Field identification, collection and evaluation of grapevine autochthonous cultivars

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1 ERA 91/01 Preservation and establishment of true-to-type and virus free material of endangered grapevine cultivars in Croatia and Montenegro Field identification, collection and evaluation of grapevine autochthonous cultivars M.Sc. Milena Mugoša Biotechnical faculty Podgorica, University of Montenegro Dr. Sc. Darko Preiner University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture

2 Introduction Autochtonous grapevine cultivars important for viticulure production Endangered cultivars with less than 1ha in production need special attention Their identification, collection and detailed evaluation is necesary befor their revitalisation can start.

3 Before field identification Preparations: Definition of information sources Literature Old ampelographic literature - Most reliable Names and ssynonyms Descriptions Origin Problem minor cultivars!

4 Before field identification Literature Other publications Statistical publications Viticultural publications

5 Before field identification Old newspapres

6

7 Before field identification How to find a suitable vineyards? Introduce the wine producers and vineyard owners with your activities communication with producers, producers associations Advertise trough specialized media dissemination of appropriate questionnaire (trough producer associations, wine fairs ) Preselecting the vineyards Based on age, source of planting material, location Additional vineyards During the field identification (neighbors vineyards, personal communication with producers ) Include this possibility in field identification timetable

8 Field identification Team: Experienced ampelographer and assistant (technician, student ) Additional: Person familiar with local cultivars (experienced producer, local expert ) Vineyard owner!

9 Field identification Vineyard location information Minimum information set should include: Date Place Location name Owners information: Address, phone number Sketch of vineyard position Additional information Age of vineyard Source of planting material Share of vines regenerated or replaced, method used Training system, general health status (fungal disease symptoms, virus symptoms) vigor status Rootstock used GPS position Directions to the location Orientation of the rows (in case of spalier growing system) Any other useful information (position of some house, neighbor vineyard )

10 Field identification Labeling of vines that are: identified as target cultivar interesting for identification (DNA markers) Labeled vines are: Described using appropriate set of OIV codes Additional description (not included in OIV codes): Is the vine originally planted or planted later on in the vineyard? Photo documentation: Whole vine, details adult leaves, cluster, shoot, shoot tip.. Leaves samples for DNA analyses Additional labels used that are clearly visible from distance (marker spray, duct tape) and resistant to adverse weather conditions

11 Field identification Problems of field identification Several factors that can affect correct in situ visual identification of cultivars Vine health status (fungal and viral disease) Nutrients deficit or misbalance High level of intravarietal variability

12 Field identification Sanitatry analyses Sampling in winter period Basal buds for ELISA test Planting material production Healthy wines are used for propagation If there is no virus free vines then infected ones are used for gene banks and evaluation trials only For future propagation sanitation is required

13 Collection and evaluation Before cultivars are included in collections field identification must be confirmed using DNA markers Sanitary status must be checked (virus infections) Collection types Gen banks limited number of vines (usually 5) Preservation and partial evaluation of cultivars Usually national collections» Cultivars from different grooving conditions» Evaluation is limited Evaluation collections (local collections) Each cultivar represented with more than 20 vines (usually 25) Main goal is correct evaluation of cultivar within grooving area Enological evaluation (minivinification)

14 Collection and evaluation On farm evaluation Suitable for enological evaluation Enough number of vines of cultivar within one vineyard (or more than one in same conditions) all of the vines must correctly identified faster and cheaper than evaluation fields (collections) Problems: different sanitary status, age, vigor, and clonal variations can affect the results of evaluation

15 Evaluation Basic evaluation Ampelographic evaluation OIV description Grape juice chemical composition Sugar content, titrable acidity, ph Additional evaluation uvometry, mechanical composition of cluster and berry Philometric analyses Grape juice organic acid profile, analyses of aromatic compounds, anthocyanin profile

16 Evaluation Viticultural evaluation Yield coefficients Phenology Suitable training system Enological evaluation Minivinification in controlled conditions Wine chemical analyses Wine organoleptic evaluation

17 Evaluation Results must be in comparable with existing databases ( Using same set of OIVdescrioptors Same measure units and methodology Photography formats Available on:

18 Thank you for your attention!

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