adult 59

60 Citrus Hindu mite Schizotetranychus hindustanicus Not established in U.S. Adults: Yellowish to yellowish green in color. The female body is oval and flattened with stubby legs, while the male body is pear-shaped with long legs. Immatures: Yellowish to yellowish-green in color. Eggs: The eggs are round, slightly flattened and light yellow in color. Hosts: Reported as pest on citrus, coconut, and sorghum. Information regarding its full host range and economic impact is lacking. Damage: Feeding causes uniform silvery splotches on the fruit and leaves. The undersides of the leaves are covered in circular silk web nests under which the mites live and reproduce. Fruit injury is expected to reduce fresh market value and leaf injury may reduce the tree s photosynthetic potential. Distribution: Native to India, it has spread to South America. It is not currently found in the U.S. 60

61 Citrus Hindu mite Schizotetranychus hindustanicus Not established in U.S. Adults 61

62 Red palm mite Raoiella indica Not established in U.S. Adults: Bright red in color, with long hairlike projections. Immatures: Immatures are small, oval and red, and have 3 pairs of legs (adults have 4 pairs of legs). Eggs: Eggs are attached to the leaf surface and have a slender, hairlike structure attached at one end. Hosts: Preferred host is coconut palm. Will also feed on banana, plantain, and ginger. In Florida the red palm mite infests several palm species, including date palm, fishtail palm, and Mexican fan palm. Damage: Feeding causes yellow blotches on the leaves, which can be severe. Unlike other plant-feeding mites, the red palm mite does not produce webbing. Distribution: Previously confined to India, Pakistan, and the Middle East. Spread to the Caribbean in The red palm mite was found in Florida in Similar species: This species may be confused with the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, on the basis of color; however, the red palm mite does not produce silk webbing. 62

63 Red palm mite Raoiella indica Not established in U.S. Adult Feeding damage on palm Feeding damage on banana 63

64 Thrips Thrips are a group of pests from the insect order Thysanoptera. Thrips are generally small (~0.5 2 mm in length), but can occur in large numbers. Thrips are often found hiding in the flowering structures of plants, though some species can be found inside curled leaves or in concealed areas such as the calyx of fruit. Thrips feeding can cause direct damage to plants, often resulting in small white spots (stippling) at the site of feeding. Thrips are also the vector of several important plant viruses, including Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus. Disease transmission by thrips is often more damaging than thrips feeding itself. Common thrips species in Florida include flower thrips (genus Frankliniella), chili thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), melon thrips (Thrips palmi) and Cuban laurel thrips (Gynaikothrips ficorum). The sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata), a non-native species, was recently detected in sugarcane growing areas of Florida and has the potential to become a major pest of sugarcane. If you experience severe or unsual damage and suspect thrips are the cause, contact your local county extension agent. Your extension agent can help you determine the cause of damage and assist you with submitting samples to a diagnostic lab. 64

65 Thrips Adult thrips Thrips damage Thrips pupae and larvae 65

66 Slugs and Snails Slugs and snails are anatomically and biologically similar, though slugs lack a hardened spiral shell. As soft-bodied mollusks, snails and slugs move by propelling themselves on a muscular foot, which constantly secretes mucus to aid in movement. When the mucus dries, a visible slime trail is left behind. All land slugs and snails have both male and female reproductive organs and lay eggs multiple times a year. Maturity can take anywhere from a few months to several years, depending on the species. Snails and slugs are typically active during moist, cooler conditions and may hide away from heat in the topsoil or other protected places. Snails can seal off their shells to conserve moisture with a membrane composed of dried mucus. Some species are agricultural and garden pests capable of causing severe damage. Damage: Slugs and snails typically prefer succulent plant tissue such as seedlings, ripening fruit, and foliage. Feeding damage usually appears as irregularly shaped holes with smooth edges on foliage, young bark, and fruit, or missing succulent plant parts that appear clipped. Other pests may cause similar feeding damage, so look for a slime trail if you suspect slugs or snails could be causing the damage you are seeing. 66

67 Slugs and Snails Island apple snail, Pomacea maculata, with pink egg masses Slug feeding on tobacco leaf. Note irregularly shaped holes with smooth edges and slime trails. 67

68 Cuban and Sloan s two-striped slugs Veronicella cubensis and V. sloanii Established in California Adults: Flattened and leathery in appearance with an oval shaped body and eyestalks emerging from beneath the hood of the body. Most individuals are mottled brown and tan, with two dark brown or black stripes running down the back, but body coloration varies. ~12 cm. Sloan s two-striped slug has blue-gray tentacles with a pale brown patch surrounding the eye. The Cuban two-striped slug may be confused with native Florida leatherleaf slug; positive identification requires dissection. Eggs: Cuban: Small, cream-colored globes, laid in clutches of eggs in loose moist soil or leaf-litter. Eggs hatch in ~2 weeks. ~0.5 cm in diameter. Sloan s: Eggs are pale white to gray and laid in small strings of 10-15, in loose moist soil or leaf litter. Eggs hatch in ~2 weeks. Distribution: Both species have spread across the Caribbean with trade. Cuban: Originally from Cuba. Now a severe pest in California and on several Pacific islands. Sloan s: Probably originated in Jamaica. Hosts: Both species consume a wide variety of ornamental and agricultural plants, including banana, cabbage, citrus, papaya, bougainvillea, and gardenia. 68

69 Cuban and Sloan s two-striped slugs Veronicella cubensis and V. sloanii Established in California Where to search: Slugs are nocturnal, and can best be found on warm and rainy nights. During the day, search for them in dark and moist places, such as beneath paving stones, under leaf-litter, or burrowed into loose potting soil. Look for irregular holes in foliage, or girdling beneath the bark on the fresh shoots of woody ornamentals. Adult Adults 69

70 Giant African land snail Lissachatina fulica Not established in U.S. Adults: Body color varies from mottled brown to pale cream. Shell is short and pointy with 7 9 whorls. Adult shell varies in color, but is generally reddish brown with weak, narrowly spaced, yellow-brown stripes running down the length of the shell. Shell up to 20 cm. Juveniles: Reddish-brown shell with widely-spaced brown to yellow-brown stripes down the length of the shell. Eggs: Oval, yellowish white to yellow, laid in clutches of eggs. Similar in appearance to reptile eggs. ~5 mm. Hosts: Feeds on more than 500 plant species, including common ornamental and garden plants. Damage: Feeding often results in holes on leaves. Where to search: During the day, snails can be found in moist areas, including under rocks, logs, flower pots, in leaf litter and compost piles, on rock walls or sides of a stucco houses. Signs of snail infestations include empty shells, mucus trails, and plant damage due to chewing. Distribution: Native to Africa. Under eradication in Florida. Similar species: The giant African land snail may be confused with several native Florida tree snails, including Orthalicus reses and Ligus fasciatus. 70

71 Giant African land snail Lissachatina fulica Not established in U.S. If you have a giant African snail or see the snails or signs of their presence, call the toll-free helpline at Adult Note the truncated columella (yellow arrow) Eggs Damage 71

72 Diseases and plant pathogens The pathogens responsible for diseases in plants belong to several broad categories, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. Plant diseases are responsible for billions of dollars in damage and losses to agricultural production, and are a major threat to food security. The exclusion of plant pathogens is particularly challenging, as most plant pathogens are not easily visible and can be spread via wind or on imported agricultural products and plant material. Early detection of exotic pathogens is crucial for eradication and management efforts. Generally, the presence of plant diseases is revealed by observation of the plant. Plants are limited in the range of sickness indicators it can present, and many plant diseases cause similar signs of stress, making accurate diagnosis of the pathogen difficult. To further complicate matters, the signs of over/ under-watering, nutrient deficiencies, herbicide damage, inadequate sunlight, and other nonpathogen plant injuries, can appear very similar to the symptoms caused by plant pathogens. 72

73 Diseases and plant pathogens If you suspect any of the diseases mentioned in the following section are present in your plants, samples of infected plant material can be sent to any of the University of Florida Plant Diagnostic Clinics or to the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. Contact information can be found on page 3. 73

74 Bois Noir Candidatus Phytoplasma solani Not established in U.S. Causal agent: Candidatus Phytoplasma solani, a bacterium. Hosts: Grapes (main host), tomatoes, peppers, celery, eggplant, potatoes, blueberries, blackberry, corn, and many weeds and ornamental flowers. Symptoms: Varies depending on the host but can cause the production of leaves where flowers should be produced (phyllody), witches brooming, yellowing, leaf crinkling, wilting, and nutrient deficiencies. Distribution: Central and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Chile. Eradicated from Canada. Currently not found in the U.S. Dispersal: Vectored by the phloem feeding insects in the families Cicadellidae, Fulgoridae, and Psyllidae. 74

75 Bois Noir Candidatus Phytoplasma solani Not established in U.S. Symptoms on grape 75

76 Celery anthracnose Colletotrichum acutatum Established in U.S. Causal agent: Colletotrichum acutatum, a fungal pathogen. Hosts: Celery, strawberry, anemone, apple, eggplant, avocado, camellia, capsicum, coffee, guava, olive, California lilac, pawpaw, pines, tamarillo, tomato, western hemlock, citrus, peach, mango, blueberry, almond, and zinnia. Symptoms: Primary symptoms include necrosis and blights on leaves, petioles, flowers, fruit, etc. (though symptoms are not noticed until later when the crops are matured). Typical fruit symptoms include circular or angular sunken lesions that produce pink to orange conidial masses. Under severe disease pressure, smaller lesions may coalesce into a single large lesion. Distribution: The fungus has been detected in Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington. Dispersal: Spores are spread by wind and water splashes. 76

77 Celery anthracnose Colletotrichum acutatum Established in U.S. Young symptomatic plants Symptomatic plant on right Leaf spot symptoms Lesion with orange conidial masses 77

78 Citrus canker Xanthomonas axonopodis Established in U.S. Cause: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Citri a bacterium. Hosts: Citrus canker occurs in most citrus varieties and is most severe on grapefruit, Key/Mexican lime, lemons, and kaffir lime. Symptoms: The upper surface of infected leaves will have spots (ranging from 2 10 mm) surrounded by water-soaked edges which in turn are surrounded by a yellow to dark-brown halo. On the lower surface of leaves, the spots have a rough texture with concentric rings and a pimple-like spot in the center. The fruit will have rough-textured spots (1 10 mm in diameter) which are surrounded with concentric rings with a pimple-like point in the center. Spots then crack in the center, exposing brown-colored crusty material inside. Dispersal: Citrus canker is not vectored by any organism. It spreads by wind-driven rains. Distribution: Found throughout citrus growing regions of the tropics. Present in Florida. 78

79 Citrus canker Xanthomonas axonopodis Established in U.S. Spots with a rough texture with concentric rings and a pimple-like spot in the center Fruit and leaves showing symptoms of citrus canker Spots with a rough texture with concentric rings and a pimple-like spot in the center 79

80 Citrus greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Established in U.S. Causal Agent: Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, a bacterium. Hosts: All cultivated citrus are potential hosts. Symptoms: Symptoms of greening on citrus leaves can easily be confused with nutrient deficiency. Nutrition deficiency symptoms are seen uniformly throughout the canopy, whereas greening symptoms are randomly scattered in the tree canopy. In addition, unlike nutrient deficiencies, greening symptoms are not mirrored from one side of the leaf to the other. Infected leaves are thick and leathery with corky veins. Infected trees produce small lopsided fruit with small, aborted seeds. The juice tastes bitter and salty. The fruit also retains its unripe green color. Greening will produce stunted trees with a thin top canopy leading to complete decline, collapse, and death of tree. Dispersal: The Asian citrus psyllid, a small insect, spreads the bacterial agent by feeding on citrus plants. Humans contribute to the spread of citrus greening by moving infected plants. Distribution: Worldwide, including Asia, the Middle East, Africa, South and Central America and the Caribbean. In the U.S. it has been detected in Florida, Georgia, and parts of South Carolina, Louisiana, Texas, and California. 80

81 Citrus greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Established in U.S. Partially retaining the green color Lopsided fruit with aborted seeds Greening symptoms on leaves not a mirror image Single shoot yellowing 81

82 Citrus leprosis disease Citrus leprosis virus C Not established in U.S. Causal agent: Citrus leprosis virus C., a virus. Host: Citrus, especially sweet orange and mandarin orange. Symptoms: Chlorotic rings develop where virus-carrying mites have fed on fruit and leaves. These rings expand and become corky as the disease progresses. Lesions on stems cause the bark to become scaly. Very young trees can die from CiLV-C infection. Older plants experience poor growth, defoliation, and fruit drop, leading to general decline and death in severe infections. Dispersal: Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) is transmitted to plants when false spider mites (Brevipalpus spp.) carrying the virus feed on the host plant. Brevipalpus phoenicis is the most important known vector, but B. obovatus and B. californicus also transmit the virus. Mites acquire the virus after feeding on infected tissue, and can transmit the virus until death. Mites are spread to uninfected groves by wind and on infested plant material. Distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, Paraguay, Venezuela, Panama, Honduras, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Mexico. Not currently found in Florida. 82

83 Citrus leprosis disease Citrus leprosis virus C Not established in U.S. Damage 83

84 Coriander blight Alternaria alternata, A. dauci, and A. poonensis Established in U.S. Causal agent: The fungal pathogens Alternaria alternata, A. dauci, and A. poonensis. Hosts: Alternaria alternata Coriander, carrot, parsley, parsnip, dill, fennel, anise, caraway; A. dauci Carrots, coriander, celery, chervil, dill, fennel, parsley, parsnip, cress, leek, sweet corn, tomato, radish; A. poonensis Coriander. Symptoms: Small yellow leaf spots, turning brown, then black, and first appearing on lower leaves. Foliage burning symptoms can be seen in advanced stages. Browning and death of growing tips, flowers and umbels and die back of shoots can occur. Distribution: The pathogens responsible for coriander blight have a worldwide distribution, though their distribution in the U.S. is unclear. Dispersal: Coriander blight is spread via infected seeds and plant residues. 84

85 Coriander blight Alternaria alternata, A. dauci, and A. poonensis Established in U.S. Alternaria symptoms on coriander 85

86 Mosaic disease of St. Augustinegrass Established in U.S. Causal agent: Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a viral pathogen. Hosts: Sugarcane and St. Augustinegrass. Symptoms: Blades present a mosaic pattern (alternating areas of normal green tissue and yellow tissue) in long or short stripes. Widespread yellowing of turf, and in some cases death of the turf, can also occur. Distribution: Sugarcane-producing areas of the United States (Florida, Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi). In Florida, it has been reported on St. Augustinegrass. Dispersal: Aphids are known vectors of this disease. In addition, it can be spread through infected sod. Spread of the virus is also possible via lawnmowers and other landscaping tools which had previously contacted infected grass. 86

87 Mosaic disease of St. Augustinegrass Established in U.S. Sugarcane mosaic virus on St. Augustinegrass Sugarcane mosaic virus on St. Augustinegrass Sugarcane mosaic virus on sugarcane 87

88 Red ring disease Not established in U.S. Causal agent: Bursaphelenchus cocophilus, the red ring nematode. Hosts: Palm species, especially coconut palms and African oil palms. Symptoms: External symptoms can be seen around 2 months after nematode infection and include leaves wilting and turning yellow and brown from the tip to the base of the rachis. Leaf symptoms usually begin at the oldest/lowest leaves and progress to the upper canopy. As the discoloration of leaves continues, host trees wilt and die. If you cut the palm down, you can see the circular band of discoloration on tissue found within roots, stems and petioles (the red ring ). This symptom can be observed two or three weeks after the nematode infection. Dispersal: The red ring nematode is vectored by the South American palm weevil, Rynchophorus palmarum. Distribution: Mexico, Central and Southern America, and many Caribbean countries. The red ring nematode is not currently found in the U.S. 88

89 Red ring disease Not established in U.S. The red ring caused by red ring nematode External symptoms of red ring disease 89

90 Rose rosette disease Established in U.S. Causal agent: Rose rosette virus. Hosts: Roses. Symptoms: Highly variable, depending on species and even cultivar, but include rapid elongation of new shoots, development of witches broom clusters, reddening of leaves in those clusters, flower discoloration, flower distortion, and excessive thorniness. Death of affected canes and eventually the entire plant can occur. Distribution: It may be vectored by the eriophyid mite, Phyllocoptes fructiphilus. It can also be dispersed through vegetative propagation of infected plant material. Dispersal: Widespread throughout the U.S. Recently detected in Florida. 90

91 Rose rosette disease Established in U.S. Severe thorn proliferation characteristic of rose rosette disease Distorted flower bud and leaf-like formations from flower tissue, characteristic of rose rosette disease 91

92 Soybean rust Phakopsora pachyrhizi Established in U.S. Causal agent: Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungal pathogen. Hosts: Over 90 leguminous hosts, including soybeans, kudzu, and cowpea. Symptoms: Two types of foliar symptoms are produced: 1) large, tan lesions with abundant spore production and 2) smaller, red-brown lesions with less spore production. Over time, the lesion type can change on the same plant. Dispersal: Spores are spread by wind rapidly and across long distances. Distribution: Varies in the U.S. from year to year, with outbreaks occurring in areas experiencing high rainfall. 92

93 Soybean rust Phakopsora pachyrhizi Established in U.S. Damage Damage Damage 93

94 Texas Phoenix palm decline (TPPD) Coconut lethal yellows group 16SrIV, subgroup D (16SrIV-D) phytoplasma 94 Established in U.S. Causal agent: The TPPD phytoplasma belongs to a genus of genetically diverse, unculturable, plant-pathogenic bacteria. Group and subgroup classification is based on molecular methods. Hosts: Limited to palms. Common hosts include the Canary Island date palm, true date palm, and sabal palm. Less common hosts include the pygmy date palm, queen palm, Mexican palmetto, and Mexican fan palm. Symptoms: Symptoms begin with premature loss of most or all fruit and necrosis of the inflorescence. Shortly thereafter, a reddish-brown foliar discoloration starts on the lowermost leaves and eventually encompass all canopy leaves. By the midstage of foliar discoloration, a rot of the apical meristem and adjacent, immature, un-emerged leaves occurs. Remains of the canopy desiccate and eventually topple from the palm, leaving just the bare trunk standing. In Phoenix species, death of the unopened (spear) leaf occurs as foliar discoloration begins. In all other palm species, spear leaf death occurs midway during foliar discoloration. Dispersal: Phytoplasmas are introduced into the phloem of host plants by sap-feeding insect vectors. The vector of TPPD phytoplasma is unknown, but the planthopper Haplaxius crudus is the most likely candidate Distribution: In the U.S., southern Texas and central Florida.

95 Texas Phoenix palm decline (TPPD) Coconut lethal yellows group 16SrIV, subgroup D (16SrIV-D) phytoplasma Established in U.S. Early symptom: reddish brown foliar discoloration Sabal palm decline, Manatee County, 2008 Canary island date palm decline, late stage foliar symptoms 95

96 Zebra chip disease Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum Established in U.S., but not Florida Causal agent: Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, a bacterium. Hosts: Potato Symptoms: Foliar signs include chlorosis, leaf scorching, swollen nodes, vascular tissue browning, and curled leaves. Belowground plant symptoms include enlarged lenticels of the underground stem, collapsed stolons, brown discoloration of the vascular ring and necrotic flecking of internal tuber tissues. Dispersal: Vectored by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, a phloem-feeding insect. Distribution: Worldwide distribution includes Central America and New Zealand. In the U.S., zebra chip disease has been found in Arizona, California, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. Not currently found in Florida. 96

97 Zebra chip disease Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum Established in U.S., but not Florida Tubers infected with zebra chip disease show dark, stripelike symptoms in the tissue Adult potato psyllid Zebra chip disease Nymphs of potato psyllids of various ages 97

98 Photo Credits Asian longhorned beetle Larva: Dennis Haugen, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org, # Damage: Kenneth R. Law, USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Bugwood.org, # Adult: Michael Bohne, Bugwood.org, # Emerald ash borer Eggs: Debbie Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org, # Larva: David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org, # Larval galleries: Troy Kimoto, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, ipmimages.org, # Adult: Eric R. Day, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org, # Goldspotted oak borer Larvae: Mark S. Hoddle, University of California- Riverside, Bugwood.org, # Adult: Patrick Marquez, USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Bugwood.org, # Head: Patrick Marquez, USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Bugwood.org, # Palmetto weevil Larvae, Pupal Case, Adults: Lyle Buss, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida 98

99 Photo Credits Red palm weevil Larva, Pupal case, Pupa: Luigi Barraco, Wikimedia Commons Adult (left): John Kabashima, UC Cooperative Extension, Bugwood.org, # Adult (right): Christina Hoddle, Center for Invasive Species Research, University of California Riverside South American palm weevil Pupal case and prepupae: Mark Hoddle, Center for Invasive Species Research, University of California, Riverside Adult: Jennifer C. Giron Duque, University of Puerto Rico, Bugwood.org, # , Jennifer C. Giron Duque, University of Puerto Rico, Bugwood.org, # Sri Lanka Weevil Adult (top): Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org, # Adult (bottom): Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org, # Swede midge Larva: Susan Ellis, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org, # Adult: Susan Ellis, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org, #

100 Photo Credits Bagrada bug Adult: Natasha Wright, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org, # Nymphs: Ron Hemberger, Irvine, Orange Co., Calif Feeding damage: John Palumbo, University of Arizona Bean plataspid Eggs: Joe Eger, Dow AgroSciences, Bugwood.org, # Nymphs: John Ruberson, Kansas State University, Bugwood.org, # Adults: Daniel R. Suiter, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org, # Aggregation: Jeremy Greene, Clemson University, Bugwood.org, # Brown marmorated stink bug Eggs: Susan Ellis, United States Bugwood.org, # Nymphs: David R. Lance USDA-APHIS-PPQ Bugwood.org, # Adult: Susan Ellis, United States Bugwood.org, # Cotton seed bug Nymphs: Natasha Wright DPI-FDACS Adult: Julieta Brambila, USDA-APHIS, Bugwood.org, # Coriander aphid Adults and nymphs: Natasha Wright DPI-FDACS 100

101 Photo Credits Sugarcane aphid Adult and nymphs: Patrick Porter, Texas Cooperative Extension, Bugwood.org, # Aphids with lady beetles: Scott Stewart, University of Tennessee Bondar s nesting whitefly Nymphs: Holly Glenn, UF/IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center Adult with nest : Holly Glenn, UF/IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center Ficus whitefly Eggs: Catherine Mannion, University of Florida Pupae: Holly Glenn, UF/IFAS TREC Nymphs: Lyle Buss, UF, Entomology and Nematology Adult: Holly Glenn, UF/IFAS TREC Orange spiny whitefly Adult illustration: CSIRO, copyright free Potato psyllid Nymph, Adult, Zebra chip disease: Joe Munyaneza, USDA/ARS Psyllid yellows: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org, # Rugose spiraling whitefly Eggs, Nymphs and Adult: Holly Glenn, UF/IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center 101

102 Photo Credits European pepper moth Stem girdling damage: B. Vander Mey, UCCE Caterpillar: Lyle Buss, UF, Entomology and Nematology Adult: Mark Dreiling, Retired, Bugwood.org # Old World bollworm Adult: Julieta Brambila, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org, # Larva: Gyorgy Csoka, Hungary Forest Research Institute, Bugwood. org # Light brown apple moth Adult: Natasha Wright, FDACS 2008 Bugwood.org # Larval leaf roll: Natasha Wright, FDACS 2008 Mexican rice borer Larva: Eugene Reagan, Louisiana State University AgCenter Head and mouthparts: Kira Metz, USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Bugwood.org # Adult: Kira Metz, USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Bugwood.org # Damage: Johnny Saichuk, Louisiana State University AgCenter 102

103 Photo Credits Rice/cotton cutworm Larva: Merle Shepard, Gerald R.Carner, and P.A.C Ooi, Insects and their Natural Enemies Associated with Vegetables and Soybean in Southeast Asia, Bugwood.org, # Damage: Brent Rowell, University of Kentucky, Growers guide to Bt Adult: Natasha Wright, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org # Tomato leafminer Adult: Marja van der Straten, NVWA Plant Protection Service, Bugwood.org, # Larva: Marja van der Straten, NVWA Plant Protection Service, Bugwood.org, # Feeding damage: Wietse den Hartog, National Reference Centre, Plant Protection Service Wageningen (NL) Mites Adults: Frank Peairs, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org, # Damage: Whitney Cranshaw Colorado State University Bugwood. org, # Leaf galls: Petr Kapitola, Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture, Bugwood.org, # Citrus brown mite Adult: public domain 103

104 Photo Credits Citrus Hindu mite Adult: Barbara Nienstaedt, Instituto de Zoología Agrícola de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Central de Venezuela Red palm mite Adult: Lyle Buss, University of Florida Damage on banana: Amy Roda, USDA Damage on palm: Jorge Peña, University of Florida Thrips Lyle Buss, University of Florida Slugs and Snails Slug feeding: R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Slide Set, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Bugwood.org, # Apple snail: Jess Van Dyke, Snail Busters, LLC, Bugwood.org, # Cuban and Sloan s two striped slugs Adults: David Robinson, USDA-APHIS Giant African land snail Eggs: Pest and Diseases Image Library, Bugwood.org, # Damage: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry Shell (columella): Lyle Buss, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida Adult: Andrew Derksen, FDACS/DPI, Bugwood.org, #

105 Photo Credits Bois Noir Symptoms: USDA-ARS, wikipedia.org, public domain Celery anthracnose Symptomatic plants (top), lesions, symptomatic plants (bottom): Lina Rodriguez Salamanca and Mary Hausbeck, Michigan State University Extension Leaf spot symptoms: Robert L. Anderson, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org, # Citrus canker Spots (left): Dan Robl, USDA Spots (right): Jeffrey W. Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org, # Fruit: Timothy Schubert, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org, # Citrus greening Partial color: Hilda Gomez, USDA Lopsided fruit: M.E. Rogers, UF Symptoms on leaves: M.E. Rogers, UF Shoot yellowing: Esther Serrano, USDA Citrus leprosis disease Damage: Florida Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org, #

106 Photo Credits Coriander blight Symptoms: Richard Raid, EREC, University of Florida Mosaic disease of St. Augustinegrass Virus on St. Augustine grass (left and right): P. Harmon, University of Florida Virus on sugarcane: Jeffrey W. Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org, # Red ring disease Red ring: Society of Nematology slide collection External symptoms: Robin Giblin-Davis, University of Florida Rose rosette disease Thorn proliferation (top), distorted flower bug (bottom): M. Paret, University of Florida, NFREC Soybean rust Damage (left): Daren Mueller, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org, # Damage (right): Daren Mueller, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org, # Damage (bottom): Daren Mueller, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org, #

107 Photo Credits/ Acknowledgements Texas Pheonix palm decline (TPPD) Early symptoms, Canary island date palm symptoms, sabal palm decline: Nigel Harrison, University of Florida, Plant Pathology Department, FLREC Zebra chip disease Infected tubers: Joseph Munyaneza, USDA-ARS Nymphs of potato psyllid: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org, # Adult Potato Psyllid: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org, # Zebra chip disease: Joseph Munyaneza, USDA-ARS Acknowledgements Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Protect U.S. National Plant Diagnostic Network USDA-APHIS Sentinel Plant Network 107

108 Index by Common Name Asian longhorned beetle... 8, 9 Bagrada bug... 22, 23 Bean plataspid... 24, 25 Bois Noir... 74, 75 Bondar s nesting whitefly... 34, 35 Brown marmorated stink bug... 26, 27 Celery anthracnose... 76, 77 Citrus brown mite... 58, 59 Citrus canker... 78, 79 Citrus greening... 80, 81 Citrus Hindu mite... 60, 61 Citrus leprosis disease... 82, 83 Coriander aphid... 30, 31 Coriander blight... 84, 85 Cotton seed bug... 28, 29 Cuban two-striped slug... 68, 69 Egyptian cottonworm... 50, 51 Emerald ash borer... 10, 11 European pepper moth... 44, 45 Ficus whitefly... 36, 37 Giant African land snail... 70, 71 Goldspotted oak borer... 12, 13 Light brown apple moth... 52, 53 Mexican rice borer... 46,

109 Index by Common Name Mites... 56, 57 Mosaic disease of St. Augustinegrass... 86, 87 Old World bollworm... 48, 49 Orange spiny whitefly... 38, 39 Potato psyllid... 40, 41 Red palm mite... 62, 63 Red palm weevil... 14, 15 Red ring disease... 88, 89 Rice/cotton cutworm... 50, 51 Rose rosette disease... 90, 91 Rugose spiraling whitefly... 42, 43 Sloan s two-striped slug... 68, 69 Slugs... 66, 67 Snails... 66, 67 South American palm weevil... 16, 17 Soybean rust... 92, 93 Sri Lanka weevil... 18, 19 Sugarcane aphid... 32, 33 Swede midge... 20, 21 Texas Phoenix palm decline (TPPD)... 94, 95 Thrips... 64, 65 Tomato leafminer... 54, 55 Zebra chip disease... 96,

110 Index by Scientific Name Agrilus auroguttatus... 12, 13 Agrilus planipennis... 10, 11 Aleurocanthus spiniferus... 38, 39 Aleurodicus rugioperculatus... 42, 43 Alternaria alternata... 84, 85 Alternaria dauci... 84, 85 Alternaria poonensis... 84, 85 Anoplophora glabripennis... 8, 9 Bactericera cockerelli... 40, 41 Bagrada hilaris... 22, 23 Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus... 80, 81 Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum... 96, 97 Candidatus Phytoplasma solani... 74, 75 Citrus leprosis virus C... 82, 83 Colletotrichum acutatum... 76, 77 Contarinia nasturtii... 20, 21 Duponchelia fovealis... 44, 45 Eoreuma loftini... 46, 47 Epiphyas postvittana... 52, 53 Eutetranychus orientalis... 58, 59 Halyomorpha halys... 26,

111 Index by Scientific Name Helicoverpa armigera... 48, 49 Hyadaphis coriandri... 30, 31 Lissachatina fulica... 70, 71 Megacopta cribraria... 24, 25 Melanaphis sacchari... 32, 33 Myllocerus undecimpustulatus... 18, 19 Oxycarenus hyalinipennis... 28, 29 Paraleyrodes bondari... 34, 35 Phakopsora pachyrhizi... 92, 93 Raoiella indica... 62, 63 Rhynchophorus ferrugineus... 14, 15 Rhynchophorus palmarum... 16, 17 Schizotetranychus hindustanicus... 60, 61 Singhiella simplex... 36, 37 Spodoptera littoralis... 50, 51 Spodoptera litura... 50, 51 Tuta absoluta... 54, 55 Veronicella cubensis... 68, 69 Veronicella sloanii... 68, 69 Xanthomonas axonopodis... 78,

112 An Equal Opportunity Institution. UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension. Information on copies for purchase is available from IFAS Extension Bookstore, University of Florida, PO Box , Gainesville, FL (visit our website at: ifasbooks.ufl.edu). Information about alternate formats is available from IFAS Communications, University of Florida, PO Box , Gainesville, FL Published???, 2017 as SP 537, UF/IFAS Extension.