Integrated Pest Management Program Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture UConn Extension

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1 Integrated Pest Management Program Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture UConn Extension Small Fruit & Grape Update: June 7, 2018 Mary Concklin, Visiting Associate Extension Educator - Fruit Production & IPM Strawberries and Tarnished Plant Bugs The TPB nymphs and adults feed on strawberry flowers as well as the fruit, sucking out the juices. This causes the fruit to be disfigured, making the fruit look almost like a button in many cases, as you can see in the pictures below. To look for them, you will need a hand lens look on the stems as well as on the fruit. You can also hold a sheet of paper or yellow sticky card under the plant, tap the plant, and then look at what has fallen out. TPB nymphs are a light green color, while the adult is dark brown. TPB adult. Photo: USDA Management options: 1. Scout first to determine if you are at or below threshold. Refer to the table on the next page which is from the NE Small Fruit Management Guide for scouting guidelines. 2. TPB can be found in the weeds and hay & alfalfa fields next to your strawberry field. By mowing this time of the year, you will push the TPB into the strawberry fields. Delay mowing if possible until after harvest or be prepared to treat if necessary. 3. Remember, NO INSECTICIDES ARE TO BE APPLIED DURING BLOOM. All treatments must be done pre-bloom.

2 4. Late varieties that are not in bloom yet may be treated with an insecticide. Refer to the New England Small Fruit Management Guide at or purchase a hard copy from the UConn College of Ag bookstore at Number of Clusters Examined Table 19. Monitoring for tarnished plant bug in strawberry. NUMBER OF FLOWER CLUSTERS INFESTED Control Keep Control Required Not Required Sampling Threshold: 0.15 nymphs/cluster to 2; check 5 more 3 or more to 3; check 5 more 4 or more 25 1 or less 2 to 3; check 5 more 4 or more 30 2 or less 3; check 5 more 4 or more 35 3 or less 4; check 5 more 5 or more 40 3 or less 4; check 5 more 5 or more 45 4 or less 5; check 5 more 6 or more 50 5 or less 6 or more Strawberries and Spittlebugs Spittlebugs are a nuisance pest although in high enough numbers their feeding can zap enough energy out of the plants so as to weaken them. But usually they are just a nuisance to pickers because of the spit. Under the spit lies a nymph protecting itself from any predators lurking nearby. There is no economic threshold for spittlebugs, but you may have a personal threshold. Blueberry: Red leaves Red leaves are common on blueberry in the fall and in the spring. In the spring it is related to cool/cold soils and phosphorus (P) deficiency. In most cases, once the soil warms the leaves change to their normal green. But there is a lot of it out there this year, and even though the weather has been up and down, the soils are warm with temperatures in the 50s and 60s.

3 Magnesium (Mg) deficiency also appears as red coloring interveinal. This is often associated with heavy crops. Phosphorus and Magnesium deficiencies are often confused because of the similar appearance. This does not go away with warm soils. Mg Deficiency Photo: M. Pritts, Cornell Nitrogen (N) deficiency symptoms are leaves with a reddish tinge. Nitrogen deficiency There is a quick way to tell whether it is P or Mg have a soil test done ( $12). If it is low phosphorus, should you apply foliar phosphorus? No. There has been no documented response to this. If it is low magnesium, Epsom salts may be applied. However, avoid slow drying conditions and hot temperatures. N is not checked for in a soil test because it is a moving target. The first N application was applied over a month ago and the second application should be going on 6 weeks after the first one. We have had a wet spring. Most of the N may have moved past the plant roots so N deficiency symptoms would be showing up. Make your second application now, even if it is less than 6 weeks since the first application. Grape Berry Moth Paralobesia viteana Casey Lambert and Evan Lentz, UConn ipipe Interns The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana, is a well-established yet increasingly problematic pest for New England grape growers. Native to the northeastern regions of the United States, the grape berry moth (GBM) is seen causing major crop damage as far west as the Rocky Mountains. With consumer-driven increases in cultivated grape acreage across the US, the GBM's range, which had previously been limited to the woody tree lines of its wild grape host, continues to expand. Although threshold numbers have not yet been set for the area, the GBM still poses a measurable economic threat to the vineyards of New England. Adult GBM Michigan State IPM Life Cycle: The pupae of grape berry moth overwinter in the leafy debris of vineyard floors and surrounding woodlands. With the warming of the spring months, adult GBM emerge to mate. Female GMB lay their eggs singly on/near both the developing fruit and flower clusters of grape vines. Around June, the first generation of larvae hatch and feed on the clusters and then on the berries when the berries are larger. By late-july/august this first generation will fully mature, mate, and give

4 rise to the second generation. By September, the second generation has matured, will feed on berries and begin the overwintering process. Some regions, usually the southernmost, may see the development of a third generation. Identification: GBM is approximately a ¼ inch long with a broad gray band across the middle of its wings and dark spots on its edges. Their grayish-green larvae are approximately ⅜ inches long and can be found in blossoms, young fruit, newly formed berries, and in green and ripening berries. GBM eggs are translucent and difficult to see. The development of dark spots on the eggs signifies maturation. Damage: Larvae feed inside berries before and after veraison. Before veraison, green berries will develop a maroon coloration on one side. After veraison larvae may hollow out the berries, causing them to look wrinkled and shrunken. Damage by grape berry moth after veraison predisposes berries to secondary infections such as Botrytis and sour rots. A sure sign of this pest is the presence of webbing around the fruit clusters. GMB Eggs Michigan State IPM Feeding Damage Michigan State IPM GMB Larva Michigan State IPM Management: Remove wild grape plants from areas near the vineyard and till between rows to bury over-wintering larvae. Pheromone traps can be used to monitor the onset of activity, which usually begins around bloom. Scouting for eggs around the perimeters of the vineyard for first Larvae Webbing Michigan State IPM generation, and within the vineyard rows for second and third generation can help in timing insecticide applications. Mary Concklin, along with Casey Lambert and Evan Lentz, are currently taking part in a nationwide research & extension program (ipipe - Integrated Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education, through a USDA-NIFA grant) which tracks the presence and distribution of a variety of crop pests. The Grape Berry Moth is one of the pests of interest for our portion of this project. The date of first capture for GBM adults in Connecticut was May 23, 2018 with first sustained capture on May 29, As of now, GBM has been confirmed in the following towns: Wallingford, Northford, Watertown, Goshen, Preston, Gales Ferry, South Glastonbury, and Brooklyn. For more information on the GBM, its distribution, and

5 management/control measures please contact Mary Concklin at or Come on out and plan to get down and dirty as we scout Strawberries and Blueberries in this Scouting Primer: Wednesday June 13 beginning at 3 pm Bishops Orchard, 520 New England Rd, Guilford. Picture guides and hand lens will be available. Come on out to this free workshop and brush up on your IPM skills. 2 Pesticide credits will be available. RSVP not required for this workshop The information in this document is for educational purposes only. The recommendations contained are based on the best available knowledge at the time of publication. Any reference to commercial products, trade or brand names is for information only, and no endorsement or approval is intended. UConn Extension does not guarantee or warrant the standard of any product referenced or imply approval of the product to the exclusion of others which also may be available. The University of Connecticut, UConn Extension, College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources is an equal opportunity program provider and employer.

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