Smoke Taint Risk Management Tools

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1 Smoke Taint Risk Management Tools Glynn Ward, Art Diggle, Michael Saam-Renton 2, and Michael Airey 2, Kristen Kennison, Diana Fisher, Drew Haswell 3, John Gillard 3 Department of Agriculture and Food WA 2 University of Western Australia 3 Department of Environment and Conservation WA

2 History of smoke taint Isolated incidences of smoke taint recorded since mid 990 s in Perth Hills, Swan Districts, Blackwood Valley, Great Southern, Manjimup and Pemberton Regions 2004 Major incidence of smoke taint in wine in Pemberton Region 2005 Collaborative research - DAFWA, Curtin Uni, AWRI,GWRDC, WIAWA Consultative forums commence 2006 Smoke Effect Working Group established 2009 National Smoke Effect Research Project commences 200 Supreme Court decision on smoke taint damage to wine grapes from prescribed burns in 2004

3 Identifying the problem Grape vines exposed to smoke during sensitive periods of development may produce wine that exhibits smoke taint (smoke like aromas and flavours) making it undesirable to consume Smoke effect in grapes and wine has a negative financial and impact on the wine industry Smoke taint is an emerging issue for the wine industry in many fire prone wine growing regions of the world including Australia Western Australia has a system of prescribed burning on public lands which offers potential to manage the impact of smoke on grapes and wine

4 Smoke effect on wine smoky burnt toast earthy smoked meat burnt tobacco beetroot drying ash cigar box truffle charcoal charred cold ash fungal tar ashtray bacon roast meat leather salami coffee chocolate disinfectant

5 Role of smoke Interaction of smoke and grapevine Smoke effects on wine Compounds in smoke Influence of fuel types Link between smoke and smoke taint Assimilation / translocation of smoke Smoke duration and density Grapevine variety Smoke composition Phenology Fermentation process Aroma descriptors Aroma thresholds Quantitative descriptive analysis Detection of responsible compounds Methods of prevention Smoke effect reduction package Key marker compounds Smoke taint specific analysis Smoke reduction model Nephelometer equipment Vineyard mapping Communication of package to industry

6 National Project Development and implementation of a comprehensive national smoke taint reduction package for the wine industry Develop a model to predict seasonal vine phenological stage and susceptibility to smoke uptake as a decision making tool for prescribed burning activity

7 Smoke taint risk calculator for wine grapes Web page interactive, user friendly Based on vine phenology model - temperature driven, GDD Smoke sensitive phenology stages - P, P2, P3 Uses real time weather data Calculates smoke taint risk for: - individual varieties - cumulative risk for region/vineyard based on variety mix Predicted risk based on projected seasonal climate scenarios - warm, normal, cold

8 Risk management tools Link the following areas: Research Risk factors: vine phenology, variety, smoke complexity, smoke detection and quantification (Kristen Kennison) Vineyard Mapping Project Vineyard location, variety data base (Diana Fisher) Smoke taint risk calculator (Glynn Ward) Prescribed burn planning and decision system (DEC)

9 Timing of grapevine sensitivity to smoke uptake Grapevine growth stage Potential for smoke uptake Shoots 0 cm in length Low P Flowering Low

10 Timing of grapevine sensitivity to smoke uptake Berries pea size Variable (low to medium) P2 Beginning of bunch closure Variable (low to medium) Onset of veraison to 3 days post veraison Variable (low to medium)

11 Timing of grapevine sensitivity to smoke uptake From 7 days post veraison P3 to High Harvest

12 Phenology model driven by temperature Phenology stage EL stage Cabernet Sauvignon GDD Chardonnay GDD Smoke taint risk BB to Shoots 0cm % Shoots 0cm to Flowering % Flowering to Berries pea size Berries pea size to Beginning Bunch closure Bunch closure to Onset of Veraison % % % Onset veraison to Harvest %

13 Growing Degree Days (GDD) Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Cumulative GDD GDD BB to Shoots 0cm Shoots 0cm to Flow ering Flow ering to Berries pea size Berries pea size to Beginning Bunch closure Bunch closure to Onset of Veraison Onset veraison to Harvest

14 Smoke sensitivity and risk (indicative).00 Cabernet Sauvignon P P2 P3 09-Sep Sep Oct-02 2-Oct Nov-02 8-Nov Dec-02 6-Dec Dec-02 3-Jan Jan-03 0-Feb Feb-03 0-Mar-03 Risk 24-Mar Apr-03

15 Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Site Pemberton Variety Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today May 20 Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Normal Date Individual Stacked Total

16 Blackwood Valley Geographe Great Southern Manjimup Margaret River Site Peel Pemberton Perth Hills Variety Swan Districts Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Normal Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today Date May 20 Individual Stacked Total

17 Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Site Pemberton Variety Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today May 20 Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Normal Date Individual Stacked Total

18 Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Site Pemberton Variety Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today May 20 Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Normal Date Individual Stacked Total

19 Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Site Pemberton Variety Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today May 20 Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Normal Date Individual Stacked Total

20 Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Site Pemberton Variety Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today May 20 Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Normal Date Individual Stacked Total

21 Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Site Pemberton Variety Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today May 20 Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Normal Date Individual Stacked Total

22 Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Site Pemberton Variety Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today May 20 Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Normal Date Individual Stacked Total

23 Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Site Pemberton Variety Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today May 20 Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Warm Normal Cool All Date Individual Stacked Total

24 Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Site Pemberton Variety Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today May 20 Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Warm Date Individual Stacked Total

25 Smoke taint risk web page mock-up Site Pemberton Variety Start date 0 / Sept / 200 End date 0 / / Today May 20 Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay Merlot Pinot Noir Reisling Sauvignon Blanc Semillon Verdelho Temperature Cool Date Individual Stacked Total

26 Soil Dryness Index driven by rainfall Pemberton Mount Soil Dryness Index 2000/200 to 2004/2005 5Year Average 2004/ / /03 200/ / Jul Aug Sep Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Source: Department of Environment and Conservation WA

27 Smoke taint risk and SDI (2002/03) SDI and Smoke taint risk SDI Chardonnay Cabernet Sauvignon Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun- 03

28 Smoke taint risk SDI and burn periods 800 SDI and Smoke taint risk SDI Chardonnay Cabernet Sauvignon Spring burn period Autumn burn period 0 0-Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun- 03

29 Future Development Incorporate other risk factors Smoke events (smoke density and duration) Varieties Fuel source Link smoke taint risk calculator with: Vineyard mapping system and data base. Prescribed burn decision making system. For example indices: Soil Dryness Index (SDI) Profile Moisture Content (PMC) Surface Moisture Content (SMC) Karri Fire Danger Index (FDI)

30 Phenology dates to build the model (GDD) Grape vine phenology data from vineyards in each region. Useful dates: Budburst Beginning of flowering Full flower 80% cap fall Berries pea size End of flowering Beginning of bunch closure Onset of veraison Harvest.

31 Thank You

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