Berry sugar and water loading. Principles and a few observations

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1 Berry sugar and water loading Principles and a few observations Prof Alain Deloire Department of Viticulture and Oenology Stellenbosch University UC-Davis, 10 May 2012

2 Berry sugar and water loading: the concept Berry aromatic sequence and wine style: the concept Example of Merlot berry aromatic sequence Example of Cabernet Sauvignon berry aromatic sequence

3 Berry quality = berry composition - Each berry has its own dynamic of growth and ripening - Each compound follows its own pathway Hundred of compounds - Sugar - Minerals - Nitrogen - Amino acids - Water - Organic acids - Phenolic compounds - Aromatic precursors -etc. A. Deloire 2011

4 Photons (µeinstein/m2/s) Photosynthesis Sucrose transportation via the phloem Berry sugar loading (sucrose, glucose, fructose) A. Deloire 2011

5 Berry sugar loading needs to plateau to achieve the ripening process (for red cultivars) berry volume evolution accumulation of sugar per berry Brix sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar Beginning of veraison (berry softening) ripening dates harvest A. Deloire, 2009

6 transpiration Berry water flux berry phloem (water + sucrose) xylem (water + minerals) Sap conduction pedicel «water back flow»? Deloire, 2006, from Coombe, 1992; Rogiers et al., 2004.

7 Berry sugar loading needs to plateau to achieve the ripening process berry volume evolution accumulation of sugar per berry Brix sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar 1 2 Beginning of veraison (berry softening) ripening dates harvest When sugar per berry plateaus, the volume of the berry could decrease by water loss and therefore the brix will increase A. Deloire, 2009

8 Which parameters are considered to establish the model of berry sugar loading? - The Brix evolution over the ripening period, from veraison onwards - The berry fresh mass evolution over the ripening period, from veraison onwards - The sugar per berry (mg/berry) accumulation over the ripening period, from veraison onwards

9 The key point of the ripening process Sugar per berry accumulation The profiles of sugar per berry accumulation we are looking for Slow loading (water stress, unbalanced vine?) Beginning of veraison (berry softening) ripening harvest Sugar loading: relevant indicator of vine functioning and balance Vivelys, Deloire 2008

10 Berry fresh mass (g) Sugar / berry (mg) Brix

11 Syrah Brix A. Deloire, 2012 Sugar / berry (mg)

12 Syrah Brix Berry fresh mass (g) A. Deloire, 2012

13 Pinotage Brix A. Deloire, 2012 Sugar / berry (mg)

14 Shiraz The plateau of anthocyanin biosynthesis is reached around brix. Fournand et al., (Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry)

15 ANTHOCYANINS EVOLUTION ACCORDING TO BERRY SUCROSE CONTENT Shiraz, Stellenbosch 600,00 500,00 400,00 anthl.t. mg/l 300,00 200,00 anthgl. Malv. anthco. anthac. 100,00 0, brix The arrow indicates the plateau for anthocyanins biosynthesis. Deloire et al., 2003; Fournand et al., 2007

16 The proposal is to: - use Brix - berry fresh mass - and sugar accumulation per berry to predict the harvest date in relationship with the possible wine style. HOW?

17 Matching wine style to harvest date for red cultivars in the Western Cape area using the berry sugar loading method

18 Berry ripening versus style of wine Berry Aromatic Sequence and Sugar Loading

19 Traditional indicators (brix, malic and tartaric acids, TAA, phenolics) are more related to the perception of the wine in the mouth. Therefore in association with the classical indicators of ripening, it is necessary to add new indicators which are more related to the style of wine in terms of aromatic profiles.

20 Ripening levels and sugar loading Red cultivars: berry aromatic sequence (B.A.S.) Fresh fruit, grassy skin Pre fresh Fresh fruit Neutral Pre ripe Ripe fruit Jammy fruit Grassy Berry tempo of ripening according to a physiological clock and to the style of wine Vivelys, Deloire 2008

21 Merlot model Berry tasting brix brix Vegetal green sugar / berry fresh fruit aroma ripe fruit aroma Beginning of veraison days Day 0 = when sugar per berry reaches a plateau Vivelys, Deloire 2008

22 Merlot model Berry tasting brix brix Vegetal green sugar / berry fresh fruit aroma ripe fruit ripe aroma fruit aroma Beginning of veraison days Day 0 = when sugar per berry reaches a plateau Vivelys, Deloire 2008

23 Merlot Stellenbosch: classical canopy and treatment without lateral (warm climate) Biplot (axes F1 and F2: %) 4 3 Trt_Mature_H4 AstringentT CookedVegA 2 Ctr_PreFresh_H1 Trt_Mature_H3 1 SoyaSavouryA Trt_PreMature_H2 VegetativeFl BlackcurrentA F2 (14.60 %) 0 Ctr_Fresh_H3 GreenplantlikeFl UnripeplumA GreenplantlikeA OverallBerryNose BlackberryA BerrylikeFl OverallBerryPalate BerryjamA 1 Trt_Fresh_H1 2 Ctr_Mature_H4 3 Ctr_Fresh_H F1 (73.97 %) Muller, Gobler et al., 2011

24 Merlot Durbanville (cool climate) 7 Biplot (axes F1 and F2: %) Fresh 5 BlackcurrentA UnripeplumA SoyaSavouryA 3 OverallBerryPalate Fresh F2 (25.45 %) 1 GreenplantlikeA BerrylikeFl BlackberryA 1 Mature OverallBerryNose 3 BerryjamA Mature CookedVegA VegetativeFl Mature Fresh GreenplantlikeFl AstringentT F1 (54.07 %) Muller, Deloire et al., 2011

25 Cabernet Sauvignon model theoretical data tannin pyrazine reactivity sugar loading fresh fruit period mature fruit period day 0 day 20 day 25 day 45 Style of wine according to the sugar loading curve, which is a physiological «clock» (independent of calendar date) Vivelys, Deloire 2008

26 How to be able to produce mature berry at low brix level? How to manage: - the volume of a berry - the sugar per berry (loading and quantity) - and therefore the Brix level How to model berry sugar and water loading?

27 -T - light -RH -pet - wind speed H 2 O Environment + vine functioning exposed leaf area / yield = Berry composition Evapo transpiration Deloire, 2008 Root development Fraction of Total Soil Water transpirable by the vine (FTSW) Accumulation sugars water minerals (K + Ca ++ Mg + etc. ) nitrogen Biosynthesis phenol compounds, organic acids, p aromas

28 We acknowledge: - Winetech (funding) - Distell - De Toren - Eikendal - De Grendel - Tokara - L Ormarins - Solms Delta - Bottelary - Fairview VIVELYS - France

29 «Share your knowledge. It is a way to achieve immortality» Dalai Lama, 2009 Thank you for your attention

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