Francis MACARY UR ETBX, Irstea The 31st of March to the 2nd of April,

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1 Using multiple criteria decision aid to improve best agricultural and environmental management practices in the area of a big wine company, near Bordeaux Francis MACARY UR ETBX, Irstea Pour mieux affirmer ses missions, le Cemagref devient Irstea The 31st of March to the 2nd of April,

2 1- Introduction : context and objectives 2 Many ecoystems are degraded with human activities, including intensive agriculture, specially: pesticides. => Consequences on quality of water, for biota and drinking water! => Degradation of soil quality, => Atmospheric pollutions => human health! This situation is amplified with cultures like vineyards and orchards, because they need a hight level of sanitary protection: fungicides, insecticides, (and some herbicides to control weeds), => With an oceanic climat, in Bordeaux, the vineyard is sensitive. But sometimes, the use of pesticide could be excessive. => More and more, people ask to reduce pesticides, because of their bad effects on health.

3 There are more and more papers about Pesticides & Health. 3

4 4 This was the era of the best years, for chemical business when agrochemicals replaced agronomy!

5 But now, people say: that s enough! 5

6 Public policies have failed to reduce pesticides uses, because the main system of production is yet intensive (called in France: conventional). 6 Now, the French Ministry of agriculture tries to promote the production principles of agroecology, based on interactions between agrosystems and ecosystems, to avoid synthetic pesticides and preserve soils. Near Bordeaux, a group of 500 winegrowers are gathered in the «Tutiac cooperative» which represents ha of vine and hl of wine per year : the biggest cooperative of AOC wines in France. They decided to adapt their conventional practices toward agroecology. To study the effects of best agricultural and environmental practices, we decided to build a research project with scientists of Bordeaux University and research centers: Irstea, INRA, CNRS, Ifremer, gathered into the LabEx COTE.

7 7 This project is called PhytoCOTE and the topic is: «Using pesticides in agrosystems, transfers, bioaccumulation, and impacts on ecosystems. Modeling of changes in farming practices». It is implemented from 2015 to The Tutiac cooperative located in Marcillac (Gironde) became our main professional partner, with the union of Bordeaux-Blaye wines. we need contacts with their winemakers to analyse their agricultural practices and also quality of soil, water and air. they use our scientific results to improve their agroecological project.

8 Location of the study area 8

9 Study area 9 Distillery of winemaking residues Tutiac cooperative of winemaking Watershed output Village of Marcillac Wastewater treatment plant Watershed entry 9

10 PhytoCOTE projet 10

11 Structuring of the PhytoCOTE projet 11 Agro-environment Environmental Chemistry Agro-economics

12 12 Methodology of MCDA Determination of the study area. 2. Knowledge of agricultural and environmental practices of winemakers, by enquiries on the ground. 3. Understanding of the decision choices about the sanitary protection of vineyard taken by winemakers 4. Implementation MCDA 1 => ELECTRE TRI method, coupled with a GIS, to assess risks of pesticide transfers, from farming parcels, to water (WP1) (sorting in 4-5 categories). 5. Implementation MCDA 2 => ELECTRE III method, to rank results of scenarios, relating practice changes, including results of bioeconomics modelling (WP3).

13 Environmental performances of agriculture / water quality 13 The agro-environmental task aims to assess risks of pesticide transfers, from farming parcels, to water, in the watershed. A watershed 7 criteria y = 4 categories Level of risk to contaminate ecosystems Very high High Medium Low Sorting problem Segmentation procedure x farming parcels 9

14 General structure of GIS (ArcGIS) 7 Criteria MCDA 1 (Electre Tri-C) 14 Inquiries and ground observations data Protections Wetlands & Grass along streams Filter strips Cartographics data Vulnerability of water Agricultural Pressure Riparian zones Agroecological practices Pesticide pressure Land use AEPs Riparian zones Pesticide pressure Nature of soils DEM 10 m slopes Hydrographic network Road network and ways Soils Soils Slopes Connectivity

15 Determination of the land use and practices 15

16 16 And after Next step 2016 : on the ground, for each farming parcel => Evaluation of performances, and => multi criteria modelling: MCDA 1. Mapping of results with the GIS (WP1). WP3 : bioeconomics modelling of scenarios concerning practice changes or system of production, with stakeholders. ex: - decrease number of pesticide treatments using specific models, - optimisation of the implementation of treatments, with very precise sprayers, - Change of production system => MCDA 2 ( ): ranking of scenarios, studied with stakeholders and consequences for winemakers of Tutiac & others.

17 Conclusion Next time => first results! 17 In this PhytoCOTE projet, the partnership with winegrowers and specially the Tutiac cooperative is essential to be able to develop all our research. And it is also interesting for their agroecological project, because some scientifical analysis are necessary. In 2016, we will finish to implement the MCDA 1 method, to assess environmental performances of their practices (sorting parcels about potential risk of pesticide transfers) to be able to discuss these results with winegrowers and their advicers. In 2017, we will build together scenarios to improve best agricultural & environmental practices; assess with a bioeconomical model of optimisation; and a MCDA 2 method to finish the analyse with a ranking of results of these scenarios.

18 Thank you for your attention 18 Vineyard of Bordeaux-Blaye F. Macary, August

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