Grapevine Trunk Diseases

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1 Grapevine Trunk Diseases Grape Camp Nov. 2, 2015 Lady Bird Johnson Park Fredericksburg, TX David Appel, Professor Dept. of Plant Pathology and Microbiology Texas A&M University, College Station, TX Albre Brown, Graduate Student Dept. of Plant Pathology and Microbiology Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843

2 Presentation Outline Trunk disease and grapevine cankers defined, Impact of cankers, The Texas situation, Current TAMU Research, Control of grapevine cankers.

3 What are Trunk Diseases? Disease category consisting of necrotic, perennial lesions of mature wood (=cankers), from small to large, often found near spurs, sometimes characterized as vascular diseases, Esca (a.k.a. black measles on adult vines, black goo or petri disease on young vines), bot canker, Eutypa dieback, dead arm, Mostly caused by fungi well over 20 species, Usually associated in vineyards 10 yrs. or older, Occur worldwide, on all grape varieties, Can cause increased costs through several avenues. Reduced yield, loss of fruiting wood, retraining vines, replanting, increased management costs.

4 Trunk/cane Anatomy Cornell Fruit

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6 What Causes Trunk Diseases? Caused by a long list of taxonomically diverse fungi, mostly Ascomycetes, They form spores in tiny containers growing on the surface of the dead, cankered wood, fruiting bodies, containers = pycnidia, Fungal spores are airborne, Sexual and asexual conidia, Infection occurs primarily through wounds, More than one potential pathogen in any given canker.

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8 What Do they Look Like? It is difficult to associate one type of symptom with a particular pathogen Internal and External Trunk Symptoms perennial, expanding necrotic lesions (canker), longitudinal splits and cracks dead cordon arm, loss of spurs, wedge shaped necrotic lesions in cross section (internal) Foliar Symptoms chlorotic, tattered and cupped, stunted shoots, Berries bunch rot, spotting.

9 What Do They Look Like? Symptoms of Trunk Diseases Black measles (esca) Information/ Internal Symptoms of Esca GTD Dieback Eutypa Bot canker Information/?uid=205&ds=351

10 Fungi Associated With Cankers in Texas Urbez-Torres, Adams, Kamas, Gubler Survey: in Hill Country and South High Plains, 45 vineyards, 183 samples, included 10 varieties. Fungal ID: fungi isolated from cankered vines, preliminary ID based on morphology, definitive ID based on DNA homology with known sequences. Pathogenicity: artificial inoculation of detached, lignified canes, measurement of internal vascular streaking.

11 Results and Conclusions of the Previous Texas Study Greater diversity of pathogens than originally thought, First reports of numerous fungi on cankers in Texas, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Neofusicoccum parvum, Diplodia seriata, Increased understanding of these organisms will contribute to development of appropriate control methods.

12 Most Likely Pathogens in Texas What we are seeing most often associated organisms Bot Canker Phomopsis cane and leaf spot Dead arm Esca Miscellaneous associated organisms

13 Lasiodiplodia theobromae Telemorph: Botryosphaeria rhodina Infection court = pruning wound Typical wedge shaped canker Bot Canker

14 Diplodia seriata Telemorph: Botryosphaeria obtuse Pycnidia of D. seriata on bark Culture on PDA Canker caused by Bortrysphaeria Spores

15 Diaporthe ampelina (Appropriate name) Synonym: Phomopsis viticola Masses of conidia Internal discoloration Culture on PDA

16 Current Survey for Cankers in Texas Objectives, Methods and Preliminary Results - Albre Brown M.S. Project Collect and identify likely pathogens, Determine sources of inoculum, Conditions conducive to pathogen spread, Disease incidence relative to vineyard conditions.

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18 Spore Collection Microscope slide coated with petroleum jelly

19 Disease (Common Name) Black dead arm, Botryosphaeria canker, Excoriose Esca Complex, Black measles Pathogen (Causative Agent) Fungi within the Botryosphaeriaceae family Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium sp., Fomitiporia punctata, Togninia minima Eutypa dieback, Petri disease, Young vine decline Phomopsis Dieback, Phomopsis cane and leaf spot Eutypa lata Phaeomoniella chlamydospora Diaporthe ampelina (= Phomopsis viticola)

20 Hyaline, aseptate, thin-walled conida of Neofusicoccum sp. Colored, 1-septate conidia of Dothiorella sp. Hyaline, aseptate, thinwalled conida of Botryosphaeria dothidea Hyaline, aseptate, colored, 1-septate conidia of Diplodia sp. Taxonomic tree of relevant species within Botryosphaeriaceae family Striate, colored, 1- septate conidia of a Lasiodiplodia species

21 What is Phomopsis? Diaporthe spp. are known to cause two distinct diseases on grapevine: Phomopsis cane and leaf spot affecting the green tissues Phomopsis dieback affecting the permanent woody structure Laboratory images of Diaporthe spp.

22 Esca is a disease caused by a complex of pathogens that primarily include: Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium sp., Fomitiporia punctate, Togninia minima What is Esca?

23 What is Esca? Esca foliar symptoms include: tiger-stripes light-green and/or chlorotic areas developing between the veins and at the margin of the leaves that eventually turn rust- or reddish-colored throughout the growing season black measles gray to dark-brown speckling of the berries vine apoplexy sudden wilting of the vine, including shriveling of the fruit that normally occurs in summer

24 What is Esca? Leaf symptom known as tiger-stripes

25 What is Esca? Esca vascular symptoms include: White rot yellowish spongy mass of wood, usually in the center of the trunk and/or cordons, which can be observed alone or along with dark brown to black spots in the xylem vessels

26 Know your Pathogens Alternative infection routes have been clearly demonstrated with P. chlamydospora, providing evidence that this pathogen is also soil-borne. This means if a vine harbors the esca complex retraining is likely to be ineffective The vine must be completely removed to prevent spread of disease

27 Vine Retraining Possible Outcomes Canker caused by Esca Complex Canker caused by Botrysphaeriacea

28 Purpose of Spore Dispersal Data When to prune What environmental conditions are conducive to spread of disease When are spores dispersed All year long? Which pathogens are primarily spread via airborne dispersal Unexpected observations Borers promote disease progression within a vine. Spores are found in copious amounts in borer excrement.

29 Rainfall (in.) Rainfall (in.) Hill Country Vineyard 1 Monthly Rainfall Hill Country Vineyard 2 Monthly Rainfall Feb Mar Apr May 2015 Monthly Average Monthly 0 Feb Mar Apr May 2015 Monthly Average Monthly

30 Spore Count Hill Country Vineyard 1 Cab. Sav Syrah Chardonnay Cab. Sav Syrah Chardonnay March Botryosphaeriaceae Amphisphaeriaceae (Pestalotiopsis) Unknown/Saprophytic April Pleosporaceae (Alternaria) Diaporthe (Phomopsis) Total Spore Count

31 Spore Count Differences of Spore Dispersal Among Cultivars 4/8/ Muscat Blanc Sangiovese Cab. Sav Syrah Chardonnay Hill Country Vineyard 2 Hill Country Vineyard 1 Botryosphaeriaceae Pleosporaceae (Alternaria) Amphisphaeriaceae (Pestalotiopsis) Diaporthe (Phomopsis) Unknown/Saprophytic Total Spore Count

32 Number of Vines Purpose of GTD Survey GTDs reduce vineyard longevity, cumulative yield, and fruit quality Incidence and prevalence of disease increases parallel to vine age The most effective method of control is early prevention TX Vineyard Survey Sorted by GTD-TAMU Rating Disease Rating

33 Early Prevention is Critical!!! There is a long lag phase between infection and appearance of symptoms Several years Most of these fungi grow slowly in the vine wood Foliar symptoms do not appear until several years after the onset of infection, so that by the time the symptoms become visible the fungi are wellestablished The disease is present long before the vines begin to die back

34 Additional Current Projects Solidifying identifications via molecular methods Greenhouse pathogenicity studies using grapevines from propagation Primary cultivars grown in Texas Isolates of pathogens obtained from Texas vineyards

35 Current Recommendations for Control Prevention newly planted vineyards Start management before symptoms appear. Time pruning to avoid risk, delay pruning, double pruning, Weber, E.A., Trouillas, F.P., and Gubler, W.D Double pruning of grapevines: a practice to reduce infections by Eutypa lata. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 58:1. healing late in dormant season proceeds more quickly, resistance is achieved sooner after cut is made, second cut removes the primary infections.

36 Current Recommendations for Control Prevention newly planted vineyards Treat pruning wounds with a protectant Topsin M 2lb/acre (Group 1 Benzimidazole, Thiophanate-methyl), Rally 4-6 oz/acre (Triazole, Myclobutanil), tractor applied post-pruning, Tractor applied post pruning repeat as needed to be effective for 1 month, particularly after rain. Topical wound paints, Vinevax (Trichoderma), 5% Boric Acid paste, fungicide amended wound paints.

37 Current Recommendations for Control In older, infected vineyards Vine surgery cut away infected canes/cordons, trunks, retrain considered to be a last resort, must cut back to healthy tissue, protect wounds as previously recommended. Sanitation remove from vineyard/burn, effective spore dispersal distances? 6 ft.

38 Resources The Vineyard Doctor (extension) Texas Plant Disease Diagnostic Lab Aggie Horticulture International Council on Grapevine Trunk Diseases UC Integrated Viticulture s=351

39 Esca? The End

40 Trunk Anatomy = pith = stele = cortex = diaphragm FIGURE 1.9 Cross section of V. vinifera shoot prior to periderm formation (left) and of cane after two layers of phloem have been discarded (center), and longitudinal section through Vitis shoot (right: A, pith; B, stele; C, cortex; D, diaphragm).reproduced from Viala and Vermorel (1909).

41 Variability in Symptoms Among Trunk Diseases Disease Symptom Wedge Shaped Perennial White Canker Canker Dead Loss Stunted Chlorotic Foliar Berries Spots on Bunch Rot (internal) (external) Arm of spurs Shoots Shoots necrosis Shriveled Berries Rot (Internal) Bot canker x x x x x x Eutypa x x x x x x x x Esca x x x x Phomopsis x x x x x x

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