A.M. Jordão *, A.C. Correia

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A.M. Jordão *, A.C. Correia"

Transcription

1 Reltionship Between Antioxidnt Cpcity, Pronthocynidin nd Anthocynin Content During Grpe Mturtion of Tourig Ncionl nd Tint Roriz Grpe Vrieties A.M. Jordão *, A.C. Correi Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Agrrin Higher School, Deprtment of Food Industries, Estrd de Nels, Quint d Algo, Rnhdos, Viseu, Portugl Sumitted for puliction: Mrch 212 Accepted for puliction: June 212 Key words: Antioxidnt cpcity, nthocynins, grpe mturtion, pronthocynidins To investigte ntioxidnt cpcity in seeds nd skins during grpe mturtion nd its reltionship with nthocynin nd pronthocynidin content, two Portuguese red grpe vrieties, Tourig Ncionl nd Tint Roriz (Vitis vinifer L.) were studied. Two nlyticl methods were used for ntioxidnt cpcity nlysis: the DPPH nd ABTS methods. Pronthocynidins from seeds nd skins were seprted into monomers, oligomers nd polymers, while 13 individul nthocynins from the skins were lso evluted y HPLC. For oth grpe vrieties studied, ntioxidnt cpcity from the skins nd seeds ws chrcterised during grpe mturtion y generl decrese, minly in the first weeks fter vérison, followed y stilistion nd slight increse in the vlues in the lst three weeks of ripening. A similr tendency ws oserved for the mount of ll the different pronthocynidin frctions quntified. Our results lso showed tht seeds re n importnt source of pronthocynidins with respect to the grpe erry skins. Seeds were lso the grpe erry frction with the highest ntioxidnt cpcity when compred to the ntioxidnt cpcity content of the skins. For the 13 individul monomeric nthocynins quntified during grpe mturtion, evolution ws generlly chrcterised y continuous increse in the vlues. However, for some of the individul nthocynins, the continuous increse ws followed y stilistion or decrese in the vlues in the lst weeks of ripening. Finlly, there ws positive reltionship etween the different pronthocynidin frctions nd ntioxidnt cpcity of oth grpe vrieties studied; while negtive reltionship during grpe mturtion ws otined for individul nthocynins. INTRODUCTION Grpes hve long een pprecited for their rich content of phenolic compounds such s gllic cid, ctechin, nthocynins nd resvertrol, nd wide vriety of procynidins (Cheynier & Rigud, 1986; Ricrdo-d-Silv et l., 1992; Jordão et l., 1998, 1998; Kennedy et l., 2, 21; Jordão et l., 21,; Sun et l., 21). Phenolic compounds cn e clssified into two groups: flvonoids nd nonflvonoids. The min C 6 -C 3 -C 6 flvonoids in wine include conjugtes of the flvonols, quercetin nd myricetin; flvin-3-ols (+)-ctechin nd (-)-epictechin; nd nthocynins. The nonflvonoids incorporte the C 6 -C 1 hydroxy-enzoic cids, nd gllic nd ellgic cids; the C 6 - C 3 hydroxycinnmtes cffeic, cftric nd p-coumric cids, nd the C 6 -C 2 -C 6 stilenes trns-resvertrol, cis-resvertrol, nd trns-resvertrol glucoside. In the grpe erry, flvonoids such s nthocynins re locted minly in the skins (Jordão et l., 1998), while the flvn-3-ols (ctechins nd pronthocynidins) re present in the skins, seeds nd stems (Riéreu-Gyon, 1972; Ricrdod-Silv et l., 1992; Fuleki & Ricrdo-d-Silv, 1997; Kennedy et l., 2, 2; Jordão et l., 21,; Sun et l., 21). Anthocynin ccumultion in the vcuoles of the skin egins in vérison nd reches mximum concentrtion round hrvest time (Kennedy et l., 22; Cnls et l., 25). A decrese in the totl mount of nthocynins just efore hrvest nd during over-ripening hs een recorded in some works (Ryn & Revill, 23; Fournnd et l., 26). The highest levels of pronthocynidins in grpes were usully found t the onset of ripening, fter which they decresed (Jordão et l., 1998; Kennedy et l., 2, 2; Hnlin & Downey, 29). However, for some grpe vrieties nd for some procynidins, mximum is sometimes oserved t vérison (Jordão et l., 21). According to severl studies, flvn-3-ols, flvonols nd nthocynins re the most importnt compounds contriuting to the ntioxidnt proprieties of red grpes nd *Corresponding uthor: 214

2 215 Antioxidnt Cpcity nd Grpe Phenolic Compounds wine (Wng et l., 1997; Simonetti et l., 1997; Ghiselli et l., 1998; Beecher, 23). In recent yers, severl uthors hve reported on the phenolic composition nd ntioxidnt cpcity of severl red nd white grpes from different vrieties, grpe erry frctions nd countries (Ork, 27; Bozn et l., 28; Poudel et l., 28; Yng et l., 29; Xu et l., 21; Breks et l., 21). However, in these studies the grpes were only generlly hrvested t optimum mturity or technologicl mturtion. Thus the ntioxidnt cpcity of different frctions of the grpe erry during grpe mturtion nd its reltionship with pronthocynidin nd individul nthocynin evolution hd not een investigted. The min oject of this study therefore ws to investigte the evolution of the ntioxidnt cpcity of the different frctions of grpe erry (seeds nd skins) nd its reltionship with the different pronthocynidin frctions (monomeric, oligomeric nd polymeric frctions) nd the individul nthocynin content of two importnt Portuguese red grpe vrieties during ripening (Tourig Ncionl nd Tint Roriz). MATERIALS AND METHODS Smples Tourig Ncionl nd Tint Roriz (Vitis vinifer L.) grpes were hrvested t grpe mturtion in 29 from vineyrd locted in Viseu (northern Portugl). Two hundred erries per vriety were selected from two clusters per plnt mong totl of 1 plnts. Smples were hrvested weekly (except in the lst three weeks of mturtion), strting t vérison nd continuing until technologicl mturity (56 dys fter vérison). The erries were frozen t -18ºC until processing. Generl physicochemicl prmeters From the initil 2 erries, susmple of 1 erries ws tken from the Tourig Ncionl nd Tint Roriz grpes nd nlysed t technicl mturity for estimted lcohol degree, ph, titrtle cidity nd totl phenolic index using the nlyticl methods recommended y the OIV (199). Totl nthocynins were mesured s recommended y Glories (1999). All determintions were crried out on the must (except totl phenols nd totl nthocynins). Totl phenols nd totl nthocynins were determined from n extrct otined y mcerting the crushed grpes t 25ºC for 24 h in ph 3.7 uffer (Cronneu & Chmpgnol, 1993). All lortory nlyses were done in duplicte. The generl physicochemicl composition of the Tourig Ncionl nd Tint Roriz grpe cultivrs t hrvest re presented in Tle 1. The totl phenol index in the Tint Roriz grpes ws much higher thn tht in Tourig Ncionl, while Tourig Ncionl showed the highest vlues for totl nthocynins. Smple preprtion for ntioxidnt cpcity, pronthocynidins nd individul nthocynin nlyses Skins nd seeds (from the other susmple of 1 erries) were seprted y hnd from the clusters (pproximtely 6 nd 2 g respectively) of ech grpe cultivr. After this seprtion, ech frction ws wshed seprtely severl times with distilled wter to remove foreign prticles, nd moisture ws sored with lotting pper. The seeds were crushed mnully efore the extrction process. TABLE 1 Generl physicochemicl prmeters of Tourig Ncionl nd Tint Roriz grpes t technologicl mturity. Prmeters Grpe vrieties Tourig Tint Ncionl Roriz Estimted lcohol degree (%, V/V) Titrtle cidity (g/l trt. cid) ph Totl phenols index (o.d. x 1) Totl nthocynins (mg/1 g erry) According to the procedure descried y Sun et l. (1996), grpe skins nd seeds were sumitted seprtely to n extrction process using 5 ml of 8% methnol first, followed y 5 ml of 75% cetone (ech for 3 h under gittion). After centrifugtion (1 min t 3 5 rpm), n liquot of ech extrct ws filtered (Whtmn.45 µm) nd frozen t -18 ºC until processing. Antioxidnt cpcity There re vrious methods to evlute the ntioxidnt cpcity of different foods, such s wine, which involve different mechnisms. The vlues for ntioxidnt cpcity chnge ccording to the method used. The lck of strong correltion etween different methods, e.g. DPPH nd ABTS, cn proly e ttriuted to the fct tht every individul phenol compound contined in wine cuses different response to the specific rdicl used in the ssy (Lchmn et l., 27). Thus the use of single method cnnot provide comprehensive prediction of the ntioxidnt efficcy of the different compounds (Arts et l., 23). The totl ntioxidnt cpcity ws performed seprtely from the skin nd seed extrcts produced ccording to the methodology descried previously. For the nlysis of ntioxidnt cpcity, two nlyticl methods were used: ABTS (2.2 -zinois-3-ethylenzothizoline-6-sulfonic cid) nd DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrzyl). The ABTS method is sed on discolortion, which occurs when the rdicl ction ABTS.+ is reduced to ABTS (Re et l., 1999). The rdicl ws generted y recting 7 mm solution of ABTS in wter with 2.45 mm of potssium persulphte (1:1). The ssy ws mde with 98 μl of ABTS.+ solutions nd 2 μl of the diluted smple (1:5 in wter). The rection tkes plce in drkness t room temperture. Asornce mesurements t 734 nm were tken fter 15 min of rection time. The procedure used to determine ntioxidnt cpcity using the DPPH method is descried y Brnd-Willims et l. (1995). This spectrophotometric technique employs the 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrzyl free rdicl (DPPH ), which shows chrcteristic UV-vis spectrum with mximum sornce close to 515 nm in methnol. Briefly,.1 ml of different smple concentrtions ws dded to 3.9 ml of DPPH methnolic solution (25 mg/l). The DPPH solution ws prepred dily nd protected from light. Asornce t 515 nm ws mesured fter 3 min of rection t 2ºC. The rection ws crried out under shking in closed Eppendorf

3 Antioxidnt Cpcity nd Grpe Phenolic Compounds 216 tues t 2ºC. Methnol ws used s lnk reference. The ntioxidnt cpcity results were expressed s Trolox equivlents (TEAC mm) y clirtion curve otined with stndrd Trolox. All lortory mesurements were performed in duplicte. Pronthocynidins ccording to their degree of polymeristion Seed nd skin extrcts were seprted into three frctions contining flvn-3-ol monomers, oligomeric (degree of polymeristion rnging from 2 to 12 15) nd polymeric (degree of polymeristion > 12 15) frction, using the C 18 Sep-Pck column s descried y Sun et l. (1998). Thus, ech smple ws pssed through the two preconditioned neutrl C 18 Sep-Pck crtridges connected in series. To eliminte phenolic cids, 4 ml de-lcoholised medium ws djusted to ph 7. nd then pssed through the two connected C 18 Sep-Pck crtridges preconditioned with 1 ml of wter djusted to ph 7.. After drying the column with nitrogen, elutions were crried out, first with 25 ml of ethyl cette to elute ctechins nd oligomeric pronthocynidins, nd then with 1 ml of methnol to elute polymeric frction. The ethyl cette elute ws tken to dryness under vcuum, re-dissolved in 3 ml of 67 mm phosphte uffer t ph 7., nd reloded onto the sme series of crtridges tht hd een conditioned gin s descried ove. The crtridges were dried with nitrogen nd eluted sequentilly with 25 ml of diethyl ether (frction contining flvn-3-ol monomers) nd 1 ml of methnol (frction contining oligomers). The three frctions otined were evported to dryness under vcuum nd re-dissolved in 3 ml of methnol. For ech frction otined previously, the quntifiction of flvnols ws performed y the modified vnillin ssy s descried y Sun et l. (1998). Thus, the vnillin rection with the ctechin frction ws crried out in 3ºC wter th for 15 min, nd mesurement of 5 nm ws lso tken t 3ºC. For oligomeric nd polymeric frctions, oth the vnillin rection nd the mesurement of 5 nm were performed t room temperture, nd the mximum of 5 nm ws tken s the mesured vlue. Oligomeric nd polymeric pronthocynidins isolted from grpe seeds previously isolted y column chromtogrphy on Lichroprep RP-18, in ccordnce with wht ws descried erlier y Sun et l. (1998), were dissolved in methnol to prepre the stndrd solutions used to uild the stndrds curves. All lortory nlyses were done in duplicte. Chromtogrphic nlysis of individul nthocynins For the nlysis of individul skin nthocynins, n HPLC Dionex Ultimte 3 Chromtogrphic System (Sunnyvle, Cliforni, USA) equipped with quternry pump Model LPG-34 A, n uto smpler Model ACC- 3, thermostted column comprtment (djusted to 25ºC) nd multiple Wvelength Detector MWD-3 ws used. The column (25 x 4.6 mm, prticle size 5 μm) ws C 18 Acclim 12 (Dionex, Sunnyvle, Cliforni, USA) protected y gurd column of the sme mteril. The solvents were (A) 4% formic cid, (B) pure cetonitrile nd (C) i-distilled wter. The individul nthocynins were nlysed y HPLC using the method descried y Dlls nd Lureno (1994). Thus, initil conditions were 25% A, 1% B nd 65% C, followed y liner grdient from 1 to 3% B, nd 65 to 45% C for 4 min, with flow rte of.7 ml/ min. The injection volume ws 4 µl. Detection ws done t 52 nm nd Chromeleon softwre progrm version 6.8 (Sunnyvle, Cliforni, USA) ws used. The individul nthocynins were quntified y clirtion curve otined with stndrd solutions of mlvidin-3-glucoside chloride (> 95% purity) from Extrsynthese (Geny, Frnce). The chromtogrphic peks of nthocynins were identified ccording to reference dt previously descried y Dlls nd Lureno (1994). All HPLC nlyses were done in duplicte. Sttisticl nlysis Anlysis of vrince (ANOVA, one-wy) nd comprison of tretment mens y Duncn s test (α =.5) were crried out using the SPSS softwre progrm version 11. (SPSS Inc. Hedqurters, Chicgo, IL, USA). In ddition, the correltion coefficient etween ntioxidnt cpcity vlues nd the content of the different phenolic compounds ws determined using the Microsoft Office Excel 23 softwre progrm. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Evolution of pronthocynidin frction Pronthocynidins from the seeds nd skins of Tint Roriz nd Tourig Ncionl were seprted into monomers (ctechins), oligomers nd polymers, nd then quntified during grpe erry development (Figs 1 nd 2). In the seeds nd skins of oth grpe vrieties, generl decrese in the vlues ws oserved for the three frctions nlysed, followed y stilistion in the lst weeks of ripening. The decrese in pronthocynidin frctions oserved for oth grpe frctions in oth grpe vrieties hs previously een reported for other grpe vrieties nd in other regions y vrious uthors (Jordão et l., 21,; Downey et l., 23; Ó-Mrques et l., 25). In study on condensed tnnin ccumultion in the skin during erry development in Shirz nd Cernet Suvignon grpe vrieties, Hnlin nd Downey (29) reported mximum tnnin concentrtion just fter fruit set, with lower tnnin concentrtions t vérison nd hrvest. The tendency for higher concentrtions of condensed tnnins in the erly stges of erry development my e relted to their metolistion throughout ripening. For Kennedy et l. (2), the decrese in pronthocynidin content in the seeds fter vérison could e explin y oxidtion rections, while for Cheynier et l. (1997) the decrese could e ttriuted to reduced extrctility resulting from the conjugtion of pronthocynidins with other cell components. Vlero et l. (1989) considered tht the concentrtion decrese during grpe mturtion is only consequence of the incresing weight of the erries or seeds. However, for Bogs et l. (25) the level of pronthocynidins detected in the grpes represents lnce etween the ccumultion of pronthocynidins through synthesis nd decresed extrctility, nd my not e true reflection of iosynthesis in the fruit. Finlly, Bordig et l. (211) recently reported progressive pronthocynidin decrese

4 217 Antioxidnt Cpcity nd Grpe Phenolic Compounds (with the exception of epiglloctechin) during grpe ripening nd, t sme time, n increse in the percentge of prodelphinidins etween the first nd the lst smpling. These uthors lso reported n inter-conversion etween ctechin nd epiglloctechin during the mturtion of the different red grpes nlysed. During grpe erry ripening, in oth grpe vrieties, the seeds represented the highest concentrtion of ll pronthocynidin frctions (from 72. mg/g of seeds t the eginning of vérison to 3. mg/g of seeds t the end of mturtion for the polymeric frction in the Tint Roriz grpe vriety, nd from 56. mg/g of seeds t the eginning of vérison to 8. mg/g of seeds t the end of mturtion for the oligomeric frction in the Tourig Ncionl grpe vriety), followed y the skins (from 15.4 mg/g of skins t the eginning of vérison to 7.8 mg/g of skins t the end of mturtion for the polymeric frction, nd from 17.1 mg/g of skins t the eginning of vérison to 8.2 mg/g of skins t the end of mturtion for the oligomeric frction in the Tint Roriz grpe vriety). The quntifiction of high pronthocynidin concentrtions in the seeds in reltion to the skins is in ccordnce with the results otined y other uthors (Ricrdo-d-Silv et l., 1992; Jordão et l., 21; Ó-Mrques et l., 25). In ddition, the results show (Fig. 1 nd 2) tht, during the entire mturtion process nd for ll erry frctions nd for oth vrieties, the monomeric Content (mg/g seeds) Monomeric frction Dys fter verison,15,12,9,6,3 Monomeric frction Dys fter verison Content (mg/g seeds) Oligomeric frction Dys fter verison 3 2,5 2 1,5 1,5 Oligomeric frction Dys fter verison Content (mg/g seeds) Polymeric frction Polymeric frction Dys fter verison FIGURE 1 Evolution of the different seed pronthocynidin frctions during the ripening of two red grpe vrieties for the sme smpling dy. Different letters show significnt differences etween mens ccording to the Duncn test (α =.5); Error rs indicte stndrd devition. (O) Tint Roriz; ( ) Tourig Ncionl Dys fter verison FIGURE 2 Evolution of the different skin pronthocynidin frctions during the ripening of two red grpe vrieties for the sme smpling dy. Different letters show significnt differences etween mens ccording to the Duncn test (α =.5); Error rs indicte stndrd devition. (O) Tint Roriz; ( ) Tourig Ncionl

5 Antioxidnt Cpcity nd Grpe Phenolic Compounds 218 frction represented the lowest concentrtion nd the polymeric frction the highest concentrtion of condensed tnnins. These results confirm reserch y Sun et l. (21) nd Ó-Mrques et l. (25) on pronthocynidin evolution in skins nd seeds during grpe erry ripening in the Cernet Suvignon nd Tint Roriz vrieties. Finlly, the results show significnt differences etween the two vrieties, nmely significnt high concentrtion of pronthocynidins in the seed nd skins (except for the polymeric frction) for the Tint Roriz grpe vriety in contrst to Tourig Ncionl. In ddition, the vlues otined for Tint Roriz re similr to those otined y Ó-Mrques et l. (25) for the sme grpe vriety, ut from other growing regions with other vineyrd mngement prctices nd environmentl conditions. This fct my led us to consider tht it is the cste fctor tht most influences pronthocynidin content in the different grpe erry frctions with respect to other fctors such s climtic nd geogrphicl fctors, culturl prctices nd the plnts vegettive vigour. Individul nthocynin evolution Figs. 3 nd 4 show the evolution of different individul monomeric nthocynins extrcted from the skins during ripening. In oth grpe vrieties, generl increse followed y slight oscilltion in the individul nthocynins ws oserved during the ripening process. However, for the mjority of individul nthocynins in the Tourig Ncionl vriety (delphinidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, mlvidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-cetylglucoside, petunidin-3-cetylglucoside, mlvidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside nd petunidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside), slight decrese in the vlues ws quntified during the lst two weeks of the ripening process. For oth vrieties, the results indicte tht the group of nthocynin-3-glucoside pigments were the most undnt, followed y the 3-cetyl-glucoside forms nd finlly the coumroyl-glucoside pigments. Considering the individul nthocynin content, mlvidin-3-glucoside (from.4 to 7.79 mg/g skin t the eginning of vérison nd t the end Delphinidin-3-glucoside Cynidin-3-glucoside,8,6,4,2, Dys fter verison,3,2,1 Dys fter verison,2,15,1,5 Petunidin-3-glucoside Dys fter verison,4,3,2,1 Peonidin-3-glucoside Dys fter verison Mlvidin-3-glucoside 1, 8, 6, 4, 2,, Dys fter verison FIGURE 3 Evolution of skin nthocynin glucoside derivtives during the ripening of two red grpe vrieties for the sme smpling dy. Different letters show significnt differences etween mens ccording to the Duncn test (α =.5); Error rs indicte stndrd devition. (O) Tint Roriz; ( ) Tourig Ncionl

6 219 Antioxidnt Cpcity nd Grpe Phenolic Compounds,8 Delphinidin-3-cetylglucoside,8 Mlvidin-3-cetylglucoside,6,4,2 Dys fter verison,6,4,2 Dys fter verison,16,12,8,4 Peonidin-3-cetylglucoside Dys fter verison,1,8,6,4,2 Petunidin-3-cetylglucoside Dys fter verison,6,4,2 Mlvidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside Dys fter verison,12,9,6,3 Peonidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside Dys fter verison Petunidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside Cynidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside,1,4,8,6,4,2 Dys fter verison,3,2,1 Dys fter verison FIGURE 4 Evolution of skin nthocynin cetyl nd coumroyl glucoside derivtives during the ripening of two red grpe vrieties for the sme smpling dy. Different letters show significnt differences etween mens ccording to the Duncn test (α =.5); Error rs indicte stndrd devition. (O) Tint Roriz; ( ) Tourig Ncionl

7 Antioxidnt Cpcity nd Grpe Phenolic Compounds 22 of mturtion respectively), followed y delphinidin-3- glucoside (from.3 to.62 mg/g of skins t the eginning of vérison nd t the end of mturtion respectively) nd mlvidin-3-cetylglucoside (from.5 to.57 mg/g of skins t the eginning of vérison nd t the end of mturtion respectively), ws the most undnt in oth vrieties. In ddition, cynidin-3-glucoside (from. to.19 mg/g of skins t the eginning of vérison nd t the end of mturtion respectively) nd cynidin-3-p-coumroyl-glucoside (from. to.29 mg/g of skins t the eginning of vérison nd t the end of mturtion respectively) were the lest undnt pigments in oth vrieties. According to Roggero et l. (1986), cynidin derivtives re one of the primry pigments in the iosynthetic pthwy, constituting the smllest group during mturtion, while for other uthors mlvidin-3- glucoside represents the ultimte form in iosynthesis trnsformtion chins (Jordão et l., 1998). Severl uthors (Bkker & Timerlke, 1985; Roggero et l., 1986; Jordão et l., 1998; Romero-Cscles et l., 25; Mulincci et l., 28) hve reported tht, during ll stges of ripening, nthocynin-3-glucosides re the most undnt pigment group, while mlvidin-3-glucoside is the most undnt individul nthocynin, regrdless of the interntionl wine grpe vriety. However, the min nthocynin in pool of red tle grpes ws peonidin-3-glucoside (Cntos et l., 22). For some indigenous Spnish Vitis vinifer L. red grpe vrieties in dnger of extinction, Gómez-Alonso et l. (27) reported tht delphinidin-3-glucoside (Tinto Velsco vriety), peonidin-3-glucoside (Gorder Roj nd Tet de Vc Tint vrieties) nd cynidin-3-glucoside (Rojl vriety) were the predominnt individul nthocynins. Furthermore, some uthors elieve tht the rtio of totl nthocynins to cetyl nd coumroyl derivtes cn e usefully correlted to the specificity of ech grpe cultivr (Mulincci et l., 28). It is commonly ccepted tht the nthocynin composition of ech cultivr is closely linked to its genetic inheritnce nd, from qulittive point of view, is quite independent of sesonl conditions or production re (Férnndez-Lopez et l., 1998). In our study, nd in generl, the Tourig Ncionl vriety presented the highest content of cetyl nd coumroyl derivtives, ut the lowest content of the 3-glucosides derivtives during grpe ripening. The evolution of ntioxidnt cpcity nd its reltionship with pronthocynidins nd nthocynins. The evolution of ntioxidnt cpcity in the seeds nd skins mesured y the ABTS nd DPPH methods during grpe mturtion of the Tourig Ncionl nd Tint Roriz grpe cultivrs is presented in Figs. 5 nd 6 respectively. For oth grpe vrieties nd for ll grpe frctions, generl decrese ws oserved in the erly stges of mturtion, followed y stilistion of the vlues in the lst weeks of ripening. However, tendency for slight increse in the vlues in the skins of Tint Roriz ws oserved in the lst two weeks of ripening. These results were independent of the ntioxidnt cpcity method used. In ddition, the seeds represented the highest ntioxidnt cpcity during grpe mturtion in oth vrieties. In generl, these results re ccording to others tht nlysed the ntioxidnt cpcity of seeds nd skins in severl red grpe vrieties (Poudel et l., 28; Xu et l., 21). However, these works only presented the ntioxidnt cpcity results t technicl grpe mturtion, nd not over the grpe mturtion process. It is lso importnt to consider tht the mjority of the cited works only report the results of the totl ntioxidnt cpcity from the grpe must, without the contriution of seeds during the extrction process or without n individul nlysis for ech grpe erry frction. Thus, it is difficult to compre our results with the cited results otined for other grpe vrieties. It is importnt to highlight tht, in the literture, there generlly re lrge vritions in vlues of ntioxidnt cpcities otined for different grpe vrieties s result of different nlyticl methods, different smple preprtion nd extrction processes, nd different grpe vrieties nd species studied (Vitis vinifer, Vitis lruscn, Vitis murensis nd severl Euro-Americn nd Asin hyrids). In ddition, the impct of climtic nd soil conditions on the phenolic composition of grpes should e considered (Yokotsuk et l., 1999; Mteus et l., 22). In generl, the ntioxidnt cpcity of Tint Roriz during mturtion ws significntly higher thn tht of Tourig Ncionl (Figs. 5 nd 6). This ws more evident for the results otined using the ABTS method. At hrvest, the content of ntioxidnt cpcity (mesured y the ABTS method) of Tint Roriz ws nd 72. µmol trolox/g for seeds nd skins respectively, while for Tourig Ncionl the vlues in the seeds nd skins were nd 52.5 µmol trolox/g respectively. However, t technicl mturity the Antioxidnt cpcity (µmol trolox/g seeds) Antioxidnt cpcity (µmol trolox/g skins) Seeds ABTS Method Dys fter verison Skins Dys fter verison FIGURE 5 Evolution of the ntioxidnt cpcity in seeds nd skins mesured y the ABTS method during the ripening of two red grpe vrieties for the sme smpling dy. Different letters show significnt differences etween mens ccording to the Duncn test (α =.5); Error rs indicte stndrd devition. (O) Tint Roriz; ( ) Tourig Ncionl

8 221 Antioxidnt Cpcity nd Grpe Phenolic Compounds quntittive vlues otined for the seeds nd skins of the two Portuguese vrieties re lower thn the vlues reported for the Cernet Suvignon grpe vriety y Xu et l. (21), ut similr to the results reported for severl other grpe vrieties y Poudel et l. (28). The dt in Tle 2 show the liner correltion coefficients (R 2 ) etween the different pronthocynidin frctions nd the ntioxidnt cpcity quntified in the seeds nd skins during grpe mturtion in the two vrieties. The correltion coefficients generlly indicted n importnt role of the different pronthocynidin frctions of the skins nd seeds in the ntioxidnt cpcity during grpe mturtion. The correltion coefficient vlues for skins rnged from.72 to.82, from.72 to.86 nd from.52 to.82 for the monomeric, oligomeric nd polymeric frction of pronthocynidins respectively, while for seeds the correltion vlues rnged from.57 to.79, from.72 to.86 nd from.47 to.79 for the monomeric, oligomeric nd polymeric frction of pronthocynidins respectively. Severl uthors hve reported considerle correltions etween ntioxidnt cpcity nd the totl polyphenolic content of lrge numer of grpe seed nd skin extrcts from different vrieties (Bkklse et l., 25; Yng et l., 29; Xu et l., 21). However, other uthors (Bozn et l., 28) reported no significnt correltions etween individul flvnols nlysed y HPLC or totl polyphenols nd ntioxidnt cpcity vlues in seed extrcts from Antioxidnt cpcity (µmol trolox/g seeds) Antioxidnt cpcity (µmol trolox/g skins) DPPH Method Seeds Dys fter verison Skins 5 Dys fter verison FIGURE 6 Evolution of the ntioxidnt cpcity from seeds nd skins mesured y the DPPH method during the ripening of two red grpe vrieties for the sme smpling dy. Different letters show significnt differences etween mens ccording to the Duncn test (α =.5); Error rs indicte stndrd devition. (O) Tint Roriz; ( ) Tourig Ncionl TABLE 2 Correltion coefficients etween the levels of different pronthocynidin frctions nd their ntioxidnt cpcity from seeds nd skins during the mturtion of Tourig Ncionl nd Tint Roriz grpe vrieties. Correltion coefficient (djusted R 2 ) Antioxidnt methods Pronthocynidin frctions DPPH ABTS Tint Roriz Monomeric Seeds Oligomeric Polymeric Monomeric Skins Oligomeric Polymeric Tourig Ncionl Monomeric Seeds Oligomeric Polymeric Monomeric Skins Oligomeric Polymeric severl grpe vrieties. Thus, there is conflicting evidence in the literture out the correltion etween polyphenol content nd the ntioxidnt cpcity of grpes. Furthermore, it is importnt to consider tht there is quntittive nd qulittive chnge in the phenolic profile of the grpes during the mturtion process nd this consequently will ffect the evolution of ntioxidnt cpcity vlues. Anthocynins re considered very good ntioxidnt gents, with their high ctivity eing ttriuted to their peculir structure, nmely the oxonium ion in the C ring. The ntioxidnt functions of nthocynins hve een ttriuted to the glycone moiety, nd this ws demonstrted for cynidin nd some of its glycosides (Wng et l., 1999). The numer of sugr residues t the 3-position, the oxidtion stte of the C ring (Lpidot et l., 1999), the hydroxyltion nd methyltion pttern (Wng et l., 1997), s well s cyltion y phenolic cids (Degenhrdt et l., 2) re considered crucil fctors for the expression of ntioxidnt effects. Correltion coefficients etween the levels of individul nthocynins nd the ntioxidnt cpcity from the skins during grpe mturtion of the two grpes vrieties studied re presented in Tle 3. There ws negtive reltionship etween individul nthocynins nd ntioxidnt cpcity during grpe skin mturtion. These results were independent of the ntioxidnt cpcity method used nd the grpe vrieties studied, suggesting tht nthocynins were not the most powerful rdicl scvengers tht occur in grpe erry skins during the mturtion process. Thus, grpe skins contin other molecules, like pronthocynidins, ut perhps lso flvonols

9 Antioxidnt Cpcity nd Grpe Phenolic Compounds 222 TABLE 3 Correltion coefficients etween the concentrtion of individul nthocynins nd their ntioxidnt cpcity during the skin mturtion of Tourig Ncionl nd Tint Roriz grpe vrieties. Correltion coefficient (djusted R 2 ) Antioxidnt methods Individul nthocynins DPPH ABTS Tint Roriz Delphinidin-3-glucoside Cynidin-3-glucoside Petunidin-3-glucoside Peonidin-3-glucoside Mlvidin-3-glucoside Delphinidin-3-cetylglucoside Petunidin-3-cetylglucoside Peonidin-3-cetylglucoside Mlvidin-3-cetylglucoside Peonidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside.5.29 Mlvidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside Cynidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside Petunidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside Tourig Ncionl Delphinidin-3-glucoside.41.8 Cynidin-3-glucoside Petunidin-3-glucoside Peonidin-3-glucoside Mlvidin-3-glucoside.58.9 Delphinidin-3-cetylglucoside Petunidin-3-cetylglucoside Peonidin-3-cetylglucoside Mlvidin-3-cetylglucoside.39.8 Peonidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside Mlvidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside.72.9 Cynidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside.48.8 Petunidin-3-p-coumroyl glucoside Negtive liner correltions vlues. nd phenolic cids, tht hve more powerful effect on the ntioxidnt cpcity of grpe skins during mturtion. Meyer et l. (1997) showed tht nthocynins in grpe extrcts re rther modertely relted to the inhiition of low-density lipoprotein oxidtion, which hs een ttriuted minly to totl phenol content. In ddition, Kllithrk et l. (25) reported low nd sttisticlly insignificnt correltion for the totl nthocynin content nd ntioxidnt cpcity of skin extrcts from severl Greek grpe cultivrs t hrvest. According to Ork (27), the ntioxidnt cpcity of red grpe cultivrs does not lwys hve reltionship with the presence of their nthocynin content. Despite their low contriution to the ntioxidnt power of the grpe, nthocynins hve een climed to exhiit vrious ctivities of iologicl importnce, such s n ntioxidnt nd nti-inflmmtory function (Wng et l., 1999) nd peroxynitrile scvenging (Tsud et l., 2). CONCLUSIONS The ntioxidnt cpcity of oth Portuguese grpe vrieties studied showed tendency to decrese in ll the grpe erry frctions studied during grpe mturtion. A similr tendency ws oserved for the different pronthocynidin frction contents nlysed in the skins nd seeds. These tendencies were prticulrly more highly pronounced in the first five weeks fter vérison. At the sme time, our results show tht seeds re n importnt source of pronthocynidins nd consequently present high ntioxidnt cpcity with respect to the grpe erry skin. As for the different individul monomeric nthocynins quntified during grpe mturtion, continuous increse in the vlues ws generlly oserved during the ripening process. However, for some of the individul nthocynins nlysed, this continuous increse ws followed y slight stilistion or decrese in the vlues in the lst weeks of ripening. Finlly, for oth grpe vrieties studied, negtive reltionship ws otined etween individul nthocynins nd ntioxidnt cpcity during grpe skin mturtion. Menwhile, lthough the dt presented my contriute towrds n understnding of the role of grpe mturtion in the ntioxidnt cpcity of the different grpe erry frctions, these spects need to e studied in other grpe vrieties nd tking severl other fctors into ccount, such s the influence of vintge conditions nd culturl prctices. LITERATURE CITED Arts, M.J.T.J., Dlling, J.S., Voss, H.P., Henen, G.R.M.M. & Bst, A., 23. A criticl pprisl of the use of the ntioxidnt cpcity (TEAC) ssy in defining optiml ntioxidnt structures. Food Chem. 8, Bkklse, E., Yemis, O. & Aslnov, D., 25. Mjor flvn-3-ol composition nd ntioxidnt ctivity of seeds from different grpe vrieties grown in Turkey. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 221, Bkker, J. & Timerlke, C.F., The distriution of nthocynins in grpe skin extrcts of Port wine cultivrs s determined y high performnce chromtogrphy. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36, Beecher, G.R., 23. Overview of dietry flvonoids: nomenclture, occurrence nd intke. J. Nutr. 133, Bogs, J., Downey, M.O., Hrvey, J.S., Ashton, A.R., Tnner, G.J. & Roinson, S.P., 25. Pronthocynidin synthesis nd expression of genes encoding leuconthocynidin reductse nd nthocynidin reductse in developing grpe erries nd grpevine leves. Plnt Physiol. 139, Bordig, M., Trvgli, F., Loctelli, M., Coïsson, J.D. & Arlorio, M., 211. Chrcteristion of polymeric skin nd seed pronthocynidins during ripening in six Vitis vinifer L. cv. Food Chem. 127, Bozn, B., Tosun, G. & Özcn, D., 28. Study of polyphenol content in the seeds of red grpe (Vitis vinifer L.) vrieties cultivted in Turkey nd their ntirdicl ctivity. Food Chem. 19, Brnd-Willims, W., Cuvelier, M.E. & Berset, C., Use of free rdicl method to evlute ntioxidnt ctivity. Food Sci. Technol. 28, Breks, A.P., Tkeok, G.R., Hidlgo, M.B., Vilches, A., Vsse, J. & Rmming, D.W., 21. Antioxidnt ctivity nd phenolic content of 16 risin grpe (Vitis vinifer L.) cultivrs nd selections. Food Chem. 121,

10 223 Antioxidnt Cpcity nd Grpe Phenolic Compounds Cnls, R., Lludy, M.C., Vlls, J., Cnls, J.M. & Zmor, F., 25. Influence of ethnol concentrtion on the extrction of color nd phenolic compounds from the skin nd seeds of temprnillo grpes t different stges of ripening. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, Cntos, E., Espiän, J.C. & Tomás-Brerán, F.A., 22. Vrietl differences mong the polyphenol profiles of seven tle grpes cultivrs studied y LC-DAD-MS-MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 5, Cronneu, A. & Chmpgnol, F., Nouveux systèmes de culture integré du vignole. Progrmme AIR-3-CT 93. Cheynier, V. & Rigud, J., HPLC seprtion nd chrcteriztion of flvonols in the skins of Vitis vinifer vr. Cinsult. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 37, Cheynier, V., Prieur, C., Guyot, S., Rigud, J. & Moutounet, M., The structures of tnnin in grpe nd wines nd their interctions with proteins. In: Wtkins, T.R. (ed). Wine nutritionl nd therpeutic enefits. ACS Symposium Series 661. Americn Chemicl Society, Wshington DC. pp Dlls, C. & Lureno, O., Effects of ph, sulphur dioxide, lcohol content, temperture nd storge time on colour composition of young Portuguese red tle wine. J. Sci. Food Agric. 65, Degenhrdt, A., Knpp, H. & Winterhlter, P., 2. Seprtion nd purifiction of nthocynins y high-speed countercurrent chromtogrphy nd screening for ntioxidnt ctivity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, Downey, M.O., Hrvey, J.S. & Roinson, S.P., 23. Anlysis of tnnins in seeds nd skins of Shirz grpes throughout erry development. Aust. J. Grpe Wine Res. 9, Férnndez-Lopez, J.A., Almel, L., Muñoz, J.A., Hidlgo, V. & Crreño, J., Dependence etween colour nd individul nthocynin content in ripening grpes. Food Res. Int. 31, Fournnd, D., Vicens, A., Sidhoum, L., Souquet, J.-M., Moutounet, M. & Cheynier, V., 26. Accumultion nd extrctility of grpe skin tnnins nd nthocynins t different dvnced physiologicl stges. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, Fuleki, T. & Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M., Ctechin nd procynidin composition of seeds from grpe cultivrs grown in Ontrio. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, Ghiselli, A., Nrdini, M., Bldi, A. & Scccini, C., Antioxidnt ctivity of different phenolic frctions seprted from Itlin red wine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, Glories, Y., Sustnces responsile for stringency, itterness nd wine colour. J. Int. Sci. Vigne Vin 33, Gómez-Alonso, S., Fernández-González, M., Men, A., Mrtínez, J. & Grcí-Romero E., 27. Anthocynin profile of Spnish Vitis vinífer L. red grpe vrieties in dnger of extinction. Aust. J. Grpe Wine Res. 13, Hnlin, R.L. & Downey, M.O., 29. Condensed tnnin ccumultion nd composition in skin of Shirz nd Cernet Suvignon grpes during erry development. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 6, Jordão, A.M., Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M. & Lureno, O., Evolution of nthocynins during grpe mturtion of two vrieties (Vitis vinifer L.), Cstelão Frncês nd Tourig Ncionl. Vitis 37, Jordão, A.M., Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M. & Lureno, O., Influênci d reg n composição fenólic ds uvs tints d cst Tourig Frnces (Vitis vinifer L.). J. Food 2, Jordão, A.M., Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M. & Lureno, O., 21. Evolution of ctechin nd procynidin composition during grpe mturtion of two vrieties (Vitis vinifer L.) Cstelão Frncês nd Tourig Frnces. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 52, Jordão, A.M., Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M. & Lureno, O., 21. Evolution of pronthocynidins in unch stems during erry development (Vitis vinifer L.). Vitis 4, Kllithrk, S., Mohdly, A.A., Mkris, D.P. & Kefls, P., 25. Determintion of mjor nthocynin pigments in Hellenic ntive grpe vrieties (Vitis vinifer sp.): ssocition with ntirdicl ctivity. J. Food Comp. Anl. 18, Kennedy, J.A., Hysk, Y., Vidl, S., Wters, E.J. & Jones, G.P., 21. Composition of grpe skin pronthocynidins t different stges of erry development. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, Kennedy, J.A., Mtthews, M.A. & Wterhouse, A.L., 2. Chnges in grpe seed polyphenols during fruit ripening. Phytochemistry 55, Kennedy, J.A., Mtthews, M.A. & Wterhouse, A.L., 22. Effect of mturity nd vine wter sttus on grpe skin nd wine flvonoids. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 53, Kennedy, J.A., Troup, G.J., Pilrow, J.R., Hutton, D.R., Hewitt, D., Hunter, C.R., Ristic, R., Ilnd, P. & Jones, G.P., 2. Development of seed polyphenols in erries from Vitis vinifer L. cv. Shirz. Aust. J. Grpe Wine Res. 6, Lchmn, J., Šulc, M. & Schill, M., 27. Comprison of the totl ntioxidnt sttus of Bohemin wines during the wine-mking process. Food Chem. 13, Lpidot, T., Hrel, S., Akiri, B., Grnit, R. & Knner, J., ph-dependent forms of red wine nthocynins s ntioxidnts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, Mteus, N., Mchdo, J.M. & De Freits, V., 22. Development chnges of nthocynins in Vitis vinifer grpes grown in the Douro Vlley nd concentrtion in respective wines. J. Sci. Food Agric. 82, Meyer, A.S., Yi, O.S., Person, D.A., Wterhouse, A.L. & Frnkel, E.N., Inhiition of humn low-density lipoprotein oxidtion in reltion to composition of phenolic ntioxidnts in grpes (Vitis vinifer). J. Agric. Food. Chem. 45, Mulincci, N., Sntmri, A.R., Giccherini, C., Innocenti, M., Vllett A., Ciolfi, G. & Psqu, G., 28. Anthocynins nd flvn-3-ols from grpes nd wines of Vitis vinifer cv. Cesnese d Affile. Nt. Prod. Res. 22, Ó-Mrques, J., Reguing, R., Lureno, O. & Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M., 25. Chnges in grpe seeds, skin nd pulp condensed tnnins during erry ripening: effect of fruit pruning. Ciênci Téc. Vitiv. 2, OIV, 199. Recueil des méthodes interntionles d nlyse des vins et moûts. Ed. Officielle, Pris. Ork, H.H., 27. Totl ntioxidnt ctivities, phenolics, nthocynins, polyphenoloxidde ctivities of selected red grpe cultivrs nd their correltions. Sci. Hortic. 111, Poudel, P.R., Tmur, H., Ktok, I. & Mochiok, R., 28. Phenolic compounds nd ntioxidnt ctivities of skins nd seeds of five wild grpes nd two hyrids ntive to Jpn. J. Food Comp. Anl. 21, Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pnnl, A., Yng, M. & Rice-Evns, C., Antioxidnt ctivity pplying n improved ABTS rdicl ction decoloriztion ssy. Free Rdic. Biol. Medi. 26, Riéreu-Gyon, P., The tnnins. In: Heywood, P.H. (ed). Plnt phenolics. Olivier & Boyd, Edinurgh, UK. pp Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M., Belchior, A.P., Sprnger, M.I. & Bourzeix, M., Oligomeric procynidins of three grpevine vrieties nd wines from Portugl. Sci. Aliments 12, Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M., Rosec, J.P., Bourzeix, M., Mourgues, J. & Moutounet, M., Dimer nd trimer procynidins in Crignn nd Mouvèdre grpes nd red wines. Vitis 31,

11 Antioxidnt Cpcity nd Grpe Phenolic Compounds 224 Roggero, J.P., Coen, S. & Rgonnet, B., High performnce liquid chromtogrphy survey on chnges in pigment content in ripening grpes of Syrh. An pproch to nthocynins metolism. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 37, Romero-Cscles, I., Orteg-Regules, A., López-Roc, J.M., Fernández- Fernández, J.I. & Gómez-Plz, E., 25. Differences in nthocynin extrctility from grpes to wines ccording to vriety. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 56, Ryn, J.-M. & Revill, E., 23. Anthocynin composition of Cernet Suvignon nd Temprnillo grpes t different stges of ripening. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, Simonetti, P., Piett, P. & Testolin, G., Polyphenolic content nd totl ntioxidnt potentil of selected Itlin wines. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, Sun, B.S., Sprnger, I. & Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M., Extrction of grpe seed procynidins using different orgnic solvents. Proceedings of the XVIII Interntionl Conference of the Groupe Polyphenols - Polyphenols Comunictions 96, Bourdeux, Frnce. pp Sun, B.S., Lendro, C., Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M. & Sprnger, I., Seprtion of grpe nd wine pronthocynidins ccording to their degree of polymeriztion. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, Sun, B.S., Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M. & Sprnger, I., Criticl fctors of vnillin ssy for ctechins nd pronthocynidins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, Sun, B.S., Ricrdo-d-Silv, J.M. & Sprnger, I., 21. Quntifiction of ctechins nd pronthocynidins in severl Portuguese grpevine vrieties nd red wines. Ciênci Téc. Vitiv. 16, Tsud, T., Kto, Y. & Osw, T., 2. Mechnism for the peroxynitrile scvenging ctivity y nthocynins. FEBS Letters 484, Vlero, E., Sánchez-Ferrer, A., Vrón, R. & Grcí-Crmon, F., Evolution of grpe polyphenol oxidse ctivity nd phenolic content during mturtion nd vinifiction. Vitis 28, Wng, H., Co, G. & Prior, R., Oxygen rdicl soring cpcity of nthocynins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, Wng, H., Nir, M.G., Strsurg, G.M., Chng, Y.C., Booren, A.M., Gry, J.I. & De Witt, D.L., Antioxidnt nd nti-inflmmtory ctivities of nthocynins nd their glycone, cyniding, from trt cherries. J. Nt. Prod. 62, Xu, C., Zhng, Y., Co, L. & Lu, J., 21. Phenolic compounds nd ntioxidnt properties of different grpe cultivrs grown in Chin. Food Chem. 119, Yng, J., Mrtinson, T.E. & Liu, R.H., 29. Phytochemicl profiles nd ntioxidnt ctivities of wine grpes. Food Chem. 116, Yokotsuk, K., Ngro, A., Nkzw, K. & Sto, M., Chnges in nthocynins in erry skins of Merlot nd Cernet Suvignon grpes grown in two soils modified with limestone or oyster shell versus ntive soil over two yers. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 5, 1-12.

THE EXTRACTION KINETICS OF ANTHOCYANINS AND PROANTHOCYANIDINS FROM GRAPE TO WINE IN THREE DIFFERENT VARIETIES

THE EXTRACTION KINETICS OF ANTHOCYANINS AND PROANTHOCYANIDINS FROM GRAPE TO WINE IN THREE DIFFERENT VARIETIES THE EXTRACTION KINETICS OF ANTHOCYANINS AND PROANTHOCYANIDINS FROM GRAPE TO WINE IN THREE DIFFERENT VARIETIES An B. BAUTISTA-ORTÍN 1, Nir BUSSE-VALVERDE 1, José I. FERNÁNDEZ-FERNÁNDEZ 2, Encrn GÓMEZ-PLAZA

More information

Postharvest Application of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Extends Shelf Life of Kiwifruit

Postharvest Application of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Extends Shelf Life of Kiwifruit Posthrvest Appliction of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Extends Shelf Life of Kiwifruit C.M. Cntin 1, D. Holcroft 2 nd C.H. Crisosto 1 1 University of Cliforni, Dvis, Deprtment of Plnt Sciences, Dvis, CA

More information

Application of Toasted Oak and Micro-oxygenation to Ageing of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines

Application of Toasted Oak and Micro-oxygenation to Ageing of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines Appliction of Tosted Ok nd Micro-oxygention to Ageing of Cernet Suvignon Wines Dr. Jeff McCord StVin Inc., Cliforni, USA Introduction For mny yers, tosted ok in the form of rrels hs een used for wine storge

More information

Research Note Relationship between Skin Break Force and Anthocyanin Extractability at Different Ripening Stages

Research Note Relationship between Skin Break Force and Anthocyanin Extractability at Different Ripening Stages Reserch Note Reltionship etween Skin Brek Force nd Anthocynin Extrctility t Different Ripening Stges Luc Rolle, 1 * Frizio Torchio, 2 Giuseppe Zepp, 1 nd Vincenzo Geri 3 Astrct: The extrctility of nthocynins

More information

Research Note Effect of Volume and Toast Level of French Oak Barrels (Quercus petraea L.) on Cabernet Sauvignon Wine Characteristics

Research Note Effect of Volume and Toast Level of French Oak Barrels (Quercus petraea L.) on Cabernet Sauvignon Wine Characteristics Reserch Note Effect of Volume nd Tost Level of French Ok Brrels (Quercus petre L.) on Cernet Suvignon Wine Chrcteristics Pedro Rodríguez-Rodríguez 1 nd Encrn Gómez-Plz 1 * Astrct: The effects of tost level

More information

Evaluation of Yogurt with Enhanced Cysteine Content

Evaluation of Yogurt with Enhanced Cysteine Content Diry Foods Evlution of Yogurt with Enhnced Cysteine Content S. Bl nd K. A. Schmidt Summry Amino cids re the uilding locks of protein nd ssist with metolism in the ody. In the humn ody, the mino cid cysteine

More information

Archives 2016 vol *

Archives 2016 vol * August 30, 2016 Archives 2016 vol.1 1-9 EVALUATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS OBTAINED FROM TEA (Cmelli Sinensis) OF FOUR BRANDS SOLD IN COLOMBIA BY EXTRACTION AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

More information

2011 ORGANIC SOYBEAN VARIETY TRIAL MATERIALS AND METHODS

2011 ORGANIC SOYBEAN VARIETY TRIAL MATERIALS AND METHODS 2011 ORGANIC SOYBEAN VARIETY TRIAL In 2011, the University of Vermont Extension conducted soyben vriety tril in Alburgh, VT. The purpose of this tril ws to provide yield comprisons of food- nd feed-grde

More information

Abstract. Ramiréz-Aristizabal, L. S. * ; Ortiz, A. ; Restrepo-Aristizabal, M.F.; Salinas-Villada, J.F. Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira,Colombia

Abstract. Ramiréz-Aristizabal, L. S. * ; Ortiz, A. ; Restrepo-Aristizabal, M.F.; Salinas-Villada, J.F. Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira,Colombia Evlution of the ntioxidnt cpcity nd content of polyphenols obtined from te (Cmelli sinensis) of four brnds sold in Colombi by extrction t room temperture Rmiréz-Aristizbl, L. S. * ; Ortiz, A. ; Restrepo-Aristizbl,

More information

Effect of AVG Application on Fruit Set, Yield and Fruit Size in Abate Fetel and Packam s Triumph Pears in a Semi-Commercial Statistical Trial

Effect of AVG Application on Fruit Set, Yield and Fruit Size in Abate Fetel and Packam s Triumph Pears in a Semi-Commercial Statistical Trial Effect of AVG Appliction on Fruit Set, Yield nd Fruit Size in Ate Fetel nd Pckm s Triumph Pers in Semi-Commercil Sttisticl Tril E. Sánchez nd M. Curetti Instituto Ncionl de Tecnologí Agropecuri Estción

More information

Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry ISSN Available online at

Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry ISSN Available online at As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2010, 3(04), 368-372 Asin Journl of Food nd Agro-Industry ISSN 1906-3040 Aville online t www.jofi.info Reserch Article Effect of drying nd frying time on texturl nd sensory chrcteristics

More information

UC DAVIS VITICULTURE AND ENOLOGY EFFECTS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES ON WINEGRAPE COMPOSITION S. KAAN KURTURAL COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SPECIALIST

UC DAVIS VITICULTURE AND ENOLOGY EFFECTS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES ON WINEGRAPE COMPOSITION S. KAAN KURTURAL COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SPECIALIST EFFECTS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES ON WINEGRAPE COMPOSITION S. KAAN KURTURAL COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SPECIALIST Desirle Aspects Uniformly ripe fruit Sound fruit An undnce of flvor With correct composition Reches

More information

Acknowledgements. Recent Research: Vine Balance and Fruit Thinning. Brief Outline. Take Aways. How many of you have read? Vine Balance.

Acknowledgements. Recent Research: Vine Balance and Fruit Thinning. Brief Outline. Take Aways. How many of you have read? Vine Balance. Recent Reserch: Vine Blnce nd Fruit Thinning Sustinble Ag Expo Monterey County Jim Wolpert Extension Viticulturist Deprtment of Viticulture nd Enology UC Dvis Acknowledgements Funding Americn Vineyrd Foundtion

More information

Cluster-zone leaf removal refers to deliberate removal of selected

Cluster-zone leaf removal refers to deliberate removal of selected Lef Removl s Influence on Pinot Noir Bsl lef removl chnges chemicl nd voltile compositions By Hui Feng, Fng Yun, Ptrici A. Skinkis nd Michel C. Qin Cluster-zone lef removl refers to delierte removl of

More information

Timing of partial defoliation affects carbohydrate

Timing of partial defoliation affects carbohydrate SHORT COMMUNICATION Timing of prtil defolition ffects crohydrte concentrtion of vegettive tissues nd concentrtion of phenolics in erries of potted De Chunc (Vitis sp.) grpevines Justine E. Vnden Heuvel

More information

Archives 2015 vol

Archives 2015 vol December 30, 2015 Archives 2015 vol.3 149-159 EVALUATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OBTAINED FROM TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) FOR PRODUCTS OF DIFFERENT BRANDS SOLD

More information

Separation of Sunlight and Temperature Effects on the Composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Berries

Separation of Sunlight and Temperature Effects on the Composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Berries Sunlight nd Temperture Effects on Merlot Berries 171 Seprtion of Sunlight nd Temperture Effects on the Composition of Vitis vinifer cv. Merlot Berries S.E. Spyd, 1 * J.M. Trr, 2 D.L. Mee, 1 nd J.C. Ferguson

More information

Central NC Organic Bell and Hot Pepper Variety Trial, Summer 2014

Central NC Organic Bell and Hot Pepper Variety Trial, Summer 2014 Ojective Centrl NC Orgnic Bell nd Hot Pepper Vriety Tril, Summer 2014 North Crolin A&T Stte University John Beck, Aron Moore, nd Dr. Snjun Gu NC A&T Frm, Greensoro, NC To evlute the performnce of some

More information

ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF PINOTAGE WINE AS AFFECTED BY VITICULTURAL AND ENOLOGICAL PRACTICES DALENE DE BEER DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN FOOD SCIENCE

ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF PINOTAGE WINE AS AFFECTED BY VITICULTURAL AND ENOLOGICAL PRACTICES DALENE DE BEER DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN FOOD SCIENCE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF PINOTAGE WINE AS AFFECTED BY VITICULTURAL AND ENOLOGICAL PRACTICES DALENE DE BEER Disserttion presented in prtil fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

More information

Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology

Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology Mejo Int. J. Sci. Technol. 2011, 5(03), 365-373 Communiction Mejo Interntionl Journl of Science nd Technology ISSN 1905-7873 Aville online t www.mijst.mju.c.th Sunlight-stimulted phenyllnine mmoni-lyse

More information

ScienceDirect. Development of a method for manufacturing noodles from finger millet

ScienceDirect. Development of a method for manufacturing noodles from finger millet Avilble online t www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedi Food Science 6 (2016 ) 293 297 Interntionl Conference of Sbrgmuw University of Sri Lnk 2015 (ICSUSL 2015) Development of method for mnufcturing

More information

Optimized wine quality potential through fruit-zone management practices in red varieties

Optimized wine quality potential through fruit-zone management practices in red varieties Finl Progress Report Virgini Wine Bord, 20 July 2016 Optimized wine qulity potentil through fruit-zone mngement prctices in red vrieties Principl Investigtor: Tony K. Wolf AHS Jr. AREC 595 Lurel Grove

More information

by high-performance liquid chromatography

by high-performance liquid chromatography Journl of Chromtogrphy A, 922 (2001) 359 363 www.elsevier.com/ locte/ chrom Short communiction Anlysis of phenolic constituents of biologicl interest in red wines q by high-performnce liquid chromtogrphy

More information

Brassinosteroids Regulate Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in the Ripening of Grape Berries

Brassinosteroids Regulate Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in the Ripening of Grape Berries Brssinosteroids Regulte Anthocynin Biosynthesis in the Ripening of Grpe Berries L.-Y. Lun 1, Z.-W. Zhng 1,2*, Z.-M. Xi 1,2*, S.-S. Huo 1 nd L.-N. M 1 (1) College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yngling,

More information

Optimization of extraction of phenolic antioxidants from peanut skins

Optimization of extraction of phenolic antioxidants from peanut skins Journl of the Science of Food nd Agriculture J Sci Food Agric 85:33 38 (2005) DOI: 102/jsf.1933 Optimiztion of extrction of phenolic ntioxidnts from penut skins Vleri Nepote, 1 Nelson R Grosso 2 nd Crlos

More information

The Effect of Oat Bran Fiber on Texture, Moisture and Palatability of Pumpkin Muffins

The Effect of Oat Bran Fiber on Texture, Moisture and Palatability of Pumpkin Muffins The Effect of Ot Brn Fiber on Texture, Moisture nd Pltbility of Pumpkin Muffins M. Montrsi & K. Reidenbch 11/19/2012 NUTR 453 Finl Report Abstrct: Reserch hd shown n lrmingly low fiber intke of United

More information

Rapid Reduction in Aroma Volatiles of Pacific Rose Apples in Controlled Atmospheres

Rapid Reduction in Aroma Volatiles of Pacific Rose Apples in Controlled Atmospheres Rpid Reduction in Arom Voltiles of Pcific Rose Apples in Controlled Atmospheres H.J. Tough nd E.W. Hewett Centre for Posthrvest nd Refrigertion Reserch Institute of Nturl Resources, Mssey University Plmerston

More information

Effect of oak barrel type on the volatile composition of wine: Storage time optimization

Effect of oak barrel type on the volatile composition of wine: Storage time optimization LWT 39 (26) 199 25 www.elsevier.com/locte/lwt Effect of ok rrel type on the voltile composition of wine: Storge time optimiztion Teres Grde Cerd n, Crmen Ancı n-azpilicuet Deprtment of Applied Chemistry,

More information

The Impact of Supplementation of Green Tea Powder in Yellow Cupcakes. Teryn Sapper & Christian Ordaz November 22, 2010 F&N 453

The Impact of Supplementation of Green Tea Powder in Yellow Cupcakes. Teryn Sapper & Christian Ordaz November 22, 2010 F&N 453 The Impct of Supplementtion of Green Te Powder in Yellow Cupckes Teryn Spper & Christin Ordz Novemer 22, 2010 F&N 453 Astrct: Green te is known to hve mny helth enefits to the humn ody. Cumultive studies

More information

Influence of Gibberellic Acid (GA 3 ) on Fruit Quality of Sweet Cherries John Cline

Influence of Gibberellic Acid (GA 3 ) on Fruit Quality of Sweet Cherries John Cline Influence of Gibberellic Acid (GA 3 ) on Fruit Qulity of Sweet Cherries John Cline University of Guelph, Simcoe & Vinelnd Cmpuses Tel: 519-426-7127 Ext 331 Jcline@uoguelph.c 1 Presenttion Outline Introduction

More information

Kucuker and Ozturk Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(2):

Kucuker and Ozturk Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(2): Kucuker nd Ozturk Afr J Trdit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(2):114-119 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jtcm.v12i2.17 THE EFFECTS OF AMINOETHOXYVINYLGLYCINE AND METHYL JASMONATE ON BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND

More information

Production of Two Types of Pocket-Forming Flat Bread by the Sponge and Dough Method

Production of Two Types of Pocket-Forming Flat Bread by the Sponge and Dough Method Production of Two Types of Pocket-Forming Flt Bred y the Sponge nd Dough Method A. Amr 1,2 nd R. Ajo 1 ABSTRACT Cerel Chem. 82(5):499 503 Two types of flt red (thin nd thick) were produced from strightgrde

More information

Refining Fruit-Zone Leaf Removal for Red-Fruited Bordeaux Varieties Grown in a Humid Environment. Cain Charles Hickey

Refining Fruit-Zone Leaf Removal for Red-Fruited Bordeaux Varieties Grown in a Humid Environment. Cain Charles Hickey Refining Fruit-Zone Lef Removl for Red-Fruited Bordeux Vrieties Grown in Humid Environment. Cin Chrles Hickey Disserttion sumitted to the fculty of the Virgini Polytechnic Institute nd Stte University

More information

Effect of Ultra-high Pressure Treatment on the Chemical Properties, Colour and Sensory Quality of Young Red Wine

Effect of Ultra-high Pressure Treatment on the Chemical Properties, Colour and Sensory Quality of Young Red Wine Effect of Ultr-high Pressure Tretment on the Chemicl Properties, Colour nd Sensory Qulity of Young Red Wine X. Sun#, X. Chen#, L. Li, T. M, F. Zho, W. Hung, J. Zhn* College of Food Science nd Nutritionl

More information

The Relationship Between Palm Oil Index Development and Mechanical Properties in the Ripening Process of Tenera Variety Fresh Fruit Bunches

The Relationship Between Palm Oil Index Development and Mechanical Properties in the Ripening Process of Tenera Variety Fresh Fruit Bunches Reserch Journl of Applied Sciences, Engineering nd Technology 3(3): 218-226, 211 ISSN: 24-7467 Mxwell Scientific Orgniztion, 211 Received: Jnury 31, 211 Accepted: Ferury 23, 211 Pulished: Mrch 3, 211 The

More information

Coffee Berry Processing By-Product Valorization: Coffee Parchment as a Potential Fiber Source to Enrich Bakery Goods

Coffee Berry Processing By-Product Valorization: Coffee Parchment as a Potential Fiber Source to Enrich Bakery Goods Reserch Article imedpub Journls www.imedpub.com Journl of Food, Nutrition nd Popultion Helth Coffee Berry Processing By-Product Vloriztion: Coffee Prchment s Potentil Fiber Source to Enrich Bkery Goods

More information

Volume 2, ISSN (Online), Published at:

Volume 2, ISSN (Online), Published at: SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF WILD GENOTYPES OF CORNELIAN CHERRY (Cornus ms L.) Aldin Islmovic 1, Merjem Mlco 1, Ndir Berbic 1, Asim Begic-Akgic 1, Snj Orucevic 1, Amel

More information

Research Article Oenological and Quality Characteristic on Young White Wines (Sauvignon Blanc): Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

Research Article Oenological and Quality Characteristic on Young White Wines (Sauvignon Blanc): Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing Hindwi Journl of Food Qulity Volume 2017, rticle ID 8524073, 12 pges https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8524073 Reserch rticle Oenologicl nd Qulity Chrcteristic on Young White Wines (Suvignon Blnc): Effects

More information

Growth and yield of three sunflower hybrids cultivated for two years under mediterranean conditions

Growth and yield of three sunflower hybrids cultivated for two years under mediterranean conditions Emirtes Journl of Food nd Agriculture. 2016. 28(2): 136-142 doi: 10.9755/ejf.2015-05-291 http://www.ejf.me/ REGULAR ARTICLE Growth nd yield of three sunflower hyrids cultivted for two yers under mediterrnen

More information

EFFECT OF HARVEST TIME AND L-CYSTEINE AS AN ANTIOXIDANT ON FLESH BROWNING OF FRESH-CUT CHERIMOYA (Annona cherimola Mill.)

EFFECT OF HARVEST TIME AND L-CYSTEINE AS AN ANTIOXIDANT ON FLESH BROWNING OF FRESH-CUT CHERIMOYA (Annona cherimola Mill.) RESEARCH EFFECT OF HARVEST TIME AND L-CYSTEINE AS AN ANTIOXIDANT ON FLESH BROWNING OF FRESH-CUT CHERIMOYA (Annon cherimol Mill.) Reinldo Cmpos-Vrgs 1,*, Bruno G. Defilippi 1,, Pul Romero Q. 2, Héctor Vldés

More information

Colonization of chasmothecia of grapevine powdery mildew by Ampelomyces quisqualis

Colonization of chasmothecia of grapevine powdery mildew by Ampelomyces quisqualis Biocontrol of powdery mildew Coloniztion of chsmotheci of grpevine powdery mildew y Ampelomyces quisqulis Drio Angeli, Frnc Vlentini, Chir Msiero, Oscr Giovnnini, Ilri Pertot Fondzione Edmund Mch, S.Michele

More information

PHYSIOLOGY AND POSTHARVEST BEHAVIOUR OF MANGO (Mangifera indica L. cv. TOMMY ATKINS) FRUIT GROWN UNDER WATER STRESS NANCY ONJEMO MADIGU

PHYSIOLOGY AND POSTHARVEST BEHAVIOUR OF MANGO (Mangifera indica L. cv. TOMMY ATKINS) FRUIT GROWN UNDER WATER STRESS NANCY ONJEMO MADIGU PHYSIOLOGY AND POSTHARVEST BEHAVIOUR OF MANGO (Mngifer indic L. cv. TOMMY ATKINS) FRUIT GROWN UNDER WATER STRESS NANCY ONJEMO MADIGU MASTER OF SCIENCE (Food Science nd Posthrvest Technology) JOMO KENYATTA

More information

The effects of UV-C treatment on the quality of orange, carrot and celery juice blend

The effects of UV-C treatment on the quality of orange, carrot and celery juice blend Review Article http://www.lliedcdemies.org/journl-food-science-nutrition/ The effects of UV-C tretment on the qulity of ornge, crrot nd celery juice blend Nik Nornis, Chndrn Somsundrm*, Zulin Rzli Biotechnology

More information

Influence of some safety post-harvest treatments on fruit quality and storability of Guava fruits

Influence of some safety post-harvest treatments on fruit quality and storability of Guava fruits Current Science Interntionl Volume : 06 Issue : 03 July-Sept. 2017 Pges: 491-500 Influence of some sfety post-hrvest tretments on fruit qulity nd storility of Guv fruits 1 Ftm K. M. Shn nd 2 Ahmed M. S.

More information

Postharvest quality and chilling injury of plums: benefits of 1-methylcyclopropene

Postharvest quality and chilling injury of plums: benefits of 1-methylcyclopropene Instituto Ncionl de Investigción y Tecnologí Agrri y Alimentri (INIA) Spnish Journl of Agriculturl Reserch 9(), 554-564 Aville online t www.ini.es/sjr ISSN: 695-97-X eissn: 7-99 Posthrvest qulity nd chilling

More information

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING Discrimintion of Wines Produced from Cbernet Suvignon Grpes Treted with Aqueous Ethnol Post-Bloom Using n Electronic Nose Amnd Mrtin 1, Kumr Mllikrjun, 2 nd Bruce

More information

Modeling Impacts of Viticultural and Environmental Factors on 3-Isobutyl-2-Methoxypyrazine in Cabernet franc Grapes

Modeling Impacts of Viticultural and Environmental Factors on 3-Isobutyl-2-Methoxypyrazine in Cabernet franc Grapes Modeling Impcts of Viticulturl nd Environmentl Fctors on 3-Isobutyl-2-Methoxypyrzine in Cbernet frnc Grpes Justin J. Scheiner, 1 Justine E. Vnden Heuvel, 2 Bruce Pn, 3 nd Gvin L. Scks 4 * Abstrct: A study

More information

Effects of guar gum and arabic gum on the physicochemical, sensory and flow behaviour characteristics of frozen yoghurt

Effects of guar gum and arabic gum on the physicochemical, sensory and flow behaviour characteristics of frozen yoghurt doi: 1.1111/j.1471-37.211.75.x ORIGINAL RESEARCH Effects of gur gum nd ric gum on the physicochemicl, sensory nd flow ehviour chrcteristics of frozen yoghurt RAHIL REZAEI, MORTEZA KHOMEIRI,* MAHDI KASHANINEJAD

More information

Effects of Prohexadione-calcium on Grape Yield Components and Fruit and Wine Composition

Effects of Prohexadione-calcium on Grape Yield Components and Fruit and Wine Composition Effects of Prohexdione-C on Yield nd Composition 73 Effects of Prohexdione-clcium on Grpe Yield Components nd Fruit nd Wine Composition Dnielle Lo Giudice, 1 Tony K. Wolf, 2 * nd Bruce W. Zoecklein 3 Abstrct:

More information

EFFECT OF FOLIAR NITROGEN AND SULPHUR APPLICATION ON AROMATIC EXPRESSION OF VITIS VINIFERA L. cv. SAUVIGNON BLANC

EFFECT OF FOLIAR NITROGEN AND SULPHUR APPLICATION ON AROMATIC EXPRESSION OF VITIS VINIFERA L. cv. SAUVIGNON BLANC EFFECT OF FOLIAR NITROGEN AND SULPHUR APPLICATION ON AROMATIC EXPRESSION OF VITIS VINIFERA L. cv. SAUVIGNON BLANC F. LACROUX 1, O. TREGOAT 2, C. VAN LEEUWEN 1, A. PONS 3, T. TOMINAGA 3, Vlérie LAVIGNE-CRUÈGE

More information

Abstract. 1. Introduction. Journal of Nutrition & Pharmacy Research

Abstract. 1. Introduction. Journal of Nutrition & Pharmacy Research Tomto Fruits (Solncee Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Feedck Mechnism in The Presence of Exogenous Ethylene under Prolonged Chilling Temperture Storge M. Mkky,, *, K. A. Pschlidis, P. Soni, A. Mngnris,

More information

Responses of Vitis vinifera Pinot gris Grapevines to Exogenous Abscisic Acid (ABA): I. Yield, Fruit Quality, Dormancy, and Freezing Tolerance

Responses of Vitis vinifera Pinot gris Grapevines to Exogenous Abscisic Acid (ABA): I. Yield, Fruit Quality, Dormancy, and Freezing Tolerance J Plnt Growth Regul (16) 35:245 255 DOI.07/s00344-015-9529-2 Responses of Vitis vinifer Pinot gris Grpevines to Exogenous Ascisic Acid (ABA): I. Yield, Fruit Qulity, Dormncy, nd Freezing Tolernce Shouxin

More information

Pruning affects the vegetative balance of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

Pruning affects the vegetative balance of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) crop phisiology Pruning ffects the vegettive lnce of the wine grpe (Vitis vinifer L.) L pod fect el equilirio vegettivo de l vid (Vitis vinifer L.) Pedro José Almnz-Merchán 1, Plo Antonio Serrno-Cely 2,

More information

Impact of Shoot and Cluster Thinning on Yield, Fruit Composition, and Wine Quality of Corot noir

Impact of Shoot and Cluster Thinning on Yield, Fruit Composition, and Wine Quality of Corot noir Impct of Shoot nd Cluster Thinning on Yield, Fruit Composition, nd Wine Qulity of Corot noir Qun Sun, 1 Gvin L. Scks, 2 Steven D. Lerch, 3 nd Justine E. Vnden Heuvel 4,5 * Abstrct: Cluster thinning (CL),

More information

Preview. Chapter 3. Labor Productivity and Comparative Advantage: The Ricardian Model

Preview. Chapter 3. Labor Productivity and Comparative Advantage: The Ricardian Model hpter 3 Lbor roductivity nd omprtive Advntge: The Ricrdin Model review Opportunity costs nd comprtive dvntge roduction possibilities Reltive supply, reltive demnd & reltive prices Trde possibilities nd

More information

The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions

The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions The importnce of pruning to the qulity of wine grpe fruits (Vitis vinifer L.) cultivted under high-ltitude tropicl conditions Importnci de l pod en l clidd del fruto de vid (Vitis vinifer L.) cultivd jo

More information

Technical Brief In situ Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen during Low-Level Oxygenation in Red Wines

Technical Brief In situ Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen during Low-Level Oxygenation in Red Wines Technicl Brief In situ Mesurements of Dissolved Oxygen during Low-Level Oxygention in Red Wines V. Felipe Lurie, 1 Robert Lw, 2 Willy S. Joslin, 2 nd Andrew L. Wterhouse 3 * Abstrct: Dissolved oxygen ws

More information

Influence of Fermentation Temperature on Composition and Sensory Properties of Semillon and Shiraz Wines

Influence of Fermentation Temperature on Composition and Sensory Properties of Semillon and Shiraz Wines Influence of Fermenttion on Properties of Semillon nd Shirz Wines 235 Influence of Fermenttion Temperture on Composition nd Sensory Properties of Semillon nd Shirz Wines Andrew Reynolds, 1* Mrgret Cliff,

More information

Chemical Characterization of Wines Fermented

Chemical Characterization of Wines Fermented APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, JUIY, 1966 Copyright 1966 Americn Society for Microbiology Vol. 14, No. 4 Printed in U.S.A. Chemicl Chrcteriztion of Wines Fermented with Vrious Mlo-lctic Bcteri' GORDON J. PILONE,2

More information

Modelling of Apple Fruit Growth by Application of Image Analysis

Modelling of Apple Fruit Growth by Application of Image Analysis ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPER 59 Modelling of Apple Fruit Growth y Appliction of Imge Anlysis Denis STAJNKO 1 Zltko ÈMELIK SUMMARY The possiility of RGB imge processing nd nlysis for modelling of the development

More information

Evolution of Catechins and Oligomeric Procyanidins during Grape Maturation of Castelão Francês and Touriga Francesa

Evolution of Catechins and Oligomeric Procyanidins during Grape Maturation of Castelão Francês and Touriga Francesa 230 Jorão et l. Evolution of Ctehins n Oligomeri Proyniins uring Grpe Mturtion of Cstelão Frnês n Tourig Frnes António M. Jorão, 1,2 Jorge M. Riro--Silv, 1 * n Olg Lureno 1 Quntittive hnges in oligomeri

More information

Performance of Seyval Blanc Grape in Four Training Systems Over Five Years

Performance of Seyval Blanc Grape in Four Training Systems Over Five Years CROP PRODUCTON HORTSCENCE 37(7): 1023-1027.2002. Performnce of Seyvl Blnc Grpe in Four Trining Systems Over Five Yers D. Ferree, T. Steiner, J. Gllnder, D. Scurlock, G. Johns, nd R. Riesen Deprtment of

More information

Early-Maturing Sweet Oranges: Research Update on Earlygold, Itaborai, Ruby, and Westin Sweet Oranges 1

Early-Maturing Sweet Oranges: Research Update on Earlygold, Itaborai, Ruby, and Westin Sweet Oranges 1 HS920 Erly-Mturing Sweet Ornges: Reserch Updte on Erlygold, Itori, Ruy, nd Westin Sweet Ornges 1 Willim S. Cstle nd Jmes J. Ferguson 2 Erlygold, Itori, Ruy, nd Westin re new sweet ornge selections with

More information

Comparative Study of Nutritional Quality of Orange (Citrus sinensis) at Different Maturity Stages in Relation to Significance for Human Health

Comparative Study of Nutritional Quality of Orange (Citrus sinensis) at Different Maturity Stages in Relation to Significance for Human Health Americn-Eursin Journl of Toxicologicl Sciences 7 (4): 209-213, 2015 ISSN 2079-2050 IDOSI Pulictions, 2015 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ejts.2015.7.4.95200 Comprtive Study of Nutritionl Qulity of Ornge (Citrus sinensis)

More information

Food Research International

Food Research International Food Reserch Interntionl 43 (2010) 2284 2288 Contents lists vilble t ScienceDirect Food Reserch Interntionl journl homepge: www.elsevier.com/locte/foodres Effect of honey powder on dough rheology nd bred

More information

Relationship Between Microclimatic Data, Aroma Component Concentrations and Wine Quality Parameters in the Prediction of Sauvignon blanc Wine Quality

Relationship Between Microclimatic Data, Aroma Component Concentrations and Wine Quality Parameters in the Prediction of Sauvignon blanc Wine Quality Reltionship Between Microclimtic Dt, Arom omponent oncentrtions nd Wine Qulity Prmeters in the Prediction of Suvignon blnc Wine Qulity J. Mris, F. litz 2 nd P. D. Hsbroek3 1) AR lnfruiiec-nietvoorbij,

More information

EVALUATION OF SEED AND IN-FURROW AT-PLANTING APPLIED INSECTICIDES ON SORGHUM

EVALUATION OF SEED AND IN-FURROW AT-PLANTING APPLIED INSECTICIDES ON SORGHUM EVALUATION OF SEED AND IN-FURROW AT-PLANTING APPLIED INSECTICIDES ON SORGHUM Texs Agriculturl Experiment Sttion, Corpus Christi, TX, nd Michel nd Wlter Kuck Frm, Lvc County, 1999 Roy D. Prker, Emil D.

More information

Effects of chemical treatments on dormancy breaking and some sprouting characteristics of two potato cultivars in different tuber sizes

Effects of chemical treatments on dormancy breaking and some sprouting characteristics of two potato cultivars in different tuber sizes Avilble online t www.pelgireserchlibrry.com Europen Journl of Experimentl Biology, 2014, 4(4):98-102 ISSN: 2248 9215 CODEN (USA): EJEBAU Effects of chemicl tretments on dormncy breking nd some sprouting

More information

Ensiling characteristics and aerobic stability of temperate grasses containing different concentrations of water soluble carbohydrates

Ensiling characteristics and aerobic stability of temperate grasses containing different concentrations of water soluble carbohydrates REPORT TO THE STAPLEDON MEMORIAL TRUST Ensiling chrcteristics nd eroic stility of temperte grsses contining different concentrtions of wter solule crohydrtes Aner A. Rodríguez-Crís Deprtment of Animl Science,

More information

Influence of Soil Salinity on Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Aroma Compounds of Nero d Avola Wine

Influence of Soil Salinity on Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Aroma Compounds of Nero d Avola Wine Influence of Soil Slinity on Sensory Chrcteristics nd Voltile Arom Compounds of Nero d Avol Wine Antonio Sccco, 1 Antonell Verzer, 2 * Crmel M. Lnz, 1 Antonio Sprcio, 3 Giuseppe Genn, 3 Slvtore Rimondi,

More information

Archived at

Archived at Archived t http://orgprints.org/13657/ Results from three yer testing project of new strwberry cultivrs in Verticillium infested soils nd under orgnic frming conditions A. Spornberger 1, H. Weissinger

More information

Influence of Citrus Rootstocks in Bioactive Compounds of Clementines

Influence of Citrus Rootstocks in Bioactive Compounds of Clementines Journl of Food nd Nutrition Reserch, 2017, Vol. 5, No. 8, 545-552 Avilble online t http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfnr/5/8/3 Science nd Eduction Publishing DOI:10.12691/jfnr-5-8-3 Influence of Citrus s in Bioctive

More information

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS Pkistn J. Agric. Res. Vol. 9 No1, 016 RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS Doult Big*, Fid Mohmmd Asi*, Hi Ahmed*,

More information

Amounts and variation in grapefruit juice of the main components causing grapefruit drug interaction

Amounts and variation in grapefruit juice of the main components causing grapefruit drug interaction Journl of Chromtogrphy B, 741 (2000) 195 203 www.elsevier.com/ locte/ chrom Amounts nd vrition in grpefruit juice of the min components cusing grpefruit drug interction,, Ktsuyuki Fukud *, Linqing Guo,

More information

2014 Sunflower Planting Date Trial

2014 Sunflower Planting Date Trial 214 Sunflower Plnting Dte Tril Dr. Hether Drby, UVM Extension Agronomist Sr Ziegler, Eric Cummings, Susn Monhn, nd Julin Post UVM Extension Crops nd Soils Technicins (82) 524-651 Visit us on the web t

More information

Indicate (X) client(s) to whom this final report is submitted. Replace any of these with other relevant clients if required. FINAL REPORT FOR 2011/12

Indicate (X) client(s) to whom this final report is submitted. Replace any of these with other relevant clients if required. FINAL REPORT FOR 2011/12 Finl report 1 CFPA Cnning Fruit Producers Assoc. Sumit to: Wiehhn Victor Tel: +27 (0)21 872 1501 inmk@mwe.co.z SAAPPA / SASPA / SAT Fruitgro Science Sumit to: Louise Lieenerg Tel: +27 (0)21 882 8470/1

More information

Review of Arabica Coffee Management Research in Ethiopia

Review of Arabica Coffee Management Research in Ethiopia Review of Aric Coffee Mngement Reserch in Ethiopi Anteneh Netsere 1, Tye Kuf 1 Tesfye Shimer 2 1, Jimm Agriculturl Reserch Center, P.. Box 192, Jimm, Ethopi 2, Ethopin Institute of Agriculturl Reserch,

More information

Effect of Phosphate Salts on the Pasting Properties of Korean Instant-Fried Noodle

Effect of Phosphate Salts on the Pasting Properties of Korean Instant-Fried Noodle Effect of Phosphte Slts on the Psting Properties of Koren Instnt-Fried Noodle Li Wng, 1,2 Gry G. Hou, 2,3 Y-Hsun Hsu, 2 nd Lirong Zhou 4 ABSTRACT Cerel Chem. 88(2):142 146 Up to 15% modified potto strch

More information

Garlic Sprouts Grown Indoors at Kitchen Sites

Garlic Sprouts Grown Indoors at Kitchen Sites Medicinl nd Aromtic Plnt Science nd Biotechnology 008 Globl Science Books Grlic Sprouts Grown Indoors t Kitchen Sites FeiFei Qin,,3* HuiLin Xu Gng M 4 Interntionl Nture Frming Reserch Center, Ht, Ngno,

More information

Effect of the partial NaCl substitution by other chloride salts on the volatile profile during the ripening of dry-cured lacón

Effect of the partial NaCl substitution by other chloride salts on the volatile profile during the ripening of dry-cured lacón GRASAS Y ACEITES 67 (2) April June 216, e128 ISSN-L: 17-3495 doi: http://dx.doi.org/1.3989/gy.55152 Effect of the prtil NCl sustitution y other chloride slts on the voltile profile during the ripening

More information

Original article The effect of calcium chloride and calcium lactate pretreatment concentration on peach cell integrity after high-pressure processing

Original article The effect of calcium chloride and calcium lactate pretreatment concentration on peach cell integrity after high-pressure processing Interntionl Journl of Food Science nd Technology 2017, 52, 635 643 635 Originl rticle The effect of clcium chloride nd clcium lctte pretretment concentrtion on pech cell integrity fter high-pressure processing

More information

The Effect of Quinoa on the Taste and Texture of Chocolate Chip Cookies. Hannah Doren Tarryn Hake Mitch Simmonds NUTR 453.

The Effect of Quinoa on the Taste and Texture of Chocolate Chip Cookies. Hannah Doren Tarryn Hake Mitch Simmonds NUTR 453. The Effect of Quino on the Tste nd Texture of Chocolte Chip Cookies Hnnh Doren Trryn Hke Mitch Simmonds NUTR 453 November 19, 2012 Title: The Effect of Quino on the Tste nd Texture of Chocolte Chip Cookies

More information

Effect of number of stems in the production and quality of tomato grown in greenhouse

Effect of number of stems in the production and quality of tomato grown in greenhouse Revist Mexicn de Ciencis Agrícols volume 9 numer 2 Ferury 15 - Mrch 31, 2018 Effect of numer of stems in the production nd qulity of tomto grown in greenhouse Article Cándido Mendoz-Pérez 1 Crlos Rmírez-Ayl

More information

Effects of Vine Defoliation on Pinot noir Fruit and Wine Quality

Effects of Vine Defoliation on Pinot noir Fruit and Wine Quality Effects of Vine Defolition on Pinot noir Fruit nd Wine Qulity Jessic Howe Sndrock nd Anit Nin Azrenko Deprtment of Horticulture, Oregon Stte University Industry Collbortors Leigh Bm1holomew, Archery Summit

More information

Physiological responses and production of 'Syrah' vines as a function of training systems

Physiological responses and production of 'Syrah' vines as a function of training systems Physiologicl responses nd production of 'Syrh' vines 267 Physiologicl responses nd production of 'Syrh' vines s function of trining systems An Crolin Fvero 1 ; Dniel Angelucci de Amorim 2 ; Rent Vieir

More information

Control of black dot in potatoes

Control of black dot in potatoes Control of lck dot in pottoes Dr. Trevor Wicks SA Reserch & Development Institute Project Numer: PT11 PT11 This report is pulished y Horticulture Austrli Ltd to pss on informtion concerning horticulturl

More information

Ethylene and changes during ripening in Horvin plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) fruits

Ethylene and changes during ripening in Horvin plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) fruits Ethylene nd chnges during ripening in Horvin plum (Prunus slicin Lindl.) fruits El etileno y los cmios durnte l mdurción en frutos de ciruel (Prunus slicin Lindl.) Horvin Ldy Ximen Rozo-Romero 1, Jvier

More information

Assessment of Metal Chelating, Bioautography and Spot Screening by TLC of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis)

Assessment of Metal Chelating, Bioautography and Spot Screening by TLC of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Int.J.urr.Microbiol.pp.Sci (2017) 6(10): 302-313 Interntionl Journl of urrent Microbiology nd pplied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 6 Number 10 (2017) pp. 302-313 Journl homepge: http://www.ijcms.com

More information

IMPACT OF HARVESTING TIME AND LENGTH OF COLD STORAGE PERIOD ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND QUALITY TRAITS OF FOUR QUINCE GENOTYPES (CYDONIA OBLONGA MILL.

IMPACT OF HARVESTING TIME AND LENGTH OF COLD STORAGE PERIOD ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND QUALITY TRAITS OF FOUR QUINCE GENOTYPES (CYDONIA OBLONGA MILL. Journl of Horticulturl Reserch 2017, vol. 25(1): 67 79 DOI: 10.1515/johr-2017-0008 IMPACT OF HARVESTING TIME AND LENGTH OF COLD STORAGE PERIOD ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND QUALITY TRAITS OF FOUR QUINCE GENOTYPES

More information

PREPARATION AND HANDLING FRESH-CUT ROOT VEGETABLES. MERETE EDELENBOS DEPT. OF FOOD SCIENCE AARHUS UNIVERSITY DENMARK

PREPARATION AND HANDLING FRESH-CUT ROOT VEGETABLES. MERETE EDELENBOS DEPT. OF FOOD SCIENCE AARHUS UNIVERSITY DENMARK PREPARATION AND HANDLING FRESH-CUT ROOT VEGETABLES MERETE EDELENBOS DEPT. OF FOOD SCIENCE AARHUS UNIVERSITY DENMARK merete.edelenos@food.u.dk Preprtion nd hndling fresh-cut root vegetles Production Hndling

More information

CERTIFIED CLONE AND POWDERY MILDEW IMPACT ROTUNDONE IN DURAS WINES

CERTIFIED CLONE AND POWDERY MILDEW IMPACT ROTUNDONE IN DURAS WINES Olivier GEFFROY *, Olivier YOBRÉGAT, Thierry DUFOURCQ, Trcey SIEBERT,Éric SERRANO IFV Pôle Sud-Ouest, V innopôle, BP, 80 Lisle sur Trn Frnce IFV Pôle Sud-Ouest, Domine de Mons, 00 Cussens Frnce The Austrlin

More information

Temporal variation in temperature and rainfall differentially affects ectomycorrhizal colonization at two contrasting sites

Temporal variation in temperature and rainfall differentially affects ectomycorrhizal colonization at two contrasting sites New Phytol. (1998), 139, 733 739 Temporl vrition in temperture nd rinfll differentilly ffects ectomycorrhizl coloniztion t two contrsting sites BY RANDY L. SWATY*, CATHERINE A. GEHRING, MATT VAN ERT, TAD

More information

RESEARCH ON LOW-ALKALOID CONCENTRATION IN VARIETIES OF LUPIN (LUPINUS SP.) IN LITHUANIA. Received: 25 January 2010 Accepted: 25 June 2010

RESEARCH ON LOW-ALKALOID CONCENTRATION IN VARIETIES OF LUPIN (LUPINUS SP.) IN LITHUANIA. Received: 25 January 2010 Accepted: 25 June 2010 Generl nd Applied Plnt Physiology 2010, Volume 36 (3 4), pp. 204 211 2010 ISSN 1312-8183 Pulished y the Institute of Plnt Physiology Bulgrin Acdemy of Sciences Aville online t http://www.io21.s.g/ipp/

More information

Electronic Nose Evaluation of the Effects of Canopy Side on Cabernet franc (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Volatiles

Electronic Nose Evaluation of the Effects of Canopy Side on Cabernet franc (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Volatiles Electronic Nose Evlution of the Effects of Cnopy Side on Cbernet frnc (Vitis vinifer L.) Grpe nd Wine Voltiles Ymun S. Devrjn, 1 Bruce W. Zoecklein, 2 * Kumr Mllikrjunn, 3 nd Denise M. Grdner 1 Abstrct:

More information

Crackers Made of Green Mussel Shells Substitution as High Calcium Snacks

Crackers Made of Green Mussel Shells Substitution as High Calcium Snacks Advnces in Economics, Business nd Mngement Reserch, volume 28 1st Interntionl Conference on Tourism Gstronomy nd Tourist Destintion (ICTGTD 2016) Crckers Mde of Green Mussel Shells Sustitution s High Clcium

More information

Research Article Chemometrics of Wheat Composites with Hemp, Teff, and Chia Flour: Comparison of Rheological Features

Research Article Chemometrics of Wheat Composites with Hemp, Teff, and Chia Flour: Comparison of Rheological Features Interntionl Journl of Food Science Volume 2013, Article ID 968020, 6 pges http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/968020 Reserch Article Chemometrics of Whet Composites with Hemp, Teff, nd Chi Flour: Comprison

More information

Quantification of Glycosidase Activity in Selected Strains of Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Oenococcus oeni

Quantification of Glycosidase Activity in Selected Strains of Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Oenococcus oeni Quntifiction of Glycosidse Activity 303 Quntifiction of Glycosidse Activity in Selected Strins of Brettnomyces ruxellensis nd Oenococcus oeni Ann K. Mnsfield, 1 Bruce W. Zoecklein, 2 * nd Roert S. Whiton

More information

The determination of iron in grapes and their alcoholic

The determination of iron in grapes and their alcoholic OLALLA ET AL.: JOURNAL OF AOAC INTERNATIONAL VOL. 83, NO. 1, 2000 189 RESIDUES AND TRACE ELEMENTS Optimized Determintion of Iron in Grpe Juice, Wines, nd Other Alcoholic Beverges by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

More information

*Joseph Adubofuor, Michael Amoafo Mensah and Sylvia Dabri

*Joseph Adubofuor, Michael Amoafo Mensah and Sylvia Dabri Africn Journl of Food Science nd Technology (ISSN: 2141-5455) Vol. 3(10) pp. 244-251, December, 2012 Avilble Online http://www.interesjournls.org/ajfst Copyright 2012 Interntionl Reserch Journls Full Length

More information