Opportunities with disease-resistant cultivars

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1 Opportunities with disease-resistant cultivars Ian Dry & Mark Thomas CSIRO Agriculture ASVO, Mildura - July 2015

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3 Genetic improvement of winegrapes: 6000 BC present Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris (wild grapevine) Dioecious Small red berries Low sugar Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera (cultivated grapevine) Hermaphrodite Larger red & white berries Higher sugar >1300 varieties

4 Major diseases of Australian viticulture Powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) Botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) $52 million $76 million 1 $63 million 1 Assessment of Economic Cost of Endemic Pests & Diseases on the Australian Grape & Wine Industry - GWRDC 2010

5 New strategies for the development of mildew-resistant winegrapes Genetic enhancement of eisting premium varieties by transformation with mildew resistance genes

6 Muscadinia rotundifolia contains genes that confer strong resistance to powdery & downy mildew M. rotundifolia V. vinifera (1916) NC6-15 (F1) Cabernet sauvignon Resistance to powdery mildew controlled by: RUN1 (Resistance to Uncinula necator) VRH 8628 (BC1) Grenache Alain Bouquet INRA ( ) VRH (BC2) Merlot VRH (BC3) Aubun V. vinifera VRH (BC4) Resistance to downy mildew controlled by: RPV1 (Resistance to Plasmopora viticola) VRH (BC4) Cabernet sauvignon VRH 3294 (BC5) RUN1 and RPV1 are tightly linked V. vinifera VRH (BC4)

7 Portan Portan + RUN1 Tempranillo Tempranillo + RPV1 World s first mildew-resistant premium winegrapes: Shiraz R Tempranillo R Pinot R Portan R

8 New strategies for the development of mildew-resistant winegrapes Genetic enhancement of eisting premium varieties by transformation with mildew resistance genes Development of new disease-resistant winegrape varieties using marker-assisted selection and rapid breeding techniques

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10 Smart breeding using Marker Assisted Selection MrRUN1/MrRPV1 resistance? Perfect flowers (fruiting)? Red berries? Resistant grapevine Susceptible premium variety

11 Generation of new disease-resistant varieties by MAS BC5:3294 (RUN1/RPV1) 8 premium whites 12,000 seeds sown 8 premium reds 8,100 seedlings DNA profiled 1,200 seedlings selected for field evaluation Planted in unsprayed blocks at Nuriootpa for evaluation of disease resistance, vine performance and wine style/quality

12 Field performance disease resistance No powdery or downy mildew infection observed on unsprayed vines from /2011 etreme disease year Old variety (sprayed) New R variety (unsprayed)

13 Evaluation of fruit variation Maturity variation: 1 Feb - April (22 o Bri) Bunch size and architecture variation Single vine yield up to 20 kg Juice ph variation

14 Small-scale wine making (~ 1kg fruit) Evaluation of wine style/quality Assessed by winemakers from Orlando, Yalumba & McWilliam s

15 White wine sensory: interest level evaluated small-scale wines from 0 (no interest) to 3 (high interest) Chardonnay No. of wines (genotypes) Average Wine Interest ( season)

16 Selection of 20 best 1 st -generation mildew-resistant Aussie reds & whites Phase I (Nuriootpa) Elite selections which show over several seasons: consistently high scores by commercial winemakers consistently high yields good acid and ph at harvest early maturity Phase II (Regional sites Nuriootpa, Mildura, Wagga) Elite selections with higher vine numbers and replication to produce larger scale eperimental wine volumes for sensory evaluation.

17 So what net? PLANT CELL Isolate 1 EResistance protein protein E RESISTANCE PLANT CELL Isolate 2 Resistance protein Resistance protein SUSCEPTIBILITY Powdery mildew isolates Pm R locus Grape species Source Aust French Nth Am - 1 Nth Am V. vinifera Europe Sus Sus Sus Sus RUN1 M. rotundifolia Nth Am Res Res Res Sus REN4 V. romanetii China Res n.d. Res Res

18 Stacking of multiple powdery & downy mildew R genes in 2 nd generation Aussie reds & whites PLANT CELL Isolate 2 Resistance protein Resistance protein SUSCEPTIBILITY Resistance protein Resistance protein RESISTANCE Powdery mildew isolates Pm R locus Grape species Source Aust French Nth Am - 1 Nth Am V. vinifera Europe Sus Sus Sus Sus RUN1 M. rotundifolia Nth Am Res Res Res Sus REN4 V. romanetii China Res n.d. Res Res

19 Introgression of genes from wild sp. takes a long time.. M. rotundifolia (2n=40) V. vinifera (2n=38) (1916) NC6-15 (F1) Cabernet sauvignon (Vv : Mr) % genome (50 : 50) VRH 8628 (BC1) Grenache (75 : 25) Alain Bouquet INRA ( ) VRH (BC2) Merlot VRH (BC3) Aubun VRH (BC4) Cabernet sauvignon VRH 3294 (BC5) (87.5 : 12.5) (93.8 : 6.2) (96.9 : 3.1) (98.4 : 1.6) So we need a faster breeding system..

20 A new system for rapid grapevine breeding Conventional system Flowering once a year Pollination once year Field Microvine system Flowering all year Pollination all year Growthroom / glasshouse Generation time: mths Generation time: 6 mths Space: 4 plants per 12 m 2 Space: 4 plants per 0.6 m 2

21 premium winegrape cultivars M. rotundifolia (RUN1/RPV1) MAS perfect flowers both mildew resistance genes berry colour V. romanetii (REN4) V. amurensis (RPV12) Field evaluation, small scale winemaking trials Selected 1 st generation disease-resistant (RUN1/RPV1) winegrape varieties Backcross / MAS Backcross / MAS Selfed / MAS Microvine (REN4/REN4; RPV12/RPV12) MAS non-dwarf perfect flowers all 4 mildew resistance genes berry flav. - muscat berry flav. - methopyrazines bunch architecture (Botrytis) Field evaluation, small scale winemaking trials Selected 2 nd generation disease-resistant (RUN1/REN4; RPV1/RPV12) winegrape varieties

22 Opportunities with disease-resistant cultivars Uses Blending Replacements for old varieties of similar wine styles New varieties with unique flavour profiles Marketing Story Opportunity to enhance green credentials and create a unique marketing story at the level of Australia, Region, Winery Market Protection Varieties can be protected by IP mechanisms to protect market share

23 Acknowledgements CSIRO Angelica Jermakow Don Mackenzie Nayana Arunasiri Pat Corena Mahmood Hassan Winemakers Orlando Wines (Premium Wine Brands) Rebekah Richardson Tony Hooper Yalumba Louisa Rose Sam Wigan Heather Fraser McWilliam s Wines Group Corey Ryan Andrew Higgins INRA (France) Alain Bouquet Anne-F. Adam-Blondon Laurent Torregrossa Cornell Univ / USDA Lance Cadle-Davidson Bruce Reisch David Ramming University of Adelaide Vladimir Jiranek Frank Schmid Tommaso Liccioli SARDI Mike McCarthy CSU Bruno Holzapfel Jason Smith

24 Australian vineyards of the future?

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