Washington State Wine 101

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1 Washington State Wine 101

2 Washington 2 nd Largest Producer in US Washington State produces: Premium wines of superior quality Range of varieties Distinctive character Unique balance of Old World and New World Wineries: >900 Acres: >53,000 Growers: ~350 Tons: 220,000

3 Wineries By Top 3 States California - 3,458 Washington >900 Oregon - 463

4 The U.S. Wine Market - Washington Licensed Wineries Adding ~4 new wineries per month 1,

5 Diversity

6 Superior Quality Wine Spectator Percent of 90+ Scores 60% 50% 40% 30% 32% 40% 35% 30% 29% 28% 42% 46% 41% 41% 38% 42% 32% 34% 35% 35% 32% 32% 44% 49% 48% 46% 37% 41% 46% 50% 50% 47% 44% 44% 20% 10% 0% California France Italy Oregon Washington Average

7 Superior Quality Wine Spectator Price, USD $120 $106 $100 $80 $60 $40 $64 $74 $65 $76 $77 $71 $100 $96 $94 $90 $78 $69 $75 $72 $71 $67 $55 $47 $50 $48 $48 $49 $48 $42 $44 $41 $43 $43 $43 $20 $0 California France Italy Oregon Washington Average

8 Washington State Premium Growing Region Geography Geology Viticulture

9 Perfect Climate for Wine Grapes

10 Global Positioning World Viticultural Zones

11 Geography Fourteen AVAs

12 Rain Shadow Effect The Columbia Valley is protected from wet weather systems by two major mountain ranges, the Olympics and the Cascades, creating the perfect climate for wine in the warm and dry eastern part of the state. Average Annual Rainfall Napa Valley: Bordeaux: Columbia Valley: 6 10

13 Annual Rainfall Comparison 40 ANNUAL RAINFALL, IN INCHES Napa Valley Bordeaux Region Columbia Valley

14 Annual Rainfall Comparison Snow

15 Daily Sunlight Peak Growing Period 17 hours Equator (0 degrees) 38 degrees North 45 degrees North 12 hours hours 45 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

16 Heat Accumulation Average GDD

17 Rapid Cooling Mean Temp by Month REINGAU 50 BURGUNDY JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER COLUMBIA VALLEY BORDEAUX NAPA VALLEY CLARE VALLEY

18 Diurnal Shift Significant and Beneficial Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 38 C Warm Daytime Temps + 27 C 16 C 4 C Chilly Nighttime Temps (17 C difference) = Ripeness of phenolics and balancing acidity -7 C Average High Average Low

19 Ample Water Supply Fourth largest river, by volume, in the US Largest flowing into the Pacific Ocean Drainage basin of the Columbia River and its tributaries is roughly the size of France, covering seven US states

20 Geology What Makes the PNW Unique? Volcanoes Floods GSD Glacial Slackwater Deposits Winds Basalt Loess

21 Geology Active Volcanic Region Region rich with Volcanic history Basalt foundation for entire Columbia Valley * IMAGE SOURCED FROM OUTDOORPROJECT.ORG

22 Geology Basalt Foundation Columbia Valley area lava seam caused one of the fastest lava flows earth has seen (30 million years ago) sheer weight created the valley! Cascade Range volcanoes contributed Subsoil strata: Basalt * IMAGE SOURCED FROM OUTDOORPROJECT.ORG

23 Geology Missoula Floods * IMAGE SOURCED FROM OUTDOORPROJECT.ORG

24 Geology Missoula Floods Floods occurred times from 15,000 to 13,000 years ago * IMAGE SOURCED FROM WINE FOLLY

25 Geology Missoula Floods Deposited nutrients throughout eastern Washington up to 1,200 feet above sea level * IMAGE SOURCED FROM WINE FOLLY

26 Geology Missoula Floods Cycle lasted an average of 55 years Missoula flood sediments lie ft deep

27 Geology Missoula Floods Loamy Fine Sand and Gravel Wind-Deposited Sandy Loam (Loess) Loamy Sand and Gravel Deep Coarse Loamy Sand Dark Silt Loam with Sand Calcium Carbonate Deep Silt Loam Basalt Bedrock Basalt Bedrock

28 Persistent Winds & Loess Effects of Loess Decreases shoot growth, producing smaller canopies Reduces berry size Reduces disease pressures Reduces photosynthesis, which may prolong harvests

29 Phylloxera Free Soil types are not conducive for pests Winter Freeze kills many pests Arid temps and wind help control development of fungal diseases (less need for spray) Allows for planting on natural rootstock

30 Our Terroir Quality Fruit = Superior Wine Recipe for Success Plenty of Sunlight 2 hours more 300+ days Diurnal Shift Ripeness of Phenolics / Balanced Acidity Rain Shadow Effect 6-10 inches Low Pest and Disease Pressure No Phylloxera Dry Climate Lean Soils Persistent Wind Cold Winters Terroir (French pronunciation: [tɛʁwaʁ] from terre, "land") is the set of special characteristics that the geography, geology and climate of a certain place, interacting with plant genetics, express in agricultural products such as wine.

31 Comments & Questions * DATA & IMAGES SOURCED FROM WASHINGTONWINE.ORG

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