Light Brown Apple Moth: Biology, Survey, Control

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1 Light Brown Apple Moth: Biology, Survey, Control Wayne N. Dixon Mike C. Thomas Division of Plant Industry Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

2 World Distribution of LBAM Introductions: New Zealand New Caledonia Hawaii British Isles France California February 6, Retired Entomology Professor caught two moths in blacklight trap

3 First found in Contra Costa and Alameda counties in March, 2007 Co. No. Trapped Moths Alameda 215 Contra Costa 87 Los Angeles 1 Marin 17 Monterey 418 Napa 1 San Francisco 183 San Mateo 15 Santa Clara 11 Santa Cruz 5289 Solano 2

4 Life Cycle of Light Brown Apple Moth Adults Egg Mass Larva Pupa

5 LBAM Adults About a quarter-inch long with a three-quarter-inch wingspan Light brown, yellowish moths with varying amounts of darker brown Shelters in foliage during the day and flies after sunset and before sunrise In Australia, it lays up to 1,500 eggs in a clutch, usually three times a year

6 LBAM Eggs Adults deposit egg masses containing eggs on the upper leaf surface or on fruit Eggs, pale white to light green Laid slightly overlapping each other as an egg mass or a raft Typically on the upper surface of foliage Newly hatched larvae are pale yellow-green, while mature larvae are light green with a light brown head

7 LBAM Larvae and Pupae In Australia, there are three generations per year and over-winters as a larva Larvae disperse and construct silken shelters on the underside of leaves, usually near a midrib or large vein Older larvae roll together leaves and buds or fruit with webbing Damage to fruit occurs as surface feeding by the larvae. Larvae will occasionally enter the fruit to feed Pupation takes place within the larval nests

8 apple, grape, pear, peach, apricot, nectarine, citrus, persimmon, cherry, Light Brown Apple almond, avocado, oak, willow, walnut, poplar, cottonwood, coast redwood, Moth has been pine, eucalyptus, grape, kiwifruit, recorded feeding on strawberry, berries (blackberry, more than 250 blueberry, boysenberry, raspberry), different plants corn, pepper, tomato, pumpkin, beans, cabbage, carrot, alfalfa, rose, camellia, jasmine, chrysanthemum, clover, and

9 Examples of LBAM Damage Pear Citrus Fruit Strawberry Rose

10 Recognition of LBAM Egg Masses New egg masses have a frothy appearance Older egg masses turn green Mature egg mass with visible embryos

11 Recognition of LBAM Larvae The greenish or yellowish larvae live within a folded leaf

12 Identification of LBAM adults Male Male Female Adults in resting position

13 Surveying for LBAM Pheromone traps can be used to detect adult males (E)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate: (E,E)-9, 11-Tetradecadienyl acetate Pheromone traps can be used to indicate the timing of high LBAM moth activity, which in turn can be used to predict the timing of high LBAM larvae numbers Following the detection of local population peaks, trees are inspected for LBAM eggs and larvae. Webbed clusters of young fruitlets, flowers and leaves, and the calyces of individual fruit, should be opened to check for LBAM larvae

14 Biological Control Methods For LBAM Natural enemies of the eggs include the tiny parasitic Trichogramma wasps Natural enemies of the larvae include: parasitic wasps Dolichogenidea arisanus and Xanthopimpla spp.; parasitic flies Goniozus spp. and Zosteromyia spp. predatory bug Ochalia shellembergii; lacewings spiders various pathogens Mating disruption using female sex pheromone

15 Mating Disruption Using Female Sex Pheromone In Citrus In Australia Mating disruption is an effective technique for managing LBAM in citrus Flood the target area with synthetic copies of the female sex pheromone (via mating disruption dispensers ) Success rate of males in finding local females is greatly reduced. This results in females producing lower numbers of viable eggs, which leads to a reduction in local populations. For the technique to be effective, as large an area as possible should be treated For protection against feeding damage to young fruit, mating disruption dispensers are placed in August

16 Mating Disruption CheckMate OLR-F EPA and CDFA registered formulation for mating disruptant. Specific to LBAM????????

17 Florida CAPS Trapping Initiative for Light Brown Apple Moth in Selected Florida Nurseries DPI s Plant Inspection prepared a list of high risk nurseries for LBAM. These are nurseries that have historically received large amounts of nursery stock from California (see Table 1). Trapping Initiative Three separate trapping sessions, summer, fall and winter Each session will last 12 weeks One Jackson trap with a LBAM pheromone lure will be placed within each nursery preferably toward the edge of the nursery. The lure and the trap will last about six weeks and will be changed out

18 Table 1. Florida nurseries that receive nursery stock from California. City Tallahassee Gainesville MacClenny Fernandina Beach Jacksonville Zellwood Winter Garden Plymouth Apopka Winter Haven Fort Pierce Loxahatchee Delray Beach

19 States Requesting Pre-shipment Notification For Light Brown Apple Moth Regulated Materials State/Country Shipping Request Arizona Colorado Advance notice for shipments of regulated articles from quarantined counties requested* Advance notice for shipments of regulated Nursery stock* Florida Georgia Idaho Advance notice for shipments of regulated Nursery stock, cut flower/greenery of any plants* Advance notice for shipments of regulated Nursery stock, cut flower/greenery of any plants* Advance notice for shipments of regulated articles from quarantined counties requested* Massachusetts Advance notice for shipments of regulated Nursery stock, cut flower/greenery of any plants* Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Advance notice for shipments of regulated Nursery stock, cut flower/greenery of any plants* Advance notice for shipments of regulated Nursery stock, cut flower/greenery of any plants* 48 hours prior to shipment Advance notice for shipments of regulated Nursery stock, cut flower/greenery of any plants*

20 Thank you for your time and attention

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