1 MICROBIAL CONTROL DURING THE WINEMAKING PROCESS Dr. Nichola Hall MN Grape Growers Association 2017 Cool Climate Conference February 16 th 2017
2 MICROFLORA ASSOCIATED THE WITH WINE PRODUCTION STAGES GRAPE Nonfermentative yeast LAB AAB Molds FERMENTATION Fermentative yeast LAB AGING Non- Fermentative yeast Fermentative yeast LAB AAB
3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GRAPES AND WINE JUICE CHEMISTRY POPULATION WILL VARY DEPENDING JUICE UPON: VINTAGE, MICROBIOLOGY VINEYARD, CHEMISTRY (ph), SANITARY STATUS OF FRUIT WINE CHEMISTRY WINE MICROBIOLOGY
4 GRAPE MICROFLORA- WHY SHOULD WE CARE? Nutrient depletion Vitamins and minerals can be consumed in the first few hours Production of microbial inhibitors Production of negative sensory compounds Control over fermentation process and wine style
5 CONTROL OF GRAPE MICROFLORA Once identified we can select the most appropriate control method Biological Organism introduction Chemical Organism choice- Yeast and/ or Bacteria» Inoculation time and rate, handling and acclimatization» Paying attention to the yeast lag phase specifics SO 2, Lysozyme, Tartaric Acid Physical/Environmental Settling, temperature management, hygiene
6 MICROBIAL CONTROL OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS Alcoholic Fermentation Yeast strain selection Yeast preparation Time, temperature and acclimatization Yeast addition Yeast nutrition, incl. Oxygen Protection Nourishment Temperature control Presence of inhibitors VA, Ethanol, SMCFA MaloLactic Fermentation Bacteria strain selection Bacteria preparation Timing, temperature Bacteria nutrition Bacteria addition Temperature management Chemical parameters ph, FSO 2 and TSO 2, Ethanol Presence of inhibitors High lactic acid, polyphenolics, pesticide residues, SMCFA
7 MICROBIAL CONTROL OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS Alcoholic Fermentation Yeast strain selection Yeast preparation Time, temperature and acclimatization Yeast addition Yeast nutrition, incl. Oxygen Protection Nourishment Temperature control Presence of inhibitors VA, Ethanol, SMCFA MaloLactic Fermentation Bacteria strain selection Bacteria preparation Timing, temperature Bacteria nutrition GOOD FERMENTATION MANAGEMENT Bacteria addition Temperature management Chemical parameters ph, FSO 2 and TSO 2, Ethanol Presence of inhibitors High lactic acid, polyphenolics, pesticide residues, SMCFA
8 AVOID MICROBIAL VOIDS END OF ALF: G:F, Ethanol, ph, Malic acid, VA END OF MLF: Malic acid, VA, ph, FSO2 (MSO2), TSO2
9 MICROBIAL FLORA DURING AGING Should have none!
10 MICROBIAL CONTROL DURING Hygiene Minimize oxygen AGING Manage ph/ SO 2 levels Manage temperature Prophylactic or treatment dosage of Lysozyme and/or Chitosan/Chitin-Glucan Taste wine INTERVENE EARLY! RECOMMENDED ANALYSIS: Baseline microbiology, VA, FSO 2, TSO 2 and MSO 2
11 CONTROL IS THE BEST MEANS TO AVOID SPOILAGE! And, spoilage occurs when we don t or can t exert control!
12 MICROBIAL SPOILAGE- A DEFINITION Spoilage is considered to have occurred if the growth or metabolism of a microorganism imparts an off-aroma or mouthfeel character to juice or wine or, there is a change in the physical appearance.
13 MICROBIAL CONTROL Environmental Hygiene Temperature Humidity Controlled Fermentations Nutrients deserts Chemical ph MSO 2 Chitosan/Chitin- Glucan Lysozyme DMDC (Velcorin) Sorbic Acid CO 2 Alcohol Physical Filtration Thermal UV
14 MICROBIAL CONTROL Environmental Hygiene Temperature Humidity Controlled Fermentations Nutrients deserts Chemical ph MSO 2 Chitosan/C-G Lysozyme DMDC (Velcorin) Sorbic Acid CO 2 Alcohol Physical Filtration Thermal UV
15 SULFUR DIOXIDE Total SO 2 Free Bound (M)SO 2 Bisulfite HSO 3 - Sulfite SO 3 = Bound to sugars, phenolics, aldehydes, etc.
16 SO 2 AS AN ANTI-MICROBIAL
17 (M)SO 2 AS AN ANTIMICROBIAL SO 2 ph 6.5 SO 2 enters the cell (as it doesn t have a charge) and undergoes a rapid ph-driven dissociation at cytoplasmic ph, yielding sulfite and bisulfite. These molecules bind with essential proteins leading to cellular death. SO 2 is either Microstatic or microcidal depending on concentration.
18 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ph and SO 2
19 LYSOZYME ADJUVANTS TO SO 2 Gram positive (Lactic acid) bacteria Initial fining effect then lysis of LAB cell walls Chitosan/Chitin-Glucan Brettanomyces, Lactic Acid and Acetic acid bacteria DMDC Fining then lysis of cell walls/ membranes of cells Most effective against Yeast Sorbic Acid (Potassium Sorbate) Yeast ph and ethanol influences it fungicidal nature
20 HYGIENE IS A MEANS OF MICROBIAL CONTROL, PRODUCT INTEGRITY, EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE, ENVIRONMENT(AL) MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION!
21 5S PRINCIPLE 5S methodologies Sort (Seiri) Return, retain, trash Straighten (Seiton) Organize and arrange Shine (Seiso) Systematic cleaning Standardize (Seiketsu) Uniform procedures and operations Sustain (Shitsuke) Adhere to
22 CLEANING IS A PROCESS!
23 HYGIENE STEPS CLEANING CAN BE: RINSE WASH RINSE NEUTRALIZATION STEP SANITATION POTENTIAL RINSE STEP CLEANING CAN BE: RINSE WASH SINGLE PASS RINSE SANITATION
24 EFFICIENCY IS ACHIEVED BY: WATCH RULE WATER ACTION HEAT TIME CONC. Balanced interactions for optimized efficiencies!
25 WATER Water quality Water quantity 10% of volume? Can your process water be re-used?
26 (MECHANICAL) ACTION Key Factor for success, especially in difficult to reach areas Forces the contaminants off the surface Used in conjunction with the dissolving properties of the cleaning solution Reactions are often equilibrium controlled, constant circulation is required Hoses and piping Turbulent flow Flow rate 5-7 / sec 1.5 hoses = gpm 2.5 hoses = gpm Movement is upstream, not downstream
27 (MECHANICAL) ACTION Tank surface flow rates 27L (7.1 gallons)/min/m circulated- light soil 30L - medium soil 32L - heavy soil Rates sufficient for tank surface flow and volume to enable cleaning to occur!
28 (CONTACT) TIME Cleaners do not work instantly Takes time to penetrate the soil Consider How cleaner is being applied Spraying, soaking, foam, gels
29 CONCENTRATION Amount used dependent upon: Water quality and quantity Soil quantity Soil quality Damp, dried or baked Temperature of cleaning water If a little works- A lot is not better!
30 IN PRACTICE- HOW MUCH CLEANER DO YOU NEED? Score card was designed for AiRD Products.
31 HEAT (TEMPERATURE) Each detergent has an optimum temperature at which it works best Too cool Ineffective Too hot Denature soil and without surfactants bake it on Significant effect on aqueous cleaning success Load carrying capacity is higher in warmer water Increasing above ambient increases efficiency Reduces contact (reaction) time
32 CONSIDERATIONS FOR CLEANER SELECTION & CONCENTRATION Type of soil present Visible, invisible Loose, baked, stain, biofilm Amount of soil present Low, moderate, heavy Material composition SS, wood, PP,?
33 IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS
34 PROPERTIES Cleaning requirements For your operation how clean is clean enough? Physically clean Chemically clean Microbiologically clean
35 A WORD OF CAUTION-CAUSTICS ISSUES Highly corrosive and reactive Exothermic reactions Increases surface tension Hard water + heat = scale Denatures and chars soils Potentially re-deposits it
36 BUILT CLEANERS Should be suitable for the job Should be safe Respectful Active cleaning agent Adjuvants Surfactants Chelation aids Rinse aids
37 CLEANING IS A PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROCESS!
38 EFFICIENCY IS ACHIEVED BY: WATCH RULE WATER ACTION HEAT TIME CONC. Balanced interactions for optimized efficiencies!
39 PRIOR TO CLEANING The first stage of the cycle is always a warm water rinse as soon as equipment has been emptied Deals with majority of water soluble materials ~145 F By doing a good job with this rinse you can cut back on the level of detergent you are using There is a stage before this initial rinse and that is the dry cleaning phase sweep, shovel, etc to remove as much of the visible solids as possible.
40 A CLEAN TANK
41 EQUIPMENT THE 5S PRINCIPLE
42 CLEANING EQUIPMENT Cleaning equipment Manual operations CIP How often do you Brushes, mops, squeegees, non-scratch scourers Color coded buckets clean you cleaning Avoid cross contamination and dangerous chemical reactions! Hoses, fittings, pumps, spray balls Foaming system PIG s equipment?
43 5S PRINCIPLE IN ACTION
44 Gordon Taylor, DavenLore
45 WE ARE NOT DONE YET Clean before use and after No ideal cleaner This is why we rotate different cleaners in for different jobs RINSE Cleaner choices should still be appropriate Removes residual cleaner and prepares for sanitation
47 SANITATION Generally with chemicals or heat Other industries: UV or radiation Reduction of non-pathogenic, vegetative cells on clean surfaces to % Complies with FDA and EPA FDA EPA GMP
48 WHY DOES THE EPA GET INVOLVED? 4 acts that influence winery operations Water pollution control act, Clean air act, Resource conservation and recovery act and Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide act (FIFRA) FIFRA deals with pesticides Sanitation aids are classes as pesticides due to their antimicrobial nature Cleaners do have anti-microbial activity, but that is not their main function
49 Food grade! HEAT Penetrates well, kills most microorganisms, penetrates irregular surfaces, suitable for CIP and relatively inexpensive (once set-up), non-toxic Bake on residues (leading to biofilm formation), may form scale, inappropriate for general use, scalding hazard, contact time sensitive, must be generated (energy intensive process) TEMPERATURE ( F/C) TIME (MINUTES) 200/ / / /60 60
50 CHEMICAL LABELS Product must be used in accordance with approval
51 CHOOSING SANITIZERS TYPE OF SANITIZER Iodine QUAT S ADVANTAGES Broad spectrum Effective at low temp Inexpensive Does not leave film Test strips available Non-corrosive Residual activity (if not rinsed) Can be applied as a foam Test strips available DISADVATAGES May corrode metal and weaken rubber Unstable, dissipates quickly Narrow ph range (acidify) Sensitive to organic load Stains Irritant Inactivated by most detergents Inactivated by hard water Not broad spectrum Effectiveness varies with formulation Ozone Strong oxidizer Broad spectrum Breakdown products friendly Expensive and must be generated Unstable and cannot be stored May corrode some materials Inactivated by organic materials
52 CHOOSING SANITIZERS TYPE OF SANITIZER CHLORINE DIOXIDE PEROXY COMPOUNDS SULFUR DIOXIDE ADVANTAGES Broad spectrum Strong oxidizer Less corrosive than Cl Less effected by organic residue Generate on site from packets No free Cl ion (TCA) Broad spectrum Good for (bacterial) biofilms Stable Effective at low temperature Breakdown Inexpensive Fairly effective DISADVANTAGES Unstable and cannot be stored Worker safety issues via generation High generator costs Expensive Inactivated by some metals May corrode some metals Product?? Irritant Registered for use
53 PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES
54 DEVELOPING PROCEDURES Set up a schedule Assign tasks Procedure When C&S should be conducted What C&S chemicals are to be used How the solutions should be prepared How are they applied What is the correct sequence of use By whom MONITOR & DOCUMENT!
55 EXAMPLE- SSOP Wearing proper PPE Measure out X gallons of X F potable water into clean non-reactive container Measure out X ounces of X brand cleaning solution Carefully mix to ensure homogenous solution Check concentration is within range (state range)
56 EXAMPLE- SSOP
57 OVERVIEW Keep abreast of your wines Know their chemistry and have baselines Know the risks associated with the different organisms Exploit their weaknesses! Have procedures and protocols Follow WATCH rules Use winery specific chemicals for wine based soils and winery equipment
Types of Sanitizers Heat, w/ water or steam to saturate effect Very effective anti-microbial, except some encysted forms Exposure time critical Non-corrosive, but energy intensive Chemical Effectiveness
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